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Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report (2017)

Chapter: Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE T-1b Proportion of 2015–2020 DGA Recommended Amounts of Food Groups in the Current and Revised Food Packages for Pregnant Women as Redeemed: Food Package V-A

TABLE T-2a Proportion of 2015–2020 DGA Recommended Amounts of Food Groups in the Current and Revised Food Packages for Partially Breastfeeding Women Assuming Full Redemption: Food Package V-B

TABLE T-2b Proportion of 2015–2020 DGA Recommended Amounts of Food Groups in the Current and Revised Food Packages for Partially Breastfeeding Women as Redeemed: Food Package V-B

TABLE T-3a Proportion of 2015–2020 DGA Recommended Amounts of Food Groups in the Current and Revised Food Packages for Postpartum Women Assuming Full Redemption: Food Package VI

TABLE T-3b Proportion of 2015–2020 DGA Recommended Amounts of Food Groups in the Current and Revised Food Packages for Postpartum Women as Redeemed: Food Package VI

TABLE T-4a Proportion of 2015–2020 DGA Recommended Amounts of Food Groups in the Current and Revised Food Packages for Fully Breastfeeding Women Assuming Full Redemption: Food Package VII

TABLE T-4b Proportion of 2015–2020 DGA Recommended Amounts of Food Groups in the Current and Revised Food Packages for Postpartum Women as Redeemed: Food Package VII

TABLE T-5a Proportion of 2015–2020 DGA Recommended Amounts of Food Groups in the Current and Revised Food Packages for Children Ages 2 to Less Than 5 Years Assuming Full Redemption: Food Package IV-B

TABLE T-5b Proportion of 2015–2020 DGA Recommended Amounts of Food Groups in the Current and Revised Food Packages for Children Ages 2 to Less Than 5 Years as Redeemed: Food Package IV-B

TABLE T-6a Proportion of Dietary Reference Intakes or DGA Limits Provided by the Current and Revised Food Packages for Pregnant and Partially Breastfeeding Women Assuming Full Redemption: Food Packages V-A and V-B

TABLE T-6b Proportion of Dietary Reference Intakes or DGA Limits Provided by the Current and Revised Food Packages for Pregnant and Partially Breastfeeding Women as Redeemed: Food Packages V-A and V-B

TABLE T-7a Proportion of Dietary Reference Intakes or DGA Limits Provided by the Current and Revised Food Packages for Postpartum Women Assuming Full Redemption: Food Package VI

Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE T-7b Proportion of Dietary Reference Intakes or DGA Limits Provided by the Current and Revised Food Packages for Postpartum Women as Redeemed: Food Package VI

TABLE T-8a Proportion of Dietary Reference Intakes or DGA Limits Provided by the Current and Revised Food Packages for Fully Breastfeeding Women Assuming Full Redemption: Food Package VII

TABLE T-8b Proportion of Dietary Reference Intakes or DGA Limits Provided by the Current and Revised Food Packages for Fully Breastfeeding Women as Redeemed: Food Package VII

TABLE T-9a Proportion of Dietary Reference Intakes or DGA Limits Provided by the Current and Revised Food Packages for Infants Age 6 to Less Than 12 Months Assuming Full Redemption: Food Packag II

TABLE T-9b Proportion of Dietary Reference Intakes or DGA Limits Provided by the Current and Revised Food Packages for Infants Age 6 to Less Than 12 Months as Redeemed: Food Package II

TABLE T-10a Proportion of Dietary Reference Intakes or DGA Limits Provided by the Current and Revised Food Packages for Children Ages 1 to Less Than 2 Years Assuming Full Redemption: Food Package IV-A

TABLE T-10b Proportion of Dietary Reference Intakes or DGA Limits Provided by the Current and Revised Food Packages for Children Ages 1 to Less Than 2 Years as Redeemed: Food Package IV-A

TABLE T-11a Proportion of Dietary Reference Intakes or DGA Limits Provided by the Current and Revised Food Packages for Children Ages 2 to Less Than 5 Years Assuming Full Redemption: Food Package IV-B

TABLE T-11b Proportion of Dietary Reference Intakes or DGA Limits Provided by the Current and Revised Food Packages for Children Ages 2 to Less Than 5 Years as Redeemed: Food Package IV-B

TABLE T-12 Vegetables Provided in Food Packages IV, V-B, and VII Considering 33% or 100% Redemption of the CVV for Vegetables (c-eq/d)

TABLE T-13 Fiber Provided in Food Packages IV, V-B, and VII Considering 33% or 100% Redemption of the CVV for Vegetables (g/d)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE T-1a Proportion of 2015–2020 DGA Recommended Amounts of Food Groups in the Current and Revised Food Packages for Pregnant Women Assuming Full Redemption: Food Package V-A

WIC Food Category DGA Food Group Current Revised Change in Proportion of DGA Recommendation (%)a DGA 2,600 Kcal Food Patternb
Units/d WIC Maximum Allowance Proportion of the DGA Recommendation (%)a WIC Maximum Allowance Proportion of the DGA Recommendation (%)a
Total fruit Total fruit c-eq 1.0 52 0.9 44 −9 2.0
Juice, 100% Fruit, as juice c-eq 0.6 60 0.3 27 −33 1.0
Fruit, 67% of CVVc Fruit, whole c-eq 0.4 45 0.6 61 16 1.0
Total vegetables Total vegetables c-eq 0.5 13 0.5 13 0 3.5
Vegetables, 43% of CVVd c-eq 0.2 6 0.3 9 2 3.5
Legumes (as vegetable)e Legumes (beans and peas) c-eq 0.3 71 0.2 47 −24 0.4
Total dairy Total dairy c-eq 2.9 98 2.1 71 −27 3.0
Milk c-eq 2.9 98 2.1 71 −27 3.0
Total grains Total grains oz-eq 1.7 19 2.0 22 3 9.0
Breakfast cerealf Refined grains oz-eq 1.0 22 0.6 13 −8 4.5
Breakfast cereal Whole grains oz-eq 0.2 17g 0.6 31g 14 4.5
Whole wheat bread Whole grains oz-eq 0.5 0.8
Total protein foods Total protein foods oz-eq 1.6 25 0.9 14 −11 6.5
Peanut butter Nuts, seeds, and soy oz-eq 1.2 168 0.4 56 −112 0.7
Eggs Meat, poultry, and eggs oz-eq 0.4 9 0.4 9 0 4.4
Fish Seafood oz-eq 0.0 0 0.1 8 8 1.4
Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

NOTES: c-eq = cup-equivalent; CVV = cash value voucher; DGA = Dietary Guidelines for Americans; oz-eq = ounce-equivalent.

a Percentages represent the proportion of the recommended food pattern amount in the corresponding row of the DGA food pattern column. Values may not be replicable from the table due to rounding.

b The 2,600-kcal food pattern was applied to evaluate this package. This kcal level most closely matched the calculated Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) for pregnant WIC-participating women in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2012. In the current WIC food packages, pregnant women and partially breastfeeding women receive the same benefits.

c Assumes that 67 percent of the CVV is used to purchase fruits, based on redemption data from Texas and Wyoming. A weighted composite cost of fruit ($0.55/c-eq) was developed, based on the most commonly consumed fruits (bananas, apples, oranges, berries, grapes, melon [watermelon was used in this case]) from an average of Massachusetts, Texas, and Wyoming redemption data. Only fresh fruit was included as all states allow fresh forms; Economic Research Service (ERS) 2013 price data were updated with a Consumer Price Index to 2015 values.

d Assumes that 33 percent of the CVV is used to purchase vegetables, based on redemption data from Texas and Wyoming. A weighted composite cost of vegetables ($0.55/c-eq) was developed, based on the most commonly consumed vegetables (tomatoes, avocados, potatoes, peppers, lettuce) from an average of Massachusetts, Texas, and Wyoming redemption data. Only fresh vegetables were included as all states allow fresh forms; ERS 2013 price data were updated with a Consumer Price Index to 2015 values. Because potatoes were not yet available in Wyoming, the same proportion of potatoes was assumed for this state as for Texas.

e Legumes can also be assessed as a protein, but they were placed in the vegetable group because a higher proportion of individuals had low intakes of vegetables across WIC-participating subgroups compared to protein.

f In the current food packages, a ratio of 81 percent refined grains and 19 percent whole grains was applied, based on redemption data; in the revised packages, a ratio of 50 percent refined grains and 50 percent whole grains was applied to account for the requirement that all cereals meet the whole grain-rich criteria.

g To compare the food package contribution to the DGA recommended amounts of whole grains, the whole grain portion of breakfast cereal was added to the whole grain contribution of bread.

SOURCES: USDA/ARS, 2014; USDA/FNS, 2014; USDA/HHS, 2016.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE T-1b Proportion of 2015–2020 DGA Recommended Amounts of Food Groups in the Current and Revised Food Packages for Pregnant Women as Redeemeda: Food Package V-A

WIC Food Category DGA Food Group Units/d Current Revised Change in Proportion of DGA Recommendation (%)b DGA 2,600 Kcal Food Patternc
WIC Redeemed Amounts of the Maximum Allowance Proportion of the DGA Recommendation (%)b WIC Redeemed Amounts of the Maximum Allowance Proportion of the DGA Recommendation (%)b
Total fruit Total fruit c-eq 0.8 38 0.7 33 5 2.0
Juice, 100% Fruit, as juice c-eq 0.4 42 0.2 21 −21 1.0
Fruit, 67% of CVVd Fruit, whole c-eq 0.3 34 0.5 46 11 1.0
Total vegetables Total vegetables c-eq 0.3 9 0.3 9 1 3.5
Vegetables, 33% of CVVe c-eq 0.2 5 0.2 6 2 3.5
Legumes (as vegetable)f Legumes (beans and peas) c-eq 0.1 36 0.1 25 −11 0.4
Total dairy Total dairy c-eq 1.6 55 1.4 47 8 3.0
Milk c-eq 1.6 55 1.4 47 −8 3.0
Total grains Total grains oz-eq 1.0 11 1.1 13 1 9.0
Breakfast cerealg Refined grains oz-eq 0.6 13 0.3 4 −9 4.5
Breakfast cereal Whole grains oz-eq 0.1 9.3h 0.3 18h 15 4.5
Whole wheat bread Whole grains oz-eq 0.3 0.5
Total protein foods Total protein foods oz-eq 0.9 14 0.6 9 5 6.5
Peanut butter Nuts, seeds, and soy oz-eq 0.6 86 0.2 30 −56 0.7
Eggs Meat, poultry, and eggs oz-eq 0.3 7 0.3 7 0 4.4
Fish Seafood oz-eq 0.0 0 0.1 5 5 1.4
Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

NOTES: c-eq = cup-equivalent; CVV = cash value voucher; DGA = Dietary Guidelines for Americans; oz-eq = ounce-equivalent.

a Applies redemption factors presented in Appendix R, Table R-5.

b Percentages represent the proportion of the recommended food pattern amount in the corresponding row of the DGA food pattern column. Values may not be replicable from the table due to rounding.

c The 2,600-kcal food pattern was applied to evaluate this package. This kcal level most closely matched the calculated Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) for pregnant WIC-participating women in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2012. In the current WIC food packages, pregnant women and partially breastfeeding women receive the same benefits.

d Assumes that 67 percent of the CVV is used to purchase fruits, based on redemption data from Texas and Wyoming. A weighted composite cost of fruit ($0.55/c-eq) was developed, based on the most commonly consumed fruits (bananas, apples, oranges, berries, grapes, melon [watermelon was used in this case]) from an average of Massachusetts, Texas, and Wyoming redemption data. Only fresh fruit was included as all states allow fresh forms; Economic Research Service (ERS) 2013 price data were updated with a Consumer Price Index to 2015 values.

e Assumes that 33 percent of the CVV is used to purchase vegetables, based on redemption data from Texas and Wyoming. A weighted composite cost of vegetables ($0.55/c-eq) was developed, based on the most commonly consumed vegetables (tomatoes, avocados, potatoes, peppers, lettuce) from an average of Massachusetts, Texas, and Wyoming redemption data. Only fresh vegetables were included as all states allow fresh forms; ERS 2013 price data were updated with a Consumer Price Index to 2015 values. Because potatoes were not yet available in Wyoming, the same proportion of potatoes was assumed for this state as for Texas.

f Legumes can also be assessed as a protein, but they were placed in the vegetable group because a higher proportion of individuals had low intakes of vegetables across WIC-participating subgroups compared to protein.

g In the current food packages, a ratio of 81 percent refined grains and 19 percent whole grains was applied, based on redemption data; in the revised packages, a ratio of 50 percent refined grains and 50 percent whole grains was applied to account for the requirement that all cereals meet the whole grain-rich criteria.

h To compare the food package contribution to the DGA recommended amounts of whole grains, the whole grain portion of breakfast cereal was added to the whole grain contribution of bread.

