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Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report (2017)

Chapter: Appendix O: Specific Nutrient Comparisons

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix O: Specific Nutrient Comparisons." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix O: Specific Nutrient Comparisons." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
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TABLE O-1 Nutrients in 1/4 Cup-Equivalent of Example Infant Food Vegetables and Canned or Frozen Counterparts

Nutrient Infant Food Peas Fresh, Boiled Peas Frozen, Boiled Peas Canned Peas Infant Food Carrots Fresh, Boiled Carrots Canned Carrots
Energy (kcal) 22 37 34 30 9 13 9
Protein (g) 1.4 2.3 2.3 1.9 0.3 0.3 0.2
Total fat (g) 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.1
Saturated fat (g) 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.01
Carbohydrate (g) 3.7 6.8 6.2 5.5 2.2 3.0 2.0
Dietary fiber (g) 0.9 2.4 2.0 1.8 0.6 1.1 0.5
Total sugar (g) 0.9 2.6 1.9 1.8 1.3 1.3 0.9
Calcium (mg) 8 12 11 9 8 11 9
Iron (mg) 0.4 0.7 0.7 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.2
Magnesium (mg) 8 17 10 8 3 4 3
Phosphorus (mg) 22 51 34 29 7 11 9
Potassium (mg) 47 119 48 76 71 85 65
Sodium (mg) 2 1 32 1 25 21 15
Zinc (mg) 0.2 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.1
Copper (mg) 0.03 0.08 0.05 0.04 0.02 0.01 0.04
Selenium (µg) 0.1 0.8 0.5 0.8 0.1 0.3 0.1
Vitamin C (mg) 0.3 6.2 4.3 4.2 2.1 1.3 1
Thiamin (mg) 0.04 0.11 0.12 0.05 0.01 0.02 0.01
Riboflavin (mg) 0.03 0.07 0.04 0.03 0.01 0.02 0.01
Niacin (mg) 0.5 0.9 0.6 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2
Vitamin B6 (mg) 0.01 0.09 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.06 0.04
Folate, DFE (µg) 12.3 27.5 25.8 19.3 5.0 5.0 3.0
Choline (mg) 14.1 13.0 12.0 NR 2.5 3.2 NR
Vitamin B12 (µg) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Vitamin A, 5 18 46 12 208 309 202
RAE (µg)
Retinol (µg) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Vitamin E (mg) 0.01 0.06 0.01 0.01 0.19 0.37 0.27
Vitamin D (µg) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

NOTES: NR = not reported.

SOURCE: USDA/ARS, 2016.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix O: Specific Nutrient Comparisons." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE O-2 Nutrients in 1/4 Cup-Equivalent of Example Infant Food Fruits and Canned or Frozen Counterparts

Nutrient Infant Food Bananas Fresh, Raw Bananas Infant Food Applesauce Applesauce Boiled Apples Infant Food Peaches Canned Peachesa Frozen Peachesb
Energy (kcal) 34 34 12 12 15 25 24 24
Protein (g) 0.4 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.2 1.0
Total fat (g) 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0
Saturated fat (g) 0.03 0.04 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.00
Carbohydrate (g) 8.0 8.6 3.1 3.2 3.8 5.6 6.1 6.0
Dietary fiber (g) 0.6 1.0 0.5 0.3 0.7 0.5 0.3 1.0
Total sugar (g) 4.3 4.6 2.8 2.7 3.0 4.5 4.1 5.0
Calcium (mg) 1.5 2.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.0 1.0 4.0
Iron (mg) 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0
Magnesium (mg) 9.8 10.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 3.0 2.0 6.0
Phosphorus (mg) 7.5 8.3 2.0 1.0 2.0 6.0 4.0 13.0
Potassium (mg) 108.8 134.3 20.0 21.0 24.0 76.0 34.0 107.0
Sodium (mg) 0.8 0.5 0.0 1.0 0.0 2.0 3.0 0.0
Zinc (mg) 0.02 0.06 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.04 0.06 0.00
Copper (mg) 0.02 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.04
Selenium (µg) 0.4 0.4 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 NR 0.0
Vitamin C (mg) 8.2 3.3 10.9 6.0 0.1 17.9 1.0 59.0
Thiamin (mg) 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.00
Riboflavin (mg) 0.02 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.03 0.01 0.00
Suggested Citation:"Appendix O: Specific Nutrient Comparisons." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Nutrient Infant Food Bananas Fresh, Raw Bananas Infant Food Applesauce Applesauce Boiled Apples Infant Food Peaches Canned Peachesa Frozen Peachesb
Niacin (mg) 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.2 1.0
Vitamin B6 (mg) 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Folate, DFE (µg) 6.5 7.5 1.0 1.0 0.0 8.0 3.0 3.0
Choline (mg) 1.5 3.7 1.0 0.6 0.9 3.3 NR 4.0
Vitamin B12 (µg) 0 0 0 0 0 0 NR 0
Vitamin A, RAE (µg) 0 1 0 0 1 13 10 9
Retinol (µg) 0 0 0 0 0 0 NR NR
Vitamin E (mg) 0.10 0.04 0.17 0.05 0.01 0.77 0.48 0.00
Vitamin D (µg) 0 0 0 0 0 0 NR 0

