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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

Index

A

Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 40, 126, 144, 146, 447

Acceptable macronutrient distribution range (AMDR), 218, 219, 471, 565, 570, 573

Added sugars (see also Calories for other uses; Total sugars)

AAP guidance, 129

adverse health consequences, 217

alignment with DGA, 13, 39, 87, 109, 111, 124–125, 149, 193, 215, 219, 386, 389, 845, 847, 849, 851, 853, 855, 858, 860, 861, 862, 863, 865

alignment with DRIs, 131, 133, 135, 173, 175, 178, 184, 225, 230, 235, 240

assessment of intakes, 573, 574, 578, 580, 754, 756

breakfast cereal limits, 123, 124, 225, 230, 234, 235, 240, 306, 348, 487, 720, 729, 754, 782, 784, 785

criteria for inclusion, 376, 379

current packages, 123–125, 218, 296, 300, 306, 714, 715, 716, 717, 720, 722–723, 724, 729, 784, 785, 786, 788, 790, 792, 794, 796, 798, 800, 802, 804, 806, 808, 810, 812, 814

defined, 124, 471, 580

health effects linked to, 217, 218

and Healthy Eating Index, 196–197

impacts of changes, 344–345, 348–349, 364, 365, 376, 776, 778, 780, 782, 784, 785, 786, 788, 790, 792, 794, 796, 798, 800, 802, 804, 806, 808, 810, 812, 814

infant intakes, 133, 175, 178, 207, 217, 219, 290, 714, 715, 858, 860

intake patterns, 81, 82, 84, 109, 120, 125, 135, 149, 164, 172, 173, 175, 178, 180, 184, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 195, 196, 204, 207, 217, 218, 219, 223, 240, 344–345, 348, 644–665, 681–684, 687, 715, 716, 720, 731, 861, 862, 863, 865

juices, 124, 798, 800, 802

labeling, 124, 295, 303

in milks and milk substitutes, 7, 13, 123, 149, 225, 230, 240, 296, 303, 304, 305, 344–345, 346, 376, 379, 386, 716, 776, 778, 780, 900, 902

nutrition education on, 456

and palatability of nutrient-dense foods, 124, 295, 303, 379, 730

prioritization rationale and preliminary actions, 217, 218, 219, 223–224, 225, 230, 235, 240, 295, 303, 343, 363, 378, 682, 683, 684, 687, 900, 902

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

proposed changes, 295, 296, 297, 299, 303, 720

racial and ethnic differences in consumption, 164

regulatory analysis, 484

revised packages, 290, 295, 296, 297, 299, 300, 303, 304, 305, 306, 343, 344–345, 346, 363, 364, 365, 720, 776, 778, 780, 782, 784, 785, 786, 788, 790, 792, 794, 796, 798, 800, 802, 804, 806, 808, 810, 812, 814

sensitivity analysis, 343, 344, 345, 346, 348, 349, 363, 364, 365, 776, 778, 780, 782, 784, 785, 786, 788, 790, 792, 794, 796, 798, 800, 802, 804, 806, 808, 810, 812, 814

substitutions and, 346

“supplemental” concept and, 44

women participant’s intakes, 81, 125, 131, 172, 173, 188, 189, 190, 194, 195, 204, 207, 217, 218, 223, 225, 230, 235, 344–345, 348, 363, 644–653, 682–684, 715, 716, 720, 845, 847, 849, 851, 853, 855

in yogurt, 7, 13, 123, 218, 225, 227, 230, 235, 240, 303, 379, 386, 389, 781

Adequate Intake (AI; see also Alignment of food packages with DRIs; Dietary Reference Intakes)

for assessing nutrient intakes of WIC-eligible subgroups, 566–569

defined, 471, 565

interpretation of food package profile, 127, 172

interpretation of intakes, 572, 574, 671

Administrative burden (see also Vendor effects of requirements)

educational messages and materials, 404, 909

defined, 42 n.17, 471

infant cereal, 403, 907–908

infant formula, 402–403, 405–406, 440, 906–907, 910

information systems updates, 55, 274, 281–282, 403, 404, 405, 408, 411, 412, 413–414, 907, 910, 912, 916, 917, 918, 927

jarred infant foods, 404–405, 908–909

juice, 52, 276, 406–407, 911

legumes and peanut butter, 274, 281, 412–413, 917

milks and milk substitutes, 52, 53, 277, 375, 376, 393, 407–408, 888, 912, 978

of recommended revisions, 6, 7, 222, 310, 730

of rotation of foods, 281–282, 411

of state and local agency retraining, 42, 310, 404, 407–408, 411–412, 907–909, 912, 916, 917, 918, 927