SOURCES: USDA/ARS, 2014; USDA/FNS, 2014; USDA/HHS, 2016.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE T-2a Proportion of 2015–2020 DGA Recommended Amounts of Food Groups in the Current and Revised Food Packages for Partially Breastfeeding Women Assuming Full Redemption: Food Package V-Ba

WIC Food Category DGA Food Group Units/d Current Revised Change in Proportion of DGA Recommendation (%)b DGA 2,600-Kcal Food Patternc
WIC Maximum Allowance Proportion of the DGA Recommendation (%)b WIC Maximum Allowance Proportion of the DGA Recommendation (%)b
Total fruit Total fruit c-eq 1.0 52 1.3 64 12 2.0
Juice, 100% Fruit, as juice c-eq 0.6 60 0.3 27 −33 1.0
Fruit, 67% of CVVd Fruit, whole c-eq 0.4 45 1.0 102 57 1.0
Total vegetables Total vegetables c-eq 0.5 13 0.7 19 6 3.5
Vegetables, 33% of CVVe c-eq 0.2 0.2 0.4 14 5 3.5
Legumes (as vegetable)f Legumes (beans and peas) c-eq 0.3 71 0.2 47 −24 0.4
Total dairy Total dairy c-eq 2.9 98 2.1 71 27 3.0
Milk c-eq 2.9 98 2.1 71 −27 3.0
Total grains Total grains oz-eq 1.7 19 2.0 22 3 9.0
Breakfast cerealg Refined grains oz-eq 1.0 22 0.6 13 −8 4.5
Breakfast cereal Whole grains oz-eq 0.2 17h 0.6 31h 14 4.5
Whole wheat bread Whole grains oz-eq 0.5 0.8
Total protein foods Total protein foods oz-eq 1.6 25 1.1 17 7 6.5
Peanut butter Nuts, seeds, and soy oz-eq 1.2 168 0.4 56 −112 0.7
Eggs Meat, poultry, and eggs oz-eq 0.4 9 0.4 9 0 4.4
Fish Seafood oz-eq 0.0 0 0.3 23 23 1.4
Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

NOTES: c-eq = cup-equivalent; CVV = cash value voucher; DGA = Dietary Guidelines for Americans; oz-eq = ounce-equivalent.

a This table compares the current food package V (provided to both pregnant and partially breastfeeding women) to the revised food package V-B for partially breastfeeding women only.

b Percentages represent the proportion of the recommended food pattern amount in the corresponding row of the DGA food pattern column. Values may not be replicable from the table due to rounding.

c The 2,600 kcal food pattern was applied to evaluate this package. This kcal level most closely matched the calculated Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) for breastfeeding WIC-participating women in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2012.

d Assumes that 67 percent of the CVV is used to purchase fruits, based on redemption data from Texas and Wyoming. A weighted composite cost of fruit ($0.55/c-eq) was developed, based on the most commonly consumed fruits (bananas, apples, oranges, berries, grapes, melon [watermelon was used in this case]) from an average of Massachusetts, Texas, and Wyoming redemption data. Only fresh fruit was included as all states allow fresh forms; Economic Research Service (ERS) 2013 price data were updated with a Consumer Price Index to 2015 values.

e Assumes that 33 percent of the CVV is used to purchase vegetables, based on redemption data from Texas and Wyoming. A weighted composite cost of vegetables ($0.55/c-eq) was developed, based on the most commonly consumed vegetables (tomatoes, avocados, potatoes, peppers, lettuce) from an average of Massachusetts, Texas, and Wyoming redemption data. Only fresh vegetables were included as all states allow fresh forms; ERS 2013 price data were updated with a Consumer Price Index to 2015 values. Because potatoes were not yet available in Wyoming, the same proportion of potatoes was assumed for this state as for Texas.

f Legumes can also be assessed as a protein, but were placed in the vegetable group because a higher proportion of individuals had low intakes of vegetables across WIC-participating subgroups compared to protein.

g In the current food packages, a ratio of 81 percent refined grains and 19 percent whole grains was applied, based on redemption data; in the revised packages, a ratio of 50 percent refined grains and 50 percent whole grains was applied to account for the requirement that all cereals meet the whole grain-rich criteria.

h To compare the food package contribution to the DGA recommended amounts of whole grains, the whole grain portion of breakfast cereal was added to the whole grain contribution of bread.

SOURCES: USDA/ARS, 2014; USDA/FNS, 2014; USDA/HHS, 2016.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE T-2b Proportion of 2015–2020 DGA Recommended Amounts of Food Groups in the Current and Revised Food Packages for Partially Breastfeedinga Women as Redeemedb: Food Package V-B

WIC Food Category DGA Food Group Units/d Current Revised Change in Proportion of DGA Recommendation (%)c DGA 2,600-Kcal Food Patternd
WIC Redeemed Amounts of the Maximum Allowance Proportion of the DGA Recommendation (%)c WIC Redeemed Amounts of the Maximum Allowance Proportion of the DGA Recommendation (%)c
Total fruit Total fruit c-eq 0.8 38 1.0 49 10 2.0
Juice, 100% Fruit, as juice c-eq 0.4 42 0.2 21 −21 1.0
Fruit, 67% of CVVe Fruit, whole c-eq 0.3 34 0.8 76 42 1.0
Total vegetables Total vegetables c-eq 0.3 9 0.5 13 5 3.5
Vegetables, 33% of CVVf c-eq 0.2 5 0.4 11 6 3.5
Legumes (as vegetable)g Legumes (beans and peas) c-eq 0.1 36 0.1 25 −11 0.4
Total dairy Total dairy c-eq 1.6 55 1.4 47 8 3.0
Milk c-eq 1.6 55 1.4 47 −8 3.0
Total grains Total grains oz-eq 1.0 11 1.1 13 1 9.0
Breakfast cerealh Refined grains oz-eq 0.6 13 0.3 7 −6 4.5
Breakfast cereal Whole grains oz-eq 0.1 9i 0.3 18i 9 4.5
Whole wheat bread Whole grains oz-eq 0.3 0.5
Total protein foods Total protein foods oz-eq 0.9 14 0.8 12 3 6.5
Peanut butter Nuts, seeds, and soy oz-eq 0.6 86 0.2 30 −56 0.7
Eggs Meat, poultry, and eggs oz-eq 0.3 7 0.3 7 0 4.4
Fish Seafood oz-eq 0.0 0 0.2 16 16 1.4
Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

NOTES: c-eq = cup-equivalent; CVV = cash value voucher; DGA = Dietary Guidelines for Americans; oz-eq = ounce-equivalent.

a This table compares the current food package V (provided to both pregnant and partially breastfeeding women) to the revised food package V-B for partially breastfeeding women only.

b Applies redemption factors presented in Appendix R, Table R-5.

c Percentages represent the proportion of the recommended food pattern amount in the corresponding row of the DGA food pattern column. Values may not be replicable from the table due to rounding.

d The 2,600 kcal food pattern was applied to evaluate this package. This kcal level most closely matched the calculated Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) for breastfeeding WIC-participating women in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2012.

e Assumes that 67 percent of the CVV is used to purchase fruits, based on redemption data from Texas and Wyoming. A weighted composite cost of fruit ($0.55/c-eq) was developed, based on the most commonly consumed fruits (bananas, apples, oranges, berries, grapes, melon [watermelon was used in this case]) from an average of Massachusetts, Texas, and Wyoming redemption data. Only fresh fruit was included as all states allow fresh forms; Economic Research Service (ERS) 2013 price data were updated with a Consumer Price Index to 2015 values.

f Assumes that 33 percent of the CVV is used to purchase vegetables, based on redemption data from Texas and Wyoming. A weighted composite cost of vegetables ($0.55/c-eq) was developed, based on the most commonly consumed vegetables (tomatoes, avocados, potatoes, peppers, lettuce) from an average of Massachusetts, Texas, and Wyoming redemption data. Only fresh vegetables were included as all states allow fresh forms; ERS 2013 price data were updated with a Consumer Price Index to 2015 values. Because potatoes were not yet available in Wyoming, the same proportion of potatoes was assumed for this state as for Texas.

g Legumes can also be assessed as a protein, but were placed in the vegetable group because a higher proportion of individuals had low intakes of vegetables across WIC-participating subgroups compared to protein.

h In the current food packages, a ratio of 81 percent refined grains and 19 percent whole grains was applied, based on redemption data; in the revised packages, a ratio of 50 percent refined grains and 50 percent whole grains was applied to account for the requirement that all cereals meet the whole grain-rich criteria.

i To compare the food package contribution to the DGA recommended amounts of whole grains, the whole grain portion of breakfast cereal was added to the whole grain contribution of bread.

