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Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report (2017)

Chapter: Appendix P: Food Specification Detail

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix P: Food Specification Detail." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Suggested Citation:"Appendix P: Food Specification Detail." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
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TABLE P-1 Proposed Specifications for Foods in the Revised WIC Food Packagesa

Category/Food Food Package and Affected Participant Group, Considering the Proposed Food Package Revisions Selected Current Specifications Proposed Change to the Specificationsb Rationalec
Infant formulas I, II Infants All authorized infant formulas must (1) meet the definition for an infant formula in section 201(z) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 321(z)) and meet the requirements for an infant formula under section 412 of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, as amended (21 U.S.C. 350a) and the regulations at 21 C.F.R. Parts 106 and 107; (2) be designed for enteral digestion via oral or tube feeding; (3) provide at least 10 mg iron per liter (at least 1.5 mg iron/100 kilocalories) at standard dilution; (4) provide at least 67 kilocalories per 100 milliliters (approximately 20 kilocalories per fluid ounce) at standard dilution; (5) not require the addition of any ingredients other than water prior to being served in a liquid state No change from current specifications Lack of sufficient evidence to support a change related to required energy concentration; other specifications were considered appropriate
Infant foods II Infants
Infant cereals Infant cereal must contain a minimum of 45 mg of iron per 100 g of dry cereal No change from current specifications NA
Infant food fruits Any variety of single ingredient commercial infant food fruit without added sugars, starches, or salt (i.e., sodium). Texture may range from strained through diced No change from current specifications NA
Suggested Citation:"Appendix P: Food Specification Detail." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Infant food vegetables Any variety of single ingredient commercial infant food vegetables without added sugars, starches, or salt (i.e., sodium). Texture may range from strained through diced No change from current specifications NA
Infant food meats Any variety of commercial infant food meat or poultry, as a single major ingredient, with added broth or gravy
Added sugars or salt (i.e., sodium) are not allowed. Texture may range from pureed through diced
No change from current specifications NA
Vegetables and Fruits Purchased with the CVV II Infants Any variety of fresh whole or cut fruit without added sugars
Any variety of fresh whole or cut vegetable, without added sugars, fats, or oils (as defined in 21 C.F.R. 101.95)
Fresh, frozen, or canned forms of vegetables and fruits meeting other specifications may be purchased Fresh, frozen, and canned vegetables and fruits are suitable for infants and meet developmental needs when prepared appropriately
IV, V-A, V-B, VI, VII Women and children Any variety of fresh whole or cut fruit without added sugars
Any variety of fresh whole or cut vegetable, without added sugars, fats, or oils (as defined in 21 C.F.R. 101.95)
No change from current specifications NA
Any variety of canned fruits (must conform to FDA standard of identity [21 C.F.R. 145]) including applesauce, juice pack or water pack without added sugars, fats, oils, or salt (i.e., sodium). Any variety of frozen fruits without added sugars
Any variety of canned or frozen vegetables (must conform to FDA standard of identity [21 C.F.R. 155]) without added sugars, fats, or oils. May be regular or lower in sodium
Suggested Citation:"Appendix P: Food Specification Detail." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Category/Food Food Package and Affected Participant Group, Considering the Proposed Food Package Revisions Selected Current Specifications Proposed Change to the Specificationsb Rationalec
Any type of dried fruits or dried vegetable without added sugars, fats, oils, or salt (i.e., sodium)
Milk and Milk Alternatives
Cow’s milk IV, V-A, V-B, VI, VII
Women and children
Must conform to FDA standard of identity for whole, reduced fat, low-fat, or nonfat milks (21 C.F.R. 131.110). Must be pasteurized and contain at least 400 IU of vitamin D per quart (100 IU per cup) and 2000 IU of vitamin A per quart (500 IU per cup)