NOTES: NR = not reported.

a Canned in light syrup.

b Data from Supertracker.

SOURCES: USDA, 2016; USDA/ARS, 2016.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix O: Specific Nutrient Comparisons." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE O-3 Comparison of Iron, Zinc, Sodium, and Fat Content Across Water- and Oil-Packed Varieties Compared to Jarred Infant Food Meat; Cost per Ounce; Sizes Available

Product Iron (mg/oz) Zinc (mg/oz) Cost ($/oz) Sodium (mg/oz) Total Fat (gm/oz) Saturated Fat (gm/oz) Sizes (oz)
Infant food meat compositea 0.30 0.52 0.40 13 1.55 1.13 2.5
Canned fish compositeb 0.42 0.20 0.20 77 0.44 0.09
Tuna, light in water 0.46 0.20 0.19 70 0.27 0.06 5, 12
Tuna, light in oil 0.39 0.26 NA 118 2.33 0.44 5, 12
Salmon, pink in water 0.18 0.22 0.31 114 1.41 0.25 5, 14.75

NOTES: NA = not available in redemption data provided to the committee.

a A composite of commonly consumed jarred infant food meats (beef, chicken, turkey, ham), based on the assumptions outlined in Appendix R.

b A composite of tuna and salmon, based on redemption of fish species by WIC participants as outlined in Appendix R.

SOURCE: USDA/ARS, 2016.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix O: Specific Nutrient Comparisons." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

REFERENCES

USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). 2016. Supertracker home. https://www.supertracker.usda.gov (accessed September 14, 2016).

USDA/ARS (U.S. Department of Agriculture/Agriculture Research Service). 2016. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, release 28. http://www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/ndl (accessed September 14, 2016).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix O: Specific Nutrient Comparisons." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Page 707
Suggested Citation:"Appendix O: Specific Nutrient Comparisons." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Page 708
Suggested Citation:"Appendix O: Specific Nutrient Comparisons." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Page 709
Suggested Citation:"Appendix O: Specific Nutrient Comparisons." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Page 710
Suggested Citation:"Appendix O: Specific Nutrient Comparisons." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Page 711
Suggested Citation:"Appendix O: Specific Nutrient Comparisons." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Page 712
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The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) began 40 years ago as a pilot program and has since grown to serve over 8 million pregnant women, and mothers of and their infants and young children. Today the program serves more than a quarter of the pregnant women and half of the infants in the United States, at an annual cost of about $6.2 billion. Through its contribution to the nutritional needs of pregnant, breastfeeding, and post-partum women; infants; and children under 5 years of age; this federally supported nutrition assistance program is integral to meeting national nutrition policy goals for a significant portion of the U.S. population.

To assure the continued success of the WIC, Congress mandated that the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) reevaluate the program's food packages every 10 years. In 2014, the USDA asked the Institute of Medicine to undertake this reevaluation to ensure continued alignment with the goals of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. In this third report, the committee provides its final analyses, recommendations, and the supporting rationale.

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