SOURCES: USDA/ARS, 2014; USDA/FNS, 2014; USDA/HHS, 2016.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE T-3a Proportion of 2015–2020 DGA Recommended Amounts of Food Groups in the Current and Revised Food Packages for Postpartum Women Assuming Full Redemption: Food Package VI

WIC Food Category DGA Food Group Units/d Current Revised Change in Proportion of DGA Recommendation (%)a DGA 2,300 Kcal Food Patternb
WIC Maximum Allowance Proportion of the DGA Recommendation (%)a WIC Maximum Allowance Proportion of the DGA Recommendation (%)a
Total fruit Total fruit c-eq 0.8 42 0.6 30 14 2.0
Juice, 100% Fruit, as juice c-eq 0.4 40 0.0 0 −40 1.0
Fruit, 67% of CVVc Fruit, whole c-eq 0.4 45 0.6 61 12 1.0
Total vegetables Total vegetables c-eq 0.3 12 0.5 16 4 3.0
Vegetable, 33% of CVVd c-eq 0.2 7 0.3 10 3 3.0
Legumes (as vegetable)e,f Legumes (beans and peas) c-eq 0.1 44 0.2 59 15 0.3
Total dairy Total dairy c-eq 2.1 71 2.1 71 0 3.0
Milk c-eq 2.1 71 2.1 71 0 3.0
Total grains Total grains oz-eq 1.2 16 1.2 16 0 7.5
Breakfast cerealg Refined grains oz-eq 1.0 26 0.6 16 −10 3.8
Breakfast cereal Whole grains oz-eq 0.2 6 0.6 16 10 3.8
Total protein foods Total protein foods oz-eq 1.3 20 1.2 19 1 6.3
Peanut butterf Nuts, seeds, and soy oz-eq 0.6 84 0.4 56 −28 0.7
Eggs Meat, poultry, and eggs oz-eq 0.4 9.5 0.4 9.5 0 4.2
Fish Seafood oz-eq 0.0 0 0.1 8 8 1.4
Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

NOTES: c-eq = cup-equivalent; CVV = cash value voucher; DGA = Dietary Guidelines for Americans; oz-eq = ounce-equivalent.

a Percentages represent the proportion of the recommended food pattern amount in the corresponding row of the DGA food pattern column. Values may not be replicable from the table due to rounding.

b The 2,300 kcal food pattern was applied to evaluate this package. This kcal level most closely matched the calculated Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) for nonbreastfeeding postpartum WIC-participating women in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2012.

c Assumes that 67 percent of the CVV is used to purchase fruits, based on redemption data from Texas and Wyoming. A weighted composite cost of fruit ($0.55/c-eq) was developed, based on the most commonly consumed fruits (bananas, apples, oranges, berries, grapes, melon [watermelon was used in this case]) from an average of Massachusetts, Texas, and Wyoming redemption data. Only fresh fruit was included as all states allow fresh forms; Economic Research Service (ERS) 2013 price data were updated with a Consumer Price Index to 2015 values.

d Assumes that 33 percent of the CVV is used to purchase vegetables, based on redemption data from Texas and Wyoming. A weighted composite cost of vegetables ($0.55/c-eq) was developed, based on the most commonly consumed vegetables (tomatoes, avocados, potatoes, peppers, lettuce) from an average of Massachusetts, Texas, and Wyoming redemption data. Only fresh vegetables were included as all states allow fresh forms; ERS 2013 price data were updated with a Consumer Price Index to 2015 values. Because potatoes were not yet available in Wyoming, the same proportion of potatoes was assumed for this state as for Texas.

e Legumes can also be assessed as a protein, but they were placed in the vegetable group because a higher proportion of individuals had low intakes of vegetables across WIC-participating subgroups compared to protein.

f For the current food package, assumes 50 percent legumes and 50 percent peanut butter; for the revised package, the proportion provided on a monthly basis was calculated.

g In the current food packages, a ratio of 81 percent refined grains and 19 percent whole grains was applied, based on redemption data; in the revised packages, a ratio of 50 percent refined grains and 50 percent whole grains was applied to account for the requirement that all cereals meet the whole grain-rich criteria.

SOURCES: USDA/ARS, 2014; USDA/FNS, 2014; USDA/HHS, 2016.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE T-3b Proportion of 2015–2020 DGA Recommended Amounts of Food Groups in the Current and Revised Food Packages for Postpartum Women as Redeemeda: Food Package VI*

WIC Food Category DGA Food Group Units/d Current Revised Change in Proportion of DGA Recommendation (%)b DGA 2,300-Kcal Food Patternc
WIC Redeemed Amounts of the Maximum Allowance Proportion of the DGA Recommendation (%)b WIC Redeemed Amounts of the Maximum Allowance Proportion of the DGA Recommendation (%)b
Total fruit Total fruit c-eq 0.6 31 0.5 23 -8 2.0
Juice, 100% Fruit, as juice c-eq 0.3 28 0 0 −28 1.0
Fruit, 67% of CVVd Fruit, whole c-eq 0.3 34 0.5 46 11 1.0
Total vegetables Total vegetables c-eq 0.2 8 0.3 10 3 3.0
Vegetables, 33% of CVVe c-eq 0.2 6 0.2 8 2 3.0
Legumes (as vegetable)f,g Legumes (beans and peas) c-eq 0.1 23 0.1 31 9 0.3
Total dairy Total dairy c-eq 1.2 40 1.2 42 2 3.0
Milk c-eq 1.2 40 1.2 42 2 3.0
Total grains Total grains oz-eq 0.7 10 0.7 9 1 7.5
Breakfast cerealh Refined grains oz-eq 0.6 16 0.3 9 −7 3.8
Breakfast cereal Whole grains oz-eq 0.1 4 0.3 9 5 3.8
Total protein foods Total protein foods oz-eq 0.9 14 0.9 14 0 6.3
Peanut butterg Nuts, seeds, and soy oz-eq 0.3 43 0.2 30 −13 0.7
Eggs Meat, poultry, and eggs oz-eq 0.3 8 0.3 8 0 4.2
Fish Seafood oz-eq 0.0 0 0.1 8 8 1.4
Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

NOTES: c-eq = cup-equivalent; CVV = cash value voucher; DGA = Dietary Guidelines for Americans; oz-eq = ounce-equivalent.

* Some values in this table are corrected from the original prepublication.

a Applies redemption factors presented in Appendix R, Table R-5.

b Percentages represent the proportion of the recommended food pattern amount in the corresponding row of the DGA food pattern column. Values may not be replicable from the table due to rounding.

c The 2,300 kcal food pattern was applied to evaluate this package. This kcal level most closely matched the calculated Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) for nonbreastfeeding postpartum WIC-participating women in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2012.

d Assumes that 67 percent of the CVV is used to purchase fruits, based on redemption data from Texas and Wyoming. A weighted composite cost of fruit ($0.55/c-eq) was developed, based on the most commonly consumed fruits (bananas, apples, oranges, berries, grapes, melon [watermelon was used in this case]) from an average of Massachusetts, Texas, and Wyoming redemption data. Only fresh fruit was included as all states allow fresh forms; Economic Research Service (ERS) 2013 price data were updated with a Consumer Price Index to 2015 values.

e Assumes that 33 percent of the CVV is used to purchase vegetables, based on redemption data from Texas and Wyoming. A weighted composite cost of vegetables ($0.55/c-eq) was developed, based on the most commonly consumed vegetables (tomatoes, avocados, potatoes, peppers, lettuce) from an average of Massachusetts, Texas, and Wyoming redemption data. Only fresh vegetables were included as all states allow fresh forms; ERS 2013 price data were updated with a Consumer Price Index to 2015 values. Because potatoes were not yet available in Wyoming, the same proportion of potatoes was assumed for this state as for Texas.

f Legumes can also be assessed as a protein, but were placed in the vegetable group because a higher proportion of individuals had low intakes of vegetables across WIC-participating subgroups compared to protein.

g For the current food package, assumes 43 percent legumes and 57 percent peanut butter, based on prescription data from the PC 2014 Food Package Report (USDA/FNS, 2016).

h In the current food packages, a ratio of 81 percent refined grains and 19 percent whole grains was applied, based on redemption data; in the revised packages, a ratio of 50 percent refined grains and 50 percent whole grains was applied to account for the requirement that all cereals meet the whole grain-rich criteria.

SOURCES: USDA/ARS, 2014; USDA/FNS, 2014; USDA/HHS, 2016.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE T-4a Proportion of 2015–2020 DGA Recommended Amounts of Food Groups in the Current and Revised Food Packages for Fully Breastfeeding Women Assuming Full Redemption: Food Package VII

WIC Food Category DGA Food Group Units/d Current Revised Change in Proportion of DGA Recommendation (%)a DGA 2,600-Kcal Food Patternb
WIC Maximum Allowance Proportion of the DGA Recommendation (%)a WIC Maximum Allowance Proportion of the DGA Recommendation (%)a
Total fruit Total fruit c-eq 1.0 52 1.7 84 32 2.0
Juice, 100% Fruit, as juice c-eq 0.6 60 0.3 27 −33 1.0
Fruit, 67% of CVVc Fruit, whole c-eq 0.4 45 1.4 142 97 1.0
Total vegetables Total vegetables c-eq 0.5 13 0.9 25 11 3.5
Vegetables, 33% of CVVd c-eq 0.2 6 0.7 20 14 3.5
Legumes (as vegetable)e Legumes (beans and peas) c-eq 0.3 71 0.2 47 −24 0.4
Total dairy Total dairy c-eq 3.6 119 2.1 71 47 3.0
Milk c-eq 3.2 107 2.1 71 −36 3.0
Cheese c-eq 0.4 12 0.0 0 −12 3.0
Total grains Total grains oz-eq 1.7 19 2.0 22 3 9.0
Breakfast cerealf Refined grains oz-eq 1.0 22 0.6 13 −8 4.5
Breakfast cereal Whole grains oz-eq 0.2 17g 0.6 31g 14 4.5
Whole wheat bread Whole grains oz-eq 0.5 0.8
Total protein foods Total protein foods oz-eq 3.3 50 2.1 33 17 6.5
Peanut butter Nuts, seeds, and soy oz-eq 1.2 168 0.4 56 −112 0.7
Eggs Meat, poultry, and eggs oz-eq 0.8 18 0.8 18 0 4.4
Fish Seafood oz-eq 1.0 70 0.7 47 −23 1.4
Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

NOTES: c-eq = cup-equivalent; CVV = cash value voucher; DGA = Dietary Guidelines for Americans; oz-eq = ounce-equivalent.

a Percentages represent the proportion of the recommended food pattern amount in the corresponding row of the DGA food pattern column. Values may not be replicable from the table due to rounding.

b The 2,600-kcal food pattern was applied to evaluate this package. This kcal level most closely matched the calculated Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) for WIC-participating women coded as breastfeeding in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2012.

c Assumes that 67 percent of the CVV is used to purchase fruits, based on redemption data from Texas and Wyoming. A weighted composite cost of fruit ($0.55/c-eq) was developed, based on the most commonly consumed fruits (bananas, apples, oranges, berries, grapes, melon [watermelon was used in this case]) from an average of Massachusetts, Texas, and Wyoming redemption data. Only fresh fruit was included as all states allow fresh forms; Economic Research Service (ERS) 2013 price data were updated with a Consumer Price Index to 2015 values.

d Assumes that 33 percent of the CVV is used to purchase vegetables, based on redemption data from Texas and Wyoming. A weighted composite cost of vegetables ($0.55/c-eq) was developed, based on the most commonly consumed vegetables (tomatoes, avocados, potatoes, peppers, lettuce) from an average of Massachusetts, Texas, and Wyoming redemption data. Only fresh vegetables were included as all states allow fresh forms; ERS 2013 price data were updated with a Consumer Price Index to 2015 values. Because potatoes were not yet available in Wyoming, the same proportion of potatoes was assumed for this state as for Texas.

e Legumes can also be assessed as a protein, but they were placed in the vegetable group because a higher proportion of individuals had low intakes of vegetables across WIC-participating subgroups compared to protein.

f In the current food packages, a ratio of 81 percent refined grains and 19 percent whole grains was applied, based on redemption data; in the revised packages, a ratio of 50 percent refined grains and 50 percent whole grains was applied to account for the requirement that all cereals meet the whole grain-rich criteria.

g To compare the food package contribution to the DGA recommended amounts of whole grains, the whole grain portion of breakfast cereal was added to the whole grain contribution of bread.