May be flavored or unflavored. May be fluid, shelf stable, evaporated (21 C.F.R. 131.130), or dried (i.e., powdered) (21 C.F.R. 131.147). Cultured milks must conform to FDA standard of identity for cultured milk (21 C.F.R. 131.112—cultured buttermilk, kefir cultured milk, acidophilus cultured milk)
Only unflavored milk is permitted Low-fat forms (for children 2 years of age and older, and women) align with CACFP provision of milk and with the DGA; requiring unflavored forms reduces inclusion of added sugars in the WIC food packages
Goat’s milk IV, V-A, V-B, VI, VII
Women and children
Must be pasteurized and contain at least 400 IU of vitamin D per quart (100 IU per cup) and 2000 IU of vitamin A per quart (500 IU per cup).
May be flavored or unflavored.
May be fluid, shelf-stable, evaporated, or dried (i.e., powdered)
See above, as for cow’s milk See above, as for cow’s milk
Suggested Citation:"Appendix P: Food Specification Detail." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Soy-based beverage IV, V-A, V-B, VI, VII
Women and children
Must be fortified to meet the following nutrient levels: 276 mg calcium per cup, 8 g protein per cup, 500 IU vitamin A per cup, 100 IU vitamin D per cup, 24 mg magnesium per cup, 222 mg phosphorus per cup, 349 mg potassium per cup, 0.44 mg riboflavin per cup, and 1.1 mcg vitamin B12 per cup, in accordance with fortification guidelines issued by FDA In addition, the total sugar content of soy-based beverages should be as low as possible, not to exceed 12 g per 8 oz serving Soy-based beverages are available in the marketplace that contain 12 g or less of total sugars per serving; sugars in soy-based beverages are 100 percent added; added sugars intakes are excessive in the WIC population, therefore it is prudent to apply a limit that considers nationwide availability of these products
Tofu IV, V-A, V-B, VI, VII
Women and children
Calcium-set tofu prepared with calcium salts (e.g., calcium sulfate). May not contain added fats, sugars, oils, or sodium Must contain a minimum of 200 mg of calcium per 100 g of tofu (calcium-set is no longer part of the specification); retain the specification that tofu may not contain added fats, sugars, oils, or sodium Tofu in the food packages serves as a milk substitution; as such, the revised specification ensures that tofu in the food packages provides an amount of calcium as close to that in a serving of milk as reasonable, considering marketplace options
Suggested Citation:"Appendix P: Food Specification Detail." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Category/Food Food Package and Affected Participant Group, Considering the Proposed Food Package Revisions Selected Current Specifications Proposed Change to the Specificationsb Rationalec
Yogurt IV, V-A, V-B, VI, VII
Women and children
Must be pasteurized and conform to standards of identity for yogurt as listed in Table 4 of 7 C.F.R. 246.10(e)(12); may be plain or flavored with ≤40 grams of total sugars per 1 cup of yogurt. Must contain ≤30 g total sugars per 8 oz serving (≤3.75 g total sugars per ounce); soy-based yogurt substitute must contain at least 250 mg of calcium and 6.5 g of protein per 8 oz serving The availability of yogurts containing 30 g or less of total sugars per 8 oz serving has expanded substantially; this level is more closely aligned with the DGA; soy products meet the needs of individuals with a milk allergy or who consume a vegan diet
IV-B, V-A, V-B, VI, VII
Women and children
Only lowfat and nonfat yogurts are authorized for children 2 years of age and older and women No change from current specifications NA
IV-A Children Must be whole-milk yogurt No change from current specifications NA
Cheese IV, V-A, V-B, VI, VII
Women and children
Domestic cheese made from 100 percent pasteurized milk. Must conform to FDA standard of identity (21 C.F.R. Part 133); Monterey Jack, Colby, natural Cheddar, Swiss, Brick, Muenster, Provolone, part skim or whole Mozzarella, In addition, soy-based cheese substitute (not soy curd cheese) is permitted and must contain at least 250 mg Soy products meet the needs of individuals with a milk allergy or who consume a vegan diet
Suggested Citation:"Appendix P: Food Specification Detail." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
pasteurized processed American, or blends of any of these cheeses are authorized