SOURCES: USDA/ARS, 2014; USDA/FNS, 2014; USDA/HHS, 2016.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE T-4b Proportion of 2015–2020 DGA Recommended Amounts of Food Groups in the Current and Revised Food Packages for Postpartum Women as Redeemeda: Food Package VII

WIC Food Category DGA Food Group Units/d Current Revised Change in Proportion of DGA Recommendation (%)b DGA 2,600-Kcal Food Patternc
WIC Redeemed Amounts of the Maximum Allowance Proportion of the DGA Recommendation (%)b WIC Redeemed Amounts of the Maximum Allowance Proportion of the DGA Recommendation (%)b
Total fruit Total fruit c-eq 0.8 38 1.3 64 26 2.0
Juice, 100% Fruit, as juice c-eq 0.4 42 0.2 21 −21 1.0
Fruit, 67% of CVVd Fruit, whole c-eq 0.3 34 1.1 107 72 1.0
Total vegetables Total vegetables c-eq 0.3 9 0.6 18 9 3.5
Vegetables, 33% of CVVe c-eq 0.2 5 0.5 15 10 3.5
Legumes (as vegetable)f Legumes (beans and peas) c-eq 0.1 36 0.1 25 −11 0.4
Total dairy Total dairy c-eq 2.0 68 1.4 48 19 3.0
Milk c-eq 1.8 59 1.4 48 −11 3.0
Cheese c-eq 0.2 8 0.0 0 −8 3.0
Total grains Total grains oz-eq 1.0 11 1.1 13 1 9.0
Breakfast cerealg Refined grains oz-eq 0.6 13 0.3 7 −5.8 4.5
Breakfast cereal Whole grains oz-eq 0.1 9h 0.3 18h 8.6 4.5
Whole wheat bread Whole grains oz-eq 0.3 0.5
Total protein foods Total protein foods oz-eq 1.9 30 1.6 24 6 6.5
Peanut butter Nuts, seeds, and soy oz-eq 0.6 86 0.2 30 −56 0.7
Eggs Meat, poultry, and eggs oz-eq 0.6 14 0.6 14 0 4.4
Fish Seafood oz-eq 0.7 49 0.5 32 −17 1.4
Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

NOTES: c-eq = cup-equivalent; CVV = cash value voucher; DGA = Dietary Guidelines for Americans; oz-eq = ounce-equivalent.

a Applies redemption factors presented in Appendix R, Table R-5.

b Percentages represent the proportion of the recommended food pattern amount in the corresponding row of the DGA food pattern column. Values may not be replicable from the table due to rounding.

c The 2,600-kcal food pattern was applied to evaluate this package. This kcal level most closely matched the calculated Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) for WIC-participating women coded as breastfeeding in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2012.

d Assumes that 67 percent of the CVV is used to purchase fruits, based on redemption data from Texas and Wyoming. A weighted composite cost of fruit ($0.55/c-eq) was developed, based on the most commonly consumed fruits (bananas, apples, oranges, berries, grapes, melon [watermelon was used in this case]) from an average of Massachusetts, Texas, and Wyoming redemption data. Only fresh fruit was included as all states allow fresh forms; Economic Research Service (ERS) 2013 price data were updated with a Consumer Price Index to 2015 values.

e Assumes that 33 percent of the CVV is used to purchase vegetables, based on redemption data from Texas and Wyoming. A weighted composite cost of vegetables ($0.55/c-eq) was developed, based on the most commonly consumed vegetables (tomatoes, avocados, potatoes, peppers, lettuce) from an average of Massachusetts, Texas, and Wyoming redemption data. Only fresh vegetables were included as all states allow fresh forms; ERS 2013 price data were updated with a Consumer Price Index to 2015 values. Because potatoes were not yet available in Wyoming, the same proportion of potatoes was assumed for this state as for Texas.

f Legumes can also be assessed as a protein, but they were placed in the vegetable group because a higher proportion of individuals had low intakes of vegetables across WIC-participating subgroups compared to protein.

g In the current food packages, a ratio of 81 percent refined grains and 19 percent whole grains was applied, based on redemption data; in the revised packages, a ratio of 50 percent refined grains and 50 percent whole grains was applied to account for the requirement that all cereals meet the whole grain-rich criteria.

h To compare the food package contribution to the DGA recommended amounts of whole grains, the whole grain portion of breakfast cereal was added to the whole grain contribution of bread.

SOURCES: USDA/ARS, 2014; USDA/FNS, 2014; USDA/HHS, 2016.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE T-5a Proportion of 2015–2020 DGA Recommended Amounts of Food Groups in the Current and Revised Food Packages for Children Ages 2 to Less Than 5 Years Assuming Full Redemption: Food Package IV-Ba

WIC Food Category DGA Food Group Units/d Current Revised Change in % of DGA Recommendationb DGA 1,300-Kcal Food Patternc
WIC Redeemed Amounts of the Maximum Allowance Proportion of the DGA Recommendation (%)b WIC Redeemed Amounts of the Maximum Allowance Proportion of the DGA Recommendation (%)b
Total fruit Total fruit c-eq 0.9 69 0.8 60 8 1.3
Juice, 100% Fruit, as juice c-eq 0.5 107 0.3 53 −53 0.5j
Fruit, 67% of CVVd Fruit, whole c-eq 0.3 43 0.5 65 22 0.8
Total vegetables Total vegetables c-eq 0.3 19 0.3 22 3 1.5
Vegetables, 33% of CVVe c-eq 0.2 11 0.2 16 5 1.5
Legumes (as vegetable)f,g Legumes (beans and peas) c-eq 0.13 177 0.08 120 −56 0.1
Total dairy Total dairy c-eq 2.1 85 1.9 75 11 2.5
Milk c-eq 2.1 85 1.9 75 −11 2.5
Total grains Total grains oz-eq 2.3 50 2.0 44 6 4.5
Breakfast cerealh Refined grains oz-eq 1.0 43 0.6 27 −17 2.3
Breakfast cereal Whole grains oz-eq 0.2 58i 0.6 61i 3 2.3
Whole wheat bread Whole grains oz-eq 1.1 0.8
Total protein foods Total protein foods oz-eq 1.0 29 1.2 33 5 3.5
Peanut butterg Nuts, seeds, and soy oz-eq 0.6 167 0.4 111 −56 0.4
Eggs Meat, poultry, and eggs oz-eq 0.4 17 0.4 17 0 2.4
Fish Seafood oz-eq 0.0 0 0.1 19 19 0.6
Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

NOTES: c-eq = cup-equivalent; CVV = cash value voucher; DGA = Dietary Guidelines for Americans; oz-eq = ounce-equivalent.

a The DGA apply to individuals ages 2 years and older; therefore, although food package IV-A is also issued to younger children, food groups can only be evaluated for food package IV-B.

b Percentages represent the proportion of the recommended food pattern amount in the corresponding row of the DGA food pattern column. Values may not be replicable from the table due to rounding.

c A pattern of 1,300 kcal was selected for this age group because (1) the latter level reflects increases in body weights for young children and was considered too high for normal weight children in this age group, particularly in light of efforts to reduce and/or contain the prevalence of childhood obesity, and (2) the 1,300-kcal pattern was applied in both the previous WIC food package review (IOM, 2006) and the Child and Adult Food Care Program (CACFP) report (IOM, 2011) and should similarly be appropriate for current WIC-participating children of the same ages.

d Assumes that 67 percent of the CVV is used to purchase fruits, based on redemption data from Texas and Wyoming. A weighted composite cost of fruit ($0.55/c-eq) was developed, based on the most commonly consumed fruits (bananas, apples, oranges, berries, grapes, melon [watermelon was used in this case]) from an average of Massachusetts, Texas, and Wyoming redemption data. Only fresh fruit was included as all states allow fresh forms; Economic Research Service (ERS) 2013 price data were updated with a Consumer Price Index to 2015 values.

e Assumes that 33 percent of the CVV is used to purchase vegetables, based on redemption data from Texas and Wyoming. A weighted composite cost of vegetables ($0.55/c-eq) was developed, based on the most commonly consumed vegetables (tomatoes, avocados, potatoes, peppers, lettuce) from an average of Massachusetts, Texas, and Wyoming redemption data. Only fresh vegetables were included as all states allow fresh forms; ERS 2013 price data were updated with a Consumer Price Index to 2015 values. Because potatoes were not yet available in Wyoming, the same proportion of potatoes was assumed for this state as for Texas.

f Legumes can also be assessed as a protein, but they were placed in the vegetable group because a higher proportion of individuals had low intakes of vegetables across WIC-participating subgroups compared to protein.

g For the current food package, assumes 50 percent legumes and 50 percent peanut butter; for the revised package, the proportions of each provided per month were calculated.

h In the current food packages, a ratio of 81 percent refined grains and 19 percent whole grains was applied, based on redemption data; in the revised packages, a ratio of 50 percent refined grains and 50 percent whole grains was applied to account for the requirement that all cereals meet the whole grain-rich criteria.

i To compare the food package contribution to the DGA recommended amounts of whole grains, the whole grain portion of breakfast cereal was added to the whole grain contribution of bread.

j Equivalent to 4 oz per day, the lower end of AAP guideline of not more than 4–6 ounces per day.

SOURCES: IOM, 2006, 2011; USDA/ARS, 2014; USDA/FNS, 2014, 2016; USDA/HHS, 2016.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE T-5b Proportion of 2015–2020 DGA Recommended Amounts of Food Groups in the Current and Revised Food Packages for Children Ages 2 to Less Than 5 Years as Redeemeda: Food Package IV-Bb

WIC Food Category DGA Food Group Units/d Current Revised Change in % of DGA Recommendationc DGA 1,300-Kcal Food Patternd
WIC Redeemed Amounts of the Maximum Allowance Proportion of the DGA Recommendation (%)c WIC Redeemed Amounts of the Maximum Allowance Proportion of the DGA Recommendation (%)c
Total fruit Total fruit c-eq 0.6 50 0.6 46 4 1.3
Juice, 100% Fruit, as juice c-eq 0.4 75 0.2 42 −33 0.5k
Fruit, 67% of CVVe Fruit, whole c-eq 0.3 33 0.4 49 15 0.8
Total vegetables Total vegetables c-eq 0.2 13 0.2 15 2 1.5
Vegetables, 33% of CVVf c-eq 0.1 8 0.2 12 4 1.5
Legumes (as vegetable)g,h Legumes (beans and peas) c-eq 0.06 92 0.04 64 −28 0.1
Total dairy Total dairy c-eq 1.5 61 1.5 59 1 2.5
Milk c-eq 1.5 61 1.5 59 −1 2.5
Total grains Total grains oz-eq 1.3 29 1.1 25 3 4.5
Breakfast cereali Refined grains oz-eq 0.6 26 0.3 14 −12 2.3
Breakfast cereal Whole grains oz-eq 0.1 31j 0.3 36j 30 2.3
Whole wheat bread Whole grains oz-eq 0.6 0.5
Total protein foods Total protein foods oz-eq 0.6 18 0.9 25 7 3.5
Peanut butterh Nuts, seeds and soy oz-eq 0.3 85 0.2 59 −26 0.4
Eggs Meat, poultry, eggs oz-eq 0.3 14 0.3 14 0 2.4
Fish Seafood oz-eq 0.0 0 0.1 13 13 0.6
Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

NOTES: c-eq = cup-equivalent; CVV = cash value voucher; DGA = Dietary Guidelines for Americans; oz-eq = ounce-equivalent.

a Applies redemption factors presented in Appendix R, Table R-5.

b The DGA apply to individuals ages 2 years and older; therefore, although food package IV-A is also issued to younger children, food groups can only be evaluated for food package IV-B.

c Percentages represent the proportion of the recommended food pattern amount in the corresponding row of the DGA food pattern column. Values may not be replicable from the table due to rounding.

d A pattern of 1,300 kcal was selected for this age group because (1) the latter level reflects increases in body weights for young children and was considered too high for normal weight children in this age group, particularly in light of efforts to reduce and/or contain the prevalence of childhood obesity, and (2) the 1,300-kcal pattern was applied in both the previous WIC food package review (IOM, 2006) and the CACFP report (IOM, 2011) and should similarly be appropriate for current WIC participating children of the same ages.

e Assumes that 67 percent of the CVV is used to purchase fruits, based on redemption data from Texas and Wyoming. A weighted composite cost of fruit ($0.55/c-eq) was developed, based on the most commonly consumed fruits (bananas, apples, oranges, berries, grapes, melon [watermelon was used in this case]) from an average of Massachusetts, Texas, and Wyoming redemption data. Only fresh fruit was included as all states allow fresh forms; Economic Research Service (ERS) 2013 price data were updated with a Consumer Price Index to 2015 values.

f Assumes that 33 percent of the CVV is used to purchase vegetables, based on redemption data from Texas and Wyoming. A weighted composite cost of vegetables ($0.55/c-eq) was developed, based on the most commonly consumed vegetables (tomatoes, avocados, potatoes, peppers, lettuce) from an average of Massachusetts, Texas, and Wyoming redemption data. Only fresh vegetables were included as all states allow fresh forms; ERS 2013 price data were updated with a Consumer Price Index to 2015 values. Because potatoes were not yet available in Wyoming, the same proportion of potatoes was assumed for this state as for Texas.

g Legumes can also be assessed as a protein, but they were placed in the vegetable group because a higher proportion of individuals had low intakes of vegetables across WIC-participating subgroups compared to protein.

h For the current food package, assumes 43 percent legumes and 57 percent peanut butter, based on prescription data from the PC 2014 Food Package Report (USDA/FNS, 2016).

i In the current food packages, a ratio of 81 percent refined grains and 19 percent whole grains was applied, based on redemption data; in the revised packages, a ratio of 50 percent refined grains and 50 percent whole grains was applied to account for the requirement that all cereals meet the whole grain-rich criteria.

j To compare the food package contribution to the DGA recommended amounts of whole grains, the whole grain portion of breakfast cereal was added to the whole grain contribution of bread.

k Equivalent to 4 oz per day, the lower end of the AAP guideline of not more than 4–6 ounces per day.

SOURCES: IOM, 2006, 2011; USDA/ARS, 2014; USDA/FNS, 2014, 2016; USDA/HHS, 2016.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE T-6a Proportion of Dietary Reference Intakes or DGA Limits Provided by the Current and Revised Food Packages for Pregnant and Partially Breastfeeding Women Assuming Full Redemption: Food Packages V-A and V-B*

Nutrient EAR/AIa (19–30y/31–50y) Current Revised % Change, Pregnant % Change, Partial BF
Amount % DRI Amount, Pregnant Amount, Partial BF % DRI, Pregnant
Higher Priority
Iron (mg) 22 14 62 13.0 13 59 −4 −1
Choline (mg) 450b 74.9 17 78.6 87 17 +5 +17
Potassium (mg) 4,700b 1,837 39 1,473 1,688 31 −20 −8
Fiber (g) 28b 8.0 29 7.4 9.3 27 −7 +16
Sodium (mg) 1,500b 727 48 572 592 38 −21 −19
Saturated fat (g) 29 8.5 29 5.7 5.9 19 −34 −31
Added sugars (g) 65.6 7.4 11 7.5 7.5 11 +1 +1
Middle Priority
Folate (µg DFE) 520 473 91 442 460 85 −7 −3
Lower Priority
Magnesium (mg) 290/300 198 68/68 150.3 164 52/50 −24 −17
Vitamin A (µg RAE) 550 646 117 544.7 564 99 −16 −13
Zinc (mg) 9.5 6.6 69 5.5 5.7 58 −16 −13
Vitamin C (mg) 70 72.2 103 57.4 78.0 82 −20 +8
Vitamin B6 (mg) 1.6 1.3 79 1.2 1.3 73 −8 +3
Vitamin D (IU) 400 291 73 229 237 57 −21 −19
Calcium (mg) 800 1,029 129 796 811 100 −23 −21
Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Nutrient EAR/AIa (19–30y/31–50y) Current Revised % Change, Pregnant % Change, Partial BF
Amount % DRI Amount, Pregnant Amount, Partial BF % DRI, Pregnant
Other
Energy (kcal) 2,625c 787 30 614 677 23 −22 −14
Protein (g) 71 (RDA)d 39 55 30.3 32 43 −23 −17
Phosphorus (mg) 580 976 168 762 793 131 −22 −19
Copper (mg) 0.8 0.4 55 0.3 0.4 44 −21 −7
Selenium (µg) 49 31.6 65 31.0 36 63 −2 +12
Thiamin (mg) 1.2 0.9 76 0.8 0.9 68 −11 −6
Riboflavin (mg) 1.2 1.8 148 1.5 1.5 123 −17 −14
Niacin (mg) 14 9.9 71 8.7 9.7 62 −13 −2
Vitamin B12 (µg) 2.2 4.4 198 3.8 4.0 175 −12 −7
Vitamin E (mg) 12 3.6 30 2.6 3.0 22 −26 −17

NOTES: BF = breastfeeding; DFE = dietary folate equivalents; DGA = Dietary Guidelines for Americans; DRI = Dietary Reference Intake; EAR/AI = Estimated Average Requirement/Adequate Intake; RAE = retinol activity equivalents; RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance. Shading indicates nutrients to limit. See Chapter 5 for description of nutrient priorities.

* Some values in this table are corrected from the original prepublication version.

a Values represent the EAR/AI for pregnant women.

b Indicates AI.

c Value is the median estimated energy requirement (EER) calculated by the committee. Values differ slightly from those in Chapter 4 because EER values for that chapter were re-calculated in a different statistical program to generate percentiles. The means are equivalent for the two analyses.

d The RDA (provided in units of g/d) was used for evaluation of the food package content because the EAR is provided in units of g/kg/d.

SOURCE: USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 28 (USDA/ARS, 2016).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE T-6b Proportion of Dietary Reference Intakes or DGA Limits Provided by the Current and Revised Food Packages for Pregnant and Partially Breastfeeding Women as Redeemeda: Food Packages V-A and V-B*

Nutrient EAR/AIb (19–30y/31–50y) Current Revised % Change, Pregnant % Change, Partial BF
Amount % DRI Amount, Pregnant Amount, Partial BF % DRI, Pregnant
Higher Priority
Iron (mg) 22 8.2 37 7.3 7.6 33 −10 −7
Choline (mg) 450c 57.4 13 60 66 13 +4 +16
Potassium (mg) 4,700c 1,096 23 983 1,143 21 −10 +4
Fiber (g) 28c 4.9 17 4.7 6.0 17 −4 24
Sodium (mg) 1,500c 416 28 356 370 24 −14 −11
Added sugars (g) 66 4.3 6.6 4.3 4.3 7 0 0
Saturated fat (g) 29 6.0 21 3.7 3.9 13 −38 −36
Middle Priority
Folate (µg DFE) 520 283 54 251 265 48 −11 −6
Lower Priority
Magnesium (mg) 290/300 114 39/38 96 106 33/32 −16 −7
Vitamin A (µg RAE) 550 381 69 341 355 62 −11 −7
Zinc (mg) 9.5 3.8 40 3.4 3.5 36 −11 −8
Vitamin C (mg) 70 50.8 73 42 58 61 −17 –14
Vitamin B6 (mg) 1.6 0.8 48 0.7 0.8 44 −8 +6
Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Nutrient EAR/AIb (19–30y/31–50y) Current Revised % Change, Pregnant % Change, Partial BF
Amount % DRI Amount, Pregnant Amount, Partial BF % DRI, Pregnant
Vitamin D (IU) 400 168 42 148 154 37 −12 −8
Calcium (mg) 800 581 73 517 528 65 −11 −9
Other
Energy (kcal) 2,625d 468 18 396 442 15 −15 −5
Protein (g) 71 (RDA)e 22.4 32 19.6 21.1 28 −13 −6
Phosphorus (mg) 580 559 96 493 515 85 −12 −8
Copper (mg) 0.8 0.3 32 0.2 0.3 28 −15 –2
Selenium (µg) 49 19 39 21 24 42 6 +22
Thiamin (mg) 1.2 0.5 45 0.5 0.5 40 −10 −4
Riboflavin (mg) 1.2 1.0 86 0.9 1.0 78 −10 −7
Niacin (mg) 14 5.8 41 5.0 5.7 36 −14 −1
Vitamin B12 (µg) 2.2 2.5 116 2.4 2.5 108 −7 −2
Vitamin E (mg) 12 2.1 17 1.6 1.8 13 −23 −12

NOTES: BF = breastfeeding; DFE = dietary folate equivalents; DGA = Dietary Guidelines for Americans; DRI = Dietary Reference Intake; EAR/AI = Estimated Average Requirement/Adequate Intake; IU = international units; RAE = retinol activity equivalents; RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance. Shading indicates nutrients to limit. See Chapter 5 for description of nutrient priorities.

* Some values in this table are corrected from the original prepublication version.

a Applies redemption factors presented in Appendix R, Table R-5.

b Values represent the EAR/AI for pregnant women.

c Indicates an AI.

d Value is the median estimated energy requirement (EER) calculated by the committee. Values differ slightly from those in Chapter 4 because EER values for that chapter were re-calculated in a different statistical program to generate percentiles. The means are equivalent for the two analyses.

e The RDA (provided in units of g/d) was used for evaluation of the food package content because the EAR is provided in units of g/kg/d.

SOURCE: USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 28 (USDA/ARS, 2016).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE T-7a Proportion of Dietary Reference Intakes or DGA Limits Provided by the Current and Revised Food Packages for Postpartum Women Assuming Full Redemption: Food Package VI*

Nutrient EAR/AI (19–30y/31–50y) Current Revised % Change
Amount % DRI Amount % DRI
Higher Priority
Calcium (mg) 800 739 92 766 96 +4
Potassium (mg) 4,700a 1,302 28 1,356 29 +4
Fiber (g) 25a 5.7 23 6.4 25 +12
Sodium (mg) 1,500a 527 35 512 34 −3
Added sugars (g) 59 6.9 12 7.5 13 +9
Middle Priority
Folate (µg DFE) 320 425 133 436 136 +3
Vitamin D (IU) 400 213 53 229 57 +8
Iron (mg) 8.1 12 152 12.3 152 0
Saturated fat (g) 26 6.4 25 5.6 21 −13
Lower Priority
Magnesium (mg) 255/265 132 52/50 134 52/50 +2
Vitamin A (µg RAE) 500 522 104 537 107 +3
Vitamin C (mg) 60 57 95 40.3 67 −30
Copper (mg) 0.7 0.3 42 0.3 43 +4
Zinc (mg) 6.8 5.2 76 5.2 77 +2
Thiamin (mg) 0.9 0.7 81 0.8 84 +4
Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Nutrient EAR/AI (19–30y/31–50y) Current Revised % Change
Amount % DRI Amount % DRI
Vitamin B6 (mg) 1.1 1.1 97 1.1 101 +3
Vitamin B12 (µg) 2 3.6 180 3.8 192 +7
Riboflavin (mg) 0.9 1.4 153 1.4 160 +5
Niacin (mg) 11 8.0 72 8.0 73 +1
Other
Energy (kcal) 2,350b 572 24 543 23 −5
Protein (g) 46 (RDA)c 28 60 28.4 62 +3
Phosphorus (mg) 580 690 119 718 124 +4
Selenium (µg) 45 25 56 28 61 +10
Choline (mg) 425a 71 17 75 18 +5
Vitamin E (mg) 12 2.5 20 2.3 19 −6

NOTES: DFE = dietary folate equivalents; DGA = Dietary Guidelines for Americans; DRI = Dietary Reference Intake; EAR/AI = Estimated Average Requirement/Adequate Intake; RAE = retinol activity equivalents; RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance. Shading indicates nutrients to limit. See Chapter 5 for description of nutrient priorities.