Cheeses that are labeled low, free, reduced, less or light in the nutrients of sodium, fat or cholesterol are WIC-eligible
of calcium and 6.5 g of protein per 1.5 ounce serving
Juice IV, V-A, V-B, VII
Women and children
Must be pasteurized 100% unsweetened fruit juice. Must conform to FDA standard of identity (21 C.F.R. Part 146) or vegetable juice must conform to FDA standard of identity (21 C.F.R. Part 156) and contain at least 30 mg of vitamin C per 100 mL of juice. With the exception of 100% citrus juices, state agencies must verify the vitamin C content of all state-approved juices. Juices that are fortified with other nutrients may be allowed at the state agency’s option. Juice may be fresh, from concentrate, frozen, canned, or shelf stable

Vegetable juice may be regular or lower in sodium
No change from current specifications NA
Eggs IV, V-A, V-B, VI, VII
Women and children
Fresh shell domestic hens’ eggs or dried eggs mix (must conform to FDA standard of identity in 21 C.F.R. 160.105) or pasteurized liquid whole eggs (must conform to FDA standard of identity in 21 C.F.R. 160.115).

Hard boiled eggs, where readily available for purchase in small quantities, may be provided for homeless participants
No change from current specifications NA
Suggested Citation:"Appendix P: Food Specification Detail." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Category/Food Food Package and Affected Participant Group, Considering the Proposed Food Package Revisions Selected Current Specifications Proposed Change to the Specificationsb Rationalec
Breakfast cereal IV, V-A, V-B, VI, VII
Women and children
Must contain a minimum of 28 mg iron per 100 g dry cereal

Must contain ≤21.2 g sucrose and other sugars per 100 g dry cereal (≤6 g per dry oz)

At least half of the cereals authorized on a state agency’s food list must have whole grain as the primary ingredient by weight AND meet labeling requirements for making a health claim as a “whole grain food with moderate fat content”:

(1) contain a minimum of 51% whole grains (using dietary fiber as the indicator);

(2) meet the regulatory definitions for “low saturated fat” at 21 C.F.R. 101.62 (≤1 g saturated fat per RACC) and “low cholesterol” (≤20 mg cholesterol per RACC);

(3) bear quantitative trans fat labeling; and

(4) contain ≤6.5 g total fat per RACC and ≤0.5 g trans fat per RACC
All ready-to-eat cereals on a state agency’s authorized food list must adhere to the whole grain-rich criteriad and conform to other current specifications (e.g., must be iron-fortified, must not exceed added sugars limitations) Intake of whole grains is low in the WIC population; whole grain cereal options have expanded substantially since the last review; the same products should qualify while aligning with USDA guidance for CACFP, the National School Lunch and Breakfast Programs (USDA/FNS, 2016)
Suggested Citation:"Appendix P: Food Specification Detail." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Whole grain options
Whole wheat and whole grain bread IV, V-A, V-B, VI, VII
Women and children
Whole wheat bread must conform to FDA standard of identity (21 C.F.R. 136.180); whole grain bread must conform to FDA standard of identity (21 C.F.R. 136.110) (includes whole wheat or whole grain buns and rolls)

AND

Whole grain must be the primary ingredient by weight in all whole wheat or whole grain bread products

Whole wheat and whole grain bread must meet labeling requirements for making a health claim as a “whole grain food with moderate fat content”:

(1) contain a minimum of 51% whole grains (using dietary fiber as the indicator);

(2) meet the regulatory definitions for “low saturated fat” at 21 C.F.R. 101.62 (≤1 g saturated fat per RACC) and “low cholesterol” (≤20 mg cholesterol per RACC);