* Some values in this table are corrected from the original prepublication version.

a Indicates AI.

b Value is the median estimated energy requirement (EER) calculated by the committee. Values differ slightly from those in Chapter 4 because EER values for that chapter were re-calculated in a different statistical program to generate percentiles. The means are equivalent for the two analyses.

c The RDA (provided in units of g/d) was used for evaluation of the food package content because the EAR is provided in units of g/kg/d.

SOURCE: USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 28 (USDA/ARS, 2016).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE T-7b Proportion of Dietary Reference Intakes or DGA Limits Provided by the Current and Revised Food Packages for Postpartum Women as Redeemeda: Food Package VI*

Nutrient EAR/AI (19–30y/31–50y) Current Revised % Change
Amount % DRI Amount % DRI
Higher Priority
Calcium (mg) 800 421 53 451 56 +7
Potassium (mg) 4,700b 796 17 839 18 +5
Fiber (g) 25b 3.7 15 4.0 16 +9
Sodium (mg) 1,500b 307 24 299 20 −2
Added sugars (g) 58.7 4.0 7 4.1 7 +3
Middle Priority
Folate (µg DFE) 320 257 80 245 77 −5
Vitamin D (IU) 400 124 31 136 34 +10
Iron (mg) 8.1 7.5 93 6.9 85 −9
Saturated fat (g) 26 3.7 15 3.4 13 −9
Lower Priority
Magnesium (mg) 255/265 78 31/29 80 31/30 +3
Vitamin A (µg RAE) 500 312 62 317 63 1
Vitamin C (mg) 60 40.7 68 29 47 −30
Copper (mg) 0.7 0.2 26 0.2 27 +4
Zinc (mg) 6.8 3.1 45 3.1 45 0
Thiamin (mg) 0.9 0.4 48 0.4 48 −1
Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Nutrient EAR/AI (19–30y/31–50y) Current Revised % Change
Amount % DRI Amount % DRI
Vitamin B6 (mg) 1.1 0.7 60 0.7 60 −1
Vitamin B12 (µg) 2 2.1 106 2.2 111 +5
Riboflavin (mg) 0.9 0.8 91 0.9 95 +5
Niacin (mg) 11 4.8 43 4.6 42 −4
Other
Energy (kcal) 2,350c 349 15 330 14 −5
Protein (g) 46 (RDA)d 16 35 17 37 +6
Phosphorus (mg) 580 402 69 428 74 +7
Selenium (µg) 45 16 35 18 39 +12
Choline (mg) 425b 56 13 58 14 +4
Vitamin E (mg) 12 1.5 13 1.4 12 −7

NOTES: DFE = dietary folate equivalents; DGA = Dietary Guidelines for Americans; DRI = Dietary Reference Intake; EAR/AI = Estimated Average Requirement/Adequate Intake; RAE = retinol activity equivalents; RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance. Shading indicates nutrients to limit. See Chapter 5 for description of nutrient priorities.

* Some values in this table are corrected from the original prepublication version.

a Indicates AI.

b Applies redemption factors presented in Appendix R, Table R-5.

c Value is the median estimated energy requirement (EER) calculated by the committee. Values differ slightly from those in Chapter 4 because EER values for that chapter were re-calculated in a different statistical program to generate percentiles. The means are equivalent for the two analyses.

d The RDA (provided in units of g/d) was used for evaluation of the food package content because the EAR is provided in units of g/kg/d.

SOURCE: USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 28 (USDA/ARS, 2016).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE T-8a Proportion of Dietary Reference Intakes or DGA Limits Provided by the Current and Revised Food Packages for Fully Breastfeeding Women Assuming Full Redemption: Food Package VII*

Nutrient EAR/AI (19–30y/31–50y) Current Revised % Change
Amount % DRI Amount % DRI
Higher Priority
Potassium (mg) 5,100a 1,958 38 1,853 36 −5
Fiber (g) 29a 8.0 28 11.1 38 38
Sodium (mg) 1,500a 1,007 67 657 44 −35
Saturated fat (g) 28 12.8 44 7.3 26 −43
Added sugars (g) 62.3 6.6 10 6.7 11 +1
Middle Priority
Folate (µg DFE) 450 487 108 485 108 0
Vitamin D (IU) 400 371 93 253 63 −32
Calcium (mg) 800 1,232 154 810 101 −34
Lower Priority
Vitamin A (µg RAE) 900 754 84 609 68 −19
Magnesium (mg) 255/265 214 84/81 176 69/66 −18
Zinc (mg) 10.4 7.7 74 6.1 59 −21
Vitamin C (mg) 100 72 72 98 98 +36
Vitamin B6 (mg) 1.7 1.4 83 1.5 87 +5
Copper (mg) 1 0.5 48 0.5 48 0
Thiamin (mg) 1.2 0.9 78 0.9 74 −6
Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Nutrient EAR/AI (19–30y/31–50y) Current Revised % Change
Amount % DRI Amount % DRI
Other
Energy (kcal) 2,492b 918 37 764 31 −17
Protein (g) 71 (RDA)c 52.3 74 36.9 52 −29
Iron (mg) 6.5 14.4 221 14.1 217 −2
Phosphorus (mg) 580 1,178 203 841 145 −29
Selenium (µg) 59 63.5 108 47.9 81 −25
Riboflavin (mg) 1.3 2.0 153 1.6 122 −20
Niacin (mg) 13 12.7 98 11.1 85 −13
Choline (mg) 550a 147 27 156 28 +6
Vitamin B12 (µg) 2.4 5.6 234 4.3 180 −23
Vitamin E (mg) 16 4.0 25 2.9 18 −27

NOTES: DFE = dietary folate equivalents; DGA = Dietary Guidelines for Americans; DRI = Dietary Reference Intake; EAR/AI = Estimated Average Requirement/Adequate Intake; RAE = retinol activity equivalents; RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance. Shading indicates nutrients to limit. See Chapter 5 for description of nutrient priorities.

* Some values in this table are corrected from the original prepublication version.

a Indicates AI.

b Value is the median estimated energy requirement (EER) calculated by the committee. Values differ slightly from those in Chapter 4 because EER values for that chapter were re-calculated in a different statistical program to generate percentiles. The means are equivalent for the two analyses.

c The RDA (provided in units of g/d) was used for evaluation of the food package content because the EAR is provided in units of g/kg/d.

SOURCE: USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 28 (USDA/ARS, 2016).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE T-8b Proportion of Dietary Reference Intakes or DGA Limits Provided by the Current and Revised Food Packages for Fully Breastfeeding Women as Redeemeda: Food Package VII*

Nutrient EAR/AI (19–30y/31–50y) Current Revised % Change
Amount % DRI Amount % DRI
Higher Priority
Potassium (mg) 5,100b 1,181 23 1,291 25 +9
Fiber (g) 29b 4.9 17 7.4 26 +52
Sodium (mg) 1,500b 608 41 425 28 −30
Saturated fat (g) 28 7.8 27 5.0 18 −36
Added sugars (g) 62.3 3.9 6 3.8 6 −1
Middle Priority
Folate (µg DFE) 450 293 65 285 63 −3
Vitamin D (IU) 400 223 56 171 43 −23
Calcium (mg) 800 717 90 545 68 −24
Lower Priority
Vitamin A (µg RAE) 900 456 51 397 44 −13
Magnesium (mg) 255/265 125 49/47 117 46/44 −7
Zinc (mg) 10.4 4.6 44 3.9 37 −16
Vitamin C (mg) 100 51 51 73 73 +43
Vitamin B6 (mg) 1.7 0.9 51 1.0 56 +9
Copper (mg) 1 0.3 29 0.3 32 +12
Thiamin (mg) 1.2 0.6 46 0.5 45 −2
Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Nutrient EAR/AI (19–30y/31–50y) Current Revised % Change
Amount % DRI Amount % DRI
Other
Energy (kcal) 2,492c 559 22 515 21 −8
Protein (g) 71 (RDA)d 31.7 45 25.0 35 −21
Iron (mg) 6.5 8.8 136 8.2 126 −7
Phosphorus (mg) 580 698 120 566 98 −19
Selenium (µg) 59 41.4 70 33.0 56 −20
Riboflavin (mg) 1.3 1.2 92 1.1 81 −12
Niacin (mg) 13 7.7 60 6.7 52 −13
Choline (mg) 550b 114 21 120 22 +6
Vitamin B12 (µg) 2.4 3.4 143 2.8 115 −19
Vitamin E (mg) 16 2.4 15 1.9 12 −19

NOTES: DFE = dietary folate equivalents; DGA = Dietary Guidelines for Americans; DRI = Dietary Reference Intake; EAR/AI = Estimated Average Requirement/Adequate Intake; RAE = retinol activity equivalents; RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance. Shading indicates nutrients to limit. See Chapter 5 for description of nutrient priorities.

* Some values in this table are corrected from the original prepublication version.

a Applies redemption factors presented in Appendix R, Table R-5.

b Indicates AI.

c Value is the median estimated energy requirement (EER) calculated by the committee. Values differ slightly from those in Chapter 4 because EER values for that chapter were re-calculated in a different statistical program to generate percentiles. The means are equivalent for the two analyses.

d The RDA (provided in units of g/d) was used for evaluation of the food package content because the EAR is provided in units of g/kg/d.

SOURCE: USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 28 (USDA/ARS, 2016).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE T-9a Proportion of Dietary Reference Intakes or DGA Limits Provided by the Current and Revised Food Packages for Infants Ages 6 to Less Than 12 Months Assuming Full Redemption: Food Package II*

Nutrient EAR/AI Current Amount Revised Amount % Change
FF 6–11 mo BF/FF 6–11 mo BF 6–11 mo FF 6–11 mo BF/FF 6–11 mo BF 6–11 mo FF 6–11 mo BF/FF 6–11 mo BF 6–11 mo
Priority
Iron (mg) 6.9a 20.9 17.0 14.1 13.2 9.3 8.9 −37 −45 −37
Zinc (mg) 2.5a 5.9 4.1 3.3 4.8 2.9 1.8 −19 −28 −46
Other
Energy (kcal) 727b 621 409 300 559 347 156 −10 −15 −48
Protein (g) 11 (RDA)c 13.5 8.8 13.4 12.1 7.4 6.0 −10 −16 −55
Fiber (g) ND 3.7 3.7 5.9 2.7 2.7 3.2 −29 −29 −45
Calcium (mg) 260 604 404 208 504 304 126 −17 −25 −39
Magnesium (mg) 75 69 52 58 57 41 31 −17 −22 −47
Phosphorus (mg) 275 388 266 220 324 202 118 −17 −24 −46
Potassium (mg) 700 830 599 669 765 534 338 −8 −11 −50
Copper (mg) 0.22 0.52 0.35 0.28 0.46 0.29 0.15 −11 −16 −48
Selenium (µg) 20 18 13 14 14 8.7 7.1 −22 −31 −49
Vitamin C (mg) 50 71 49 46 71 49 23 0 0 −50
Thiamin (mg) 0.30 0.70 0.52 0.35 0.52 0.34 0.22 −26 −35 −38
Riboflavin (mg) 0.40 0.92 0.63 0.47 0.77 0.48 0.26 −16 −24 −45
Niacin (mg) 4 9.7 7.4 7.5 7.0 4.7 4.2 −28 −37 −44
Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Nutrient EAR/AI Current Amount Revised Amount % Change
FF 6–11 mo BF/FF 6–11 mo BF 6–11 mo FF 6–11 mo BF/FF 6–11 mo BF 6–11 mo FF 6–11 mo BF/FF 6–11 mo BF 6–11 mo
Vitamin B6 (mg) 0.30 0.29 0.16 0.09 0.29 0.16 0.04 0 0 −61
Folate (µg DFE) 80 158 105 62 139 86 35 −12 −18 −43
Choline (mg) 150 100 63 60 95 58 28 −5 −8 −54
Vitamin B12 (µg) 0.5 2.1 1.4 1.2 1.6 1.0 0.7 −22 −31 −46
Vitamin A (µg RAE) 500 550 358 262 550 358 131 0 0 −50
Vitamin E (mg) 5 7.0 4.4 2.2 6.5 3.9 1.2 −7 −11 −45
Vitamin D (IU) 400 313 192 58 282 160 36 −10 −16 −39
Added sugars (g) NA 0.5 0.3 0.0 0.5 0.3 0.0 0 0 0
Saturated fat (g) NA 11 5.9 1.4 11 5.8 0.6 −1 −2 −57
Sodium (mg) 370 157 93 64 155 91 29 −1 −2 −55

NOTES: BF = breastfeeding; DFE = dietary folate equivalents; DGA = Dietary Guidelines for Americans; DRI = Dietary Reference Intake; EAR/AI = Estimated Average Requirement/Adequate Intake; FF = formula-feeding; RAE = retinol activity equivalents; RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance. Shading indicates nutrients to limit. See Chapter 5 for description of nutrient priorities.

* Some values in this table are corrected from the original prepublication version.

a Indicates EAR.

b Value is the median estimated energy requirement (EER) calculated by the committee.

c The RDA (provided in units of g/d) was used for evaluation of the food package content because the EAR is provided in units of g/kg/d.

SOURCE: USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 28 (USDA/ARS, 2016).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE T-9b Proportion of Dietary Reference Intakes or DGA Limits Provided by the Current and Revised Food Packages for Infants Ages 6 to Less Than 12 Months as Redeemeda: Food Package II*

Nutrient EAR/AI Current Amount Revised Amount % Change
FF 6–11 mo BF/FF 6–11 mo BF 6–11 mo FF 6–11 mo BF/FF 6–11 mo BF 6–11 mo FF 6–11 mo BF/FF 6–11 mo BF 6–11 mo
Priority
Iron (mg) 6.9b 13.8 10.2 6.6 10.7 7.1 5.1 −22 −30 −22
Zinc (mg) 2.5b 4.7 2.9 1.4 4.2 2.5 1.0 −9 −15 −29
Other
Energy (kcal) 727c 513 313 134 496 296 90 −3 −5 −33
Protein (g) 11 (RDA)d 11 6.8 4.9 11 6.4 3.0 −4 −6 −39
Fiber (g) ND 1.8 1.8 2.9 1.7 1.7 2.0 −8 −8 −32
Calcium (mg) 260 490 302 95 451 263 72 −8 −13 −24
Magnesium (mg) 75 50 34 27 47 32 18 −6 −8 −32
Phosphorus (mg) 275 308 194 94 285 171 65 −8 −12 −30
Potassium (mg) 700 637 420 315 641 424 204 1 1 −35
Copper (mg) 0.22 0.42 0.26 0.13 0.41 0.25 0.08 −3 −5 −33
Selenium (µg) 20 13.8 8.9 5.4 12.3 7.3 3.7 −11 −18 −31
Vitamin C (mg) 50 58 36 23 61 39 15 –5 –8 −37
Thiamin (mg) 0.30 0.52 0.35 0.16 0.45 0.28 0.13 −14 −20 −23
Riboflavin (mg) 0.40 0.73 0.46 0.21 0.67 0.41 0.15 −7 −12 −29
Niacin (mg) 4 6.9 4.8 3.2 5.9 3.7 2.3 −15 −22 −28
Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Nutrient EAR/AI Current Amount Revised Amount % Change
FF 6–11 mo BF/FF 6–11 mo BF 6–11 mo FF 6–11 mo BF/FF 6–11 mo BF 6–11 mo FF 6–11 mo BF/FF 6–11 mo BF 6–11 mo
Vitamin B6 (mg) 0.30 0.27 0.15 0.03 0.27 0.15 0.02 0 0 −46
Folate (µg DFE) 80 129 79 30 123 74 21 −5 −7 −29
Choline (mg) 150 86 51 24 85 50 15 −1 −1 −38
Vitamin B12 (µg) 0.5 1.6 1.0 0.5 1.4 0.8 0.3 −11 −18 −29
Vitamin A (µg RAE) 500 461 281 134 479 299 85 –4 –6 −37
Vitamin E (mg) 5 5.9 3.5 1.1 5.8 3.4 0.7 −2 −3 −31
Vitamin D (IU) 400 272 158 25 259 145 20 −5 −8 −22
Added sugars (g) NA 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.4 0.2 0.0 0 0 0
Saturated fat (g) NA 10.0 5.5 0.5 9.9 5.4 0.3 0 −1 −41
Sodium (mg) 370 140 80 26 141 89 16 –1 –1 −40

NOTES: AI = adequate intake; BF = breastfeeding; DFE = dietary folate equivalents; DGA = Dietary Guidelines for Americans; DRI = Dietary Reference Intake; EAR/AI = Estimated Average Requirement/Adequate Intake; FF = formula-feeding; RAE = retinol activity equivalents; RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance. Shading indicates nutrients to limit. See Chapter 5 for description of nutrient priorities.

* Some values in this table are corrected from the original prepublication version.

a Applies redemption factors presented in Appendix R, Table R-5.

b Indicates EAR.

c Value is the median estimated energy requirement (EER) calculated by the committee.

d The RDA (provided in units of g/d) was used for evaluation of the food package content because the EAR is provided in units of g/kg/d.

SOURCE: USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 28 (USDA/ARS, 2016).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE T-10a Proportion of Dietary Reference Intakes or DGA Limits Provided by the Current and Revised Food Packages for Children Ages 1 to Less Than 2 Years Assuming Full Redemption: Food Package IV-A*

Nutrient EAR/AI Current Revised % Change
Amount % DRI Amount % DRI
Priority
Fiber (g) 19a 7.1 38 6.3 33 −11
Potassium (mg) 3,000a 1,267 42 1,007 34 −20
Added sugars (g) NA 8.4 NA 7.1 NA −16
Saturated fat (g) NA 11.9 NA 9.1 NA −23
Sodium (mg) 1,000a 587 59 472 47 −20
Other
Energy (kcal) 917b 725 79 577 63 −20
Protein (g) 13 (RDA)c 29 224 23 177 −21
Calcium (mg) 500 717 143 542 108 −24
Iron (mg) 3 13 445 13 420 −6
Magnesium (mg) 65 138 212 106 163 −23
Phosphorus (mg) 380 690 182 534 140 −23
Zinc (mg) 2.5 5.5 221 4.7 188 −15
Copper (mg) 0.26 0.4 161 0.3 129 −20
Selenium (µg) 17 35 207 30 177 −15
Vitamin C (mg) 13 56 429 47 360 −16
Thiamin (mg) 0.4 0.8 211 0.7 181 −15
Riboflavin (mg) 0.4 1.4 345 1.1 284 −18
Niacin (mg) 5 8.9 179 8.3 166 −7
Vitamin B6 (mg) 0.4 1.1 268 1.0 252 −6
Folate (µg DFE) 120 430 358 412 343 −4
Choline (mg) 200a 71.4 36 127 64 78
Vitamin B12 (µg) 0.7 3.8 546 3.3 474 −13
Vitamin A (µg RAE) 210 417 199 380 181 −9
Vitamin E (mg) 5 1.1 22 2.7 55 +148
Vitamin D (IU) 400 254 63 192 48 −25

NOTES: DFE = dietary folate equivalents; DGA = Dietary Guidelines for Americans; DRI = Dietary Reference Intake; EAR/AI = Estimated Average Requirement/Adequate Intake; RAE = retinol activity equivalents; RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance. Shading indicates nutrients to limit. See Chapter 5 for description of nutrient priorities.

* Some values in this table are corrected from the original prepublication version.

a Indicates AI.

b Value is the median estimated energy requirement (EER) calculated by the committee.

c The RDA (provided in units of g/d) was used for evaluation of the food package content because the EAR is provided in units of g/kg/d.

SOURCE: USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 28 (USDA/ARS, 2016).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE T-10b Proportion of Dietary Reference Intakes or DGA Limits Provided by the Current and Revised Food Packages for Children Ages 1 to Less Than 2 Years as Redeemeda: Food Package IV-A*

Nutrient EAR/AI Current Revised % Change
Amount % DRI Amount % DRI
Priority
Fiber (g) 19b 4.3 23 4.0 21 −8
Potassium (mg) 3,000b 888 30 770 26 −13
Added sugars (g) NA 5.4 NA 4.5 NA −18
Saturated fat (g) NA 8.6 NA 7.6 NA −12
Sodium (mg) 1,000b 385 38 333 33 −14
Other
Energy (kcal) 917c 491 54 421 46 −14
Protein (g) 13 (RDA)d 20 154 18 135 −12
Calcium (mg) 500 516 103 441 88 −14
Iron (mg) 3 8.1 270 7.1 237 −12
Magnesium (mg) 65 88.9 137 74 114 −17
Phosphorus (mg) 380 479 126 409 108 −15
Zinc (mg) 2.5 3.6 145 3.2 128 −12
Copper (mg) 0.26 0.3 104 0.2 90 −14
Selenium (µg) 17 25 144 23 133 −8
Vitamin C (mg) 13 40 306 35 267 −13
Thiamin (mg) 0.4 0.5 134 0.5 113 −15
Riboflavin (mg) 0.4 1.0 241 0.8 208 −14
Niacin (mg) 5 5.3 107 4.8 96 −10
Vitamin B6 (mg) 0.4 0.7 172 0.6 158 −8
Folate (µg DFE) 120 264 220 237 197 −10
Choline (mg) 200b 55 27 101 50 84
Vitamin B12 (µg) 0.7 2.6 376 2.3 333 −12
Vitamin A (µg RAE) 210 281 134 256 122 −9
Vitamin E (mg) 5 0.7 14 1.7 34 +143
Vitamin D (IU) 400 186 46 153 38 −18

NOTES: DFE = dietary folate equivalents; DGA = Dietary Guidelines for Americans; DRI = Dietary Reference Intake; EAR/AI = Estimated Average Requirement/Adequate Intake; RAE = retinol activity equivalents; RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance. Shading indicates nutrients to limit. See Chapter 5 for description of nutrient priorities.