(3) bear quantitative trans fat labeling; and

(4) contain ≤6.5 g total fat per RACC and ≤0.5 g trans fat per RACC
Whole wheat bread: no change from current specifications; Whole grain bread is no longer permitted; only 100% whole wheat bread is permitted Very few states offer whole grain bread options; identification of suitable whole grain breads (>50% whole grain) is challenging; restricting to 100% whole wheat bread is in alignment with most current state WIC authorized food lists and promotes intake of whole grains by WIC participants
Suggested Citation:"Appendix P: Food Specification Detail." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Category/Food Food Package and Affected Participant Group, Considering the Proposed Food Package Revisions Selected Current Specifications Proposed Change to the Specificationsb Rationalec
Other whole grain options Other whole unprocessed grains: Brown rice, bulgur (cracked wheat), oats, whole grain barley, and whole wheat macaroni (pasta) products without added sugars, fats, oils, or salt (i.e., sodium) In addition, teff or buckwheat may be offered; cornmeal (including blue); and corn masa flour meeting specifications outlined below are allowed Additional options provide culturally suitable alternatives; participants and WIC staff expressed an interest in addition of these grains
Tortillas Soft corn or whole wheat tortillas may be allowed at the state agency’s option. Soft corn tortillas made from ground masa flour (corn flour) using traditional processing methods are WIC-eligible, e.g., whole corn, corn (masa), whole ground corn, corn masa flour, masa harina, and white corn flour. For whole wheat tortillas, “whole wheat flour” must be the only flour listed in the ingredient list In addition, once available in the marketplace, states are encouraged to offer tortillas made with fol acid-fortified corn mas flour Folic acid is a nutrient of concern for premenopausal women; consumption of folic c acid is lower among a Hispanic compared to non-Hispanic women (Williams et al., 2015)
Whole wheat macaroni (pasta) products Must conform to FDA standard of identity (21 C.F.R. 139.138) and have no added sugars, fats, oils, or salt (i.e., sodium). “Whole wheat flour” and/or “whole durum wheat flour” must be the only flours listed in the ingredient list. Other shapes and sizes that otherwise meet the FDA standard of identity for whole wheat macaroni No change from current specifications NA
Suggested Citation:"Appendix P: Food Specification Detail." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
(pasta) products (139.138), and have no added sugars, fats, oils, or salt (i.e., sodium), are also authorized (e.g., whole wheat rotini, and whole wheat penne)
Cornmeal Not yet permitted Add whole cornmeal (including blue) meeting the FDA standard of identity (21 C.F.R. 137.260) and that is in alignment with USDA specifications for cornmeal in school meal programs (USDA-CNP-01-2008) to current options Provides a culturally suitable option; similar in nutritive value to some types of permitted corn tortillas
Corn masa flour Not yet permitted Add corn masa flour. Once available in the marketplace, states are encouraged to offer folic acid-fortified corn masa flour Allowing this flour is in alignment with the allowance of tortillas made with corn masa flour; participants expressed an interest in this addition
Fish IV, V-A, V-B, VI, VII
Women and children
Canned only:
Light tuna (must conform to FDA standard of identity [21 C.F.R. 161.190]);
Salmon (must conform to FDA standard of identity [21 C.F.R. 161.170]);
Sardines; Mackerel (N. Atlantic Scomber scombrus, or Chub Pacific Scomber japonicas; Jack Mackerel)
No changes to the species specified NA
Suggested Citation:"Appendix P: Food Specification Detail." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Category/Food Food Package and Affected Participant Group, Considering the Proposed Food Package Revisions Selected Current Specifications Proposed Change to the Specificationsb Rationalec
May be packed in water or oil. Pack may include bones or skin. Added sauces and flavorings (e.g., tomato sauce, mustard, lemon) are authorized at the state agency’s option. May be regular or lower in sodium content. Canned fish may be water-packed, or contain added sauces and flavorings. All other specifications remain unchanged Few states currently offer oil-packed fish so there is minimal effect on participant choice; water-packed varieties are more nutrient dense because water-packed fish is lower in energy but contains the same levels of key nutrients per serving
Mature legumes IV, V-A, V-B, VI, VII
Women and children
Any type of mature dry beans, peas, or lentils in dry-packaged or canned forms. Examples include but are not limited to black beans (“turtle beans”), black-eyed peas (cowpeas of the blackeye variety, “cow beans”), garbanzo beans (chickpeas), great northern beans, kidney beans, lima beans (“butter beans”), navy beans, pinto beans, soybeans, split peas, and lentils. All categories exclude soups. May not contain added sugars, fats, oils or meat as purchased. Canned legumes may be regular or lower in sodium content