* Some values in this table are corrected from the original prepublication version.

a Applies redemption factors presented in Appendix R, Table R-5.

b Indicates AI (used when EAR could not be determined).

c Value is the median estimated energy requirement (EER) calculated by the committee.

d The RDA (provided in units of g/d) was used for evaluation of the food package content because the EAR is provided in units of g/kg/d.

SOURCE: USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 28 (USDA/ARS, 2016).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE T-11a Proportion of Dietary Reference Intakes or DGA Limits Provided by the Current and Revised Food Packages for Children Ages 2 to Less Than 5 Years Assuming Full Redemption: Food Package IV-B*

Nutrient EAR/AI children 1–3 y EAR/AI children 4–8 y Current Revised % Change
Amount % DRI children 1–3 y % DRI children 4–5 y Amount % DRI children 1–3 y % DRI children 4–5 y
Priority
Fiber (g) 19a 25a 7.1 38 29 6.3 33 25 −11
Potassium (mg) 3,000a 3,800a 1,357 45 36 1,262 42 33 −7
Added sugars (g) 32.5 32.5 6.9 21 21 7.5 23 23 +9
Saturated fat (g) 14 14 6.6 47 47 5.2 37 37 −20
Sodium (mg) 1,000a 1,200a 639 64 53 534 53 44 −16
Other
Energy (kcal) 917b 1,517b 648 71 43 557 61 37 −14
Protein (g) 13 (RDA)c 19 (RDA)c 31 236 162 27.1 208 143 −12
Calcium (mg) 500 800 787 157 98 705 141 88 −10
Iron (mg) 3 4.1 14 449 328 13 424 310 −5
Magnesium (mg) 65 110 154 237 140 132 203 120 −14
Phosphorus (mg) 380 405 762 201 188 678 178 167 −11
Zinc (mg) 2.5 4 5.7 227 142 5.2 206 129 −9
Copper (mg) 0.26 0.34 0.3 134 102 0.3 114 87 −15
Selenium (µg) 17 23 32 187 138 29 169 125 −9
Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Nutrient EAR/AI children 1–3 y EAR/AI children 4–8 y Current Revised % Change
Amount % DRI children 1–3 y % DRI children 4–5 y Amount % DRI children 1–3 y % DRI children 4–5 y
Vitamin C (mg) 13 22 60 458 271 51 388 229 −15
Thiamin (mg) 0.4 0.5 0.8 206 165 0.8 188 151 −9
Riboflavin (mg) 0.4 0.5 1.4 353 282 1.3 336 268 −5
Niacin (mg) 5 6 9.0 179 150 8.4 169 140 −6
Vitamin B6 (mg) 0.4 0.5 1.1 277 222 1.1 270 216 −2
Folate (µg DFE) 120 160 431 359 269 418 349 261 −3
Choline (mg) 200a 250a 77 38 31 77 38 31 0
Vitamin B12 (µg) 0.7 1 3.6 514 360 3.6 514 360 0
Vitamin A (µg RAE) 210 275 532 253 194 501 238 182 −6
Vitamin E (mg) 5 6 3.0 60 50 2.5 51 42 −16
Vitamin D (IU) 400 400 213 53 53 202 51 51 −5

NOTES: DFE = dietary folate equivalents; DGA = Dietary Guidelines for Americans; DRI = Dietary Reference Intake; EAR/AI = Estimated Average Requirement/Adequate Intake; RAE = retinol activity equivalents; RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance. Shading indicates nutrients to limit. See Chapter 5 for description of nutrient priorities.

* Some values in this table are corrected from the original prepublication version.

a Indicates AI.

b Value is the median estimated energy requirement (EER) calculated by the committee.

c The RDA (provided in units of g/d) was used for evaluation of the food package content because the EAR is provided in units of g/kg/d.

SOURCE: USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 28 (USDA/ARS, 2016).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE T-11b Proportion of Dietary Reference Intakes or DGA Limits Provided by the Current and Revised Food Packages for Children Ages 2 to Less Than 5 Years as Redeemeda: Food Package IV-B*

Nutrient EAR/AI children 1–3 y EAR/AI children 4–8 y Current Revised % Change
Amount % DRI children 1–3 y % DRI children 4–5 y Amount % DRI children 1–3 y % DRI children 4–5 y
Priority
Fiber (g) 19b 25b 4.3 23 17 4.0 21 16 −8
Potassium (mg) 3,000b 3,800b 927 31 24 940 31 25 +1
Added sugars (g) 32.5 32.5 4.3 13 13 4.6 14 14 +9
Saturated fat (g) 14 14 4.5 32 32 3.9 27 27 −13
Sodium (mg) 1,000b 1,200b 412 41 34 367 37 31 −11
Other
Energy (kcal) 917c 1,517c 423 46 28 388 42 26 −8
Protein (g) 13 (RDA)d 19 (RDA)d 21 158 108 20 153 104 −3
Calcium (mg) 500 800 543 109 68 539 108 67 −1
Iron (mg) 3 4.1 8.2 272 199 7.2 240 176 −12
Magnesium (mg) 65 110 99 152 90 92 142 84 −7
Phosphorus (mg) 380 405 513 135 127 501 132 124 −2
Zinc (mg) 2.5 4 3.7 146 92 3.4 137 86 −6
Copper (mg) 0.26 0.34 0.21 83 63 0.2 75 57 −10
Selenium (µg) 17 23 21 124 92 21 122 90 −2
Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Nutrient EAR/AI children 1–3 y EAR/AI children 4–8 y Current Revised % Change
Amount % DRI children 1–3 y % DRI children 4–5 y Amount % DRI children 1–3 y % DRI children 4–5 y
Vitamin C (mg) 13 22 43 327 193 38 289 171 −12
Thiamin (mg) 0.4 0.5 0.5 128 102 0.5 117 94 −9
Riboflavin (mg) 0.4 0.5 1.0 239 191 1.0 238 191 0
Niacin (mg) 5 6 5.3 107 89 4.9 97 81 −9
Vitamin B6 (mg) 0.4 0.5 0.7 177 142 0.7 171 137 −4
Folate (µg DFE) 120 160 263 219 164 241 200 150 −9
Choline (mg) 200b 250b 58 29 23 59 29 23 +1
Vitamin B12 (µg) 0.7 1 2.4 342 240 2.4 349 244 +2
Vitamin A (µg RAE) 210 275 357 170 130 344 164 125 −4
Vitamin E (mg) 5 6 1.8 36 30 1.5 31 25 −14
Vitamin D (IU) 400 400 148 37 37 151 38 38 +2

NOTES: DFE = dietary folate equivalents; DGA = Dietary Guidelines for Americans; DRI = Dietary Reference Intake; EAR/AI = Estimated Average Requirement/Adequate Intake; RAE = retinol activity equivalents; RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance. Shading indicates nutrients to limit. See Chapter 5 for description of nutrient priorities.

* Some values in this table are corrected from the original prepublication version.

a Applies redemption factors presented in Appendix R, Table R-5.

b Indicates AI.

c Value is the median estimated energy requirement (EER) calculated by the committee.

d The RDA (provided in units of g/d) was used for evaluation of the food package content because the EAR is provided in units of g/kg/d.

SOURCE: USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 28 (USDA/ARS, 2016).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE T-12 Vegetables Provided in Food Packages IV, V-B, and VII Considering 33% or 100% Redemption of the CVV for Vegetables (c-eq/d)

Food Package Recommended Intake Current Intake (Mean) Amount in Food Package
Current Revised, 33% Veg Difference from Current Revised, 100% Veg Difference from Current
IV 1.5 0.65 0.19 0.22 +0.04 0.59 +0.40
V-B 3.5 0.94 0.30 0.46 +0.17 1.23 +0.93
VII 3.5 0.94 0.30 0.61 +0.32 1.68 +1.38

NOTES: Food group amounts based on the food package food group profiles, as presented in Chapter 3, Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-4.

TABLE T-13 Fiber Provided in Food Packages IV, V-B, and VII Considering 33% or 100% Redemption of the CVV for Vegetables (g/d)

Food Package AI Current Intake (Mean) Amount in Food Package
Current Revised, 33% Veg Difference from Current in FP Revised, 100% Veg Difference from Current
IV 19 8.5,12* 4.31 3.98 −0.33 4.42 +0.11
V-B 29 16 4.89 6.05 +1.16 6.96 +2.07
VII 29 16 4.89 7.42 +2.53 8.70 +3.81

NOTES: Nutrient data based on the food package nutrient profiles developed using the method described in Appendix R.

* Values represent mean intake for children ages 1 to less than 2 years, ages 2 to less than 5 years.

REFERENCES

IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2006. WIC food packages: Time for a change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

IOM. 2011. Child and Adult Care Food Program: Aligning dietary guidance for all. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

USDA/ARS (U.S. Department of Agriculture/Agricultural Research Service). 2005–2012. What we eat in America, NHANES 2005–2012. Beltsville, MD: USDA/ARS. http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/docs.htm?docid=13793 (accessed December 15, 2016).

USDA/ARS. 2014. Food patterns equivalents database 2011–12: Methodology and user guide. Beltsville, MD: USDA/ARS. http://www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/Place/80400530/pdf/fped/FPED_1112.pdf (accessed August 31, 2016).

USDA/ARS. 2016. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. Release 28. Beltsville, MD: USDA/ARS. https://www.ars.usda.gov/northeast-area/beltsville-md/beltsville-human-nutrition-research-center/nutrient-data-laboratory/docs/usda-nationalnutrient-database-for-standard-reference/ (accessed November 11, 2016).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

USDA/FNS (U.S. Department of Agriculture/Food and Nutrition Service). 2014. Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Revisions in the WIC food packages; final rule, 7 C.F.R. § 246.

USDA/FNS. 2016. WIC participant and program characteristics 2014: Food package report. Alexandria, VA: USDA/FNS. http://www.fns.usda.gov/wic-participant-and-program-characteristics-2014-food-package-report (accessed August 30, 2016).

USDA/HHS (U.S. Department of Agriculture/U.S. Department of Health and Human Development). 2016. 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. https://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015 (accessed August 29, 2016).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
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Page 857
Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
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Page 858
Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
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Page 859
Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
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Page 860
Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
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Page 861
Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
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Page 862
Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
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Page 863
Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Page 864
Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
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Page 865
Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Page 866
Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Page 867
Suggested Citation:"Appendix T: Amounts of Food Groups and Nutrients Provided by the Current, Compared to the Revised WIC Food Packages." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
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Page 868
Next: Appendix U: The Regulatory Impact Analysis (Complete) »
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The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) began 40 years ago as a pilot program and has since grown to serve over 8 million pregnant women, and mothers of and their infants and young children. Today the program serves more than a quarter of the pregnant women and half of the infants in the United States, at an annual cost of about $6.2 billion. Through its contribution to the nutritional needs of pregnant, breastfeeding, and post-partum women; infants; and children under 5 years of age; this federally supported nutrition assistance program is integral to meeting national nutrition policy goals for a significant portion of the U.S. population.

To assure the continued success of the WIC, Congress mandated that the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) reevaluate the program's food packages every 10 years. In 2014, the USDA asked the Institute of Medicine to undertake this reevaluation to ensure continued alignment with the goals of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. In this third report, the committee provides its final analyses, recommendations, and the supporting rationale.

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