Baked beans may be provided for participants with limited cooking facilities
No change from current specifications NA
Suggested Citation:"Appendix P: Food Specification Detail." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Peanut butter IV, V-A, V-B, VI, VII
Women and children
Peanut butter and reduced fat peanut butter (must conform to FDA Standard of Identity [21 C.F.R. 164.150]); creamy or chunky, regular or reduced fat, salted or unsalted forms are allowed No change from current specifications NA
WIC-eligible nutritionals I, II, IV, V-A, V-B, VI, VII
Women, infants, and children
Certain enteral products that are specifically formulated to provide nutritional support for individuals with a qualifying condition, when the use of conventional foods is precluded, restricted, or inadequate. Such WIC-eligible nutritionals must serve the purpose of a food, meal, or diet (may be nutritionally complete or incomplete) and provide a source of calories and one or more nutrients; be designed for enteral digestion via an oral or tube feeding; and may not be a conventional food, drug, flavoring, or enzyme No change from current specifications NA

NOTES: CACFP = Child and Adult Care Food Program; C.F.R. = Code of Federal Regulations; CVV = cash value voucher; DGA = Dietary Guidelines for Americans; FDA = Food and Drug Administration; IU = international units; NA = not applicable; RACC = reference amount customarily consumed; RTE = ready-to-eat. Food packages: I = infants ages 0 to <6 months; II = infants ages 6 to <12 months; IV-A = children ages 1 to <2 years; IV-B = children 2 to < 5 years; V-A = pregnant women; V-B = partially breastfeeding women; VI = postpartum women; VII = fully breastfeeding women.

a See the Final Rule (USDA/FNS, 2014) for a detailed list of current food specifications. Some text in this table is updated from the original prepublication version.

b Details are provided only for the proposed change. Other components of the specification remain as detailed in the Final Rule.

c With some exceptions, rationale is only provided in cases where changes to the current specifications are proposed. Exceptions include cases where USDA-FNS specifically requested committee review of a specification.

d It is anticipated that changes to the whole grain-rich criteria in alignment with the FDA proposed changes to the RACCs used for food labeling would be applied to the WIC food packages.

SOURCES: For current specifications, see USDA/FNS, 2014, 2015.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix P: Food Specification Detail." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

REFERENCES

USDA/FNS (U.S. Department of Agriculture/Food and Nutrition Service). 2014. Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Revisions in the WIC food packages. Final Rule. 7 C.F.R. § 246.

USDA/FNS. 2015. WIC policy memorandum #2015-3 to WIC state agency directors: Eligibility of white potatoes for purchase with the cash-value voucher. Alexandria, VA: USDA-FNS.

USDA/FNS. 2016. Whole grain resource for the national school lunch and school breakfast programs. http://www.fns.usda.gov/sites/default/files/WholeGrainResource.pdf (accessed November 11, 2016).

Williams, J., C. T. Mai, J. Mulinare, J. Isenburg, T. J. Flood, M. Ethen, B. Frohnert, and R. S. Kirby. 2015. Updated estimates of neural tube defects prevented by mandatory folic acid fortification—United States, 1995–2011. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 64(1):1–5.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix P: Food Specification Detail." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Page 713
Suggested Citation:"Appendix P: Food Specification Detail." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix P: Food Specification Detail." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix P: Food Specification Detail." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Page 716
Suggested Citation:"Appendix P: Food Specification Detail." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix P: Food Specification Detail." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix P: Food Specification Detail." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix P: Food Specification Detail." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Page 720
Suggested Citation:"Appendix P: Food Specification Detail." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix P: Food Specification Detail." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix P: Food Specification Detail." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix P: Food Specification Detail." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix P: Food Specification Detail." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix P: Food Specification Detail." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
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Next: Appendix Q: Foods and Food Specifications That Were Reviewed, But Not Changed »
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The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) began 40 years ago as a pilot program and has since grown to serve over 8 million pregnant women, and mothers of and their infants and young children. Today the program serves more than a quarter of the pregnant women and half of the infants in the United States, at an annual cost of about $6.2 billion. Through its contribution to the nutritional needs of pregnant, breastfeeding, and post-partum women; infants; and children under 5 years of age; this federally supported nutrition assistance program is integral to meeting national nutrition policy goals for a significant portion of the U.S. population.

To assure the continued success of the WIC, Congress mandated that the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) reevaluate the program's food packages every 10 years. In 2014, the USDA asked the Institute of Medicine to undertake this reevaluation to ensure continued alignment with the goals of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. In this third report, the committee provides its final analyses, recommendations, and the supporting rationale.

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