Agricultural Research Service, 507

Alignment of food packages with DGA (see also American Academy of Pediatrics; Dietary Giudelines for Americans)

added sugars, 13, 39, 87, 109, 111, 124–125, 131, 133, 135, 149, 215, 219, 386, 389, 845, 847, 849, 851, 853, 855, 858, 860, 861, 862, 863, 865

for allergy prevention, 142–144, 150

breads, 112, 113, 116, 118, 119, 375, 376, 825, 827, 829, 831, 837, 839, 841, 843

breakfast cereals, 112, 116, 118, 123, 124, 138, 245, 247, 248, 251, 253, 255, 309, 825, 827, 829, 831, 833, 835, 837, 841, 843, 881, 904

calories for other uses, 13, 84, 85, 87, 109, 124–126, 149, 192, 194, 386

for celiac disease, 143, 144–145, 150

children 1 to <2 years, 126, 132–135, 136

children 2 to <5 years, 118–119, 125, 134–135, 136–137

cultural considerations, 147–148, 150

current packages, 12, 109–126, 128–129, 137, 149, 263, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 287, 377, 820

CVV and, 221, 223–227, 229–232, 234–236, 239, 244, 247–252, 254, 255, 256, 258, 276, 283, 289, 350, 351, 352–353, 356–357, 358–359, 366, 368, 374, 382, 386, 387, 388, 391, 414, 484, 486, 820–839, 843, 867, 880, 887, 984

eggs, 84, 113, 114, 116, 118, 191, 247, 249, 253, 256, 377, 382, 825–844

fish, 110–111, 120, 149

for food-triggered immune-mediated sensitivities, 141–145, 150

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

forms and composition of foods, 137, 138–139, 149

infants and toddlers 0 to 24 months, 126, 132–135, 136

intake trends by food group, 84–85

juice, 112, 113, 114, 116, 118, 124, 126, 137, 138, 139, 149, 188, 254, 275, 276, 377, 379, 388, 455, 484, 487, 517, 820–844, 880, 887

Kosher or Halal diets, 143, 146–147, 150

for lactose intolerance, 143, 145, 150

legumes and peanut butter, 110, 112, 114, 116, 118, 149, 246–247, 249, 252, 253, 256–257, 281–282, 377, 382, 825, 827, 829, 831, 833, 835, 837, 839, 841, 843, 890, 893, 894, 917

for medical conditions, 137, 140–145

milks and milk substitutes, 112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 129, 137, 138, 246, 247, 249, 250, 251, 253, 254, 256, 277–278, 389, 825, 827, 829, 831, 833, 835, 837, 839, 841, 843

postpartum women, 114–115, 125, 130–131, 136

potential areas for modification, 148–150

pregnant women, 112–113, 127–135

regulatory impact analysis, 411, 412, 414, 436, 876–877, 879–881, 887, 888, 890, 892, 893, 884, 894, 902, 904, 916, 917, 918, 979

revised food packages, 6, 262, 263, 275, 276, 280, 281–282, 283, 286, 287–292, 294, 298, 299, 301, 302, 304, 305, 308, 309–310, 820

saturated fats, 120, 122, 109, 120, 122, 131, 133, 135, 215, 219, 240, 386, 573

sodium limits, 111, 116–117, 121

soy beverages, 309, 386, 485

for vegan or vegetarian diets, 143, 145–146, 150

Alignment of food packages with DRIs (see also Dietary Reference Intakes)

added sugars, 131, 133, 135, 173, 175, 178, 184, 225, 230, 235, 240

breads, 224, 235, 731

breakfast cereals, 224, 226, 227, 230, 231, 232–233, 234, 235, 236–237, 238, 306

children 1 to <5 years, 134–135, 180, 183, 184, 240–241, 378, 566, 568, 686–687, 861–867

current food packages, 126–127, 130–137, 149, 179 n.13, 181, 207, 263, 373, 588

eggs, 224

fully breastfeeding women (VII), 112–113, 116–117, 127, 130–131, 136, 172, 173, 204, 229–233, 567, 569, 683, 845–848, 853–856, 867

identifying targets for supplementation, 6, 216, 219, 224–233

infant cereal, 728

infant formula, 727–729

intakes relative to, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 183, 184, 187, 204

infants, 132–133, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 186–187, 566, 568, 727–729, 814–815, 857–860

legumes and peanut butter, 224, 225, 226, 229–230, 231, 232, 234, 235, 236–237, 239, 810–811

milks and milk substitutes, 224, 225, 226, 227, 229, 230, 231, 232–233, 239, 240, 773, 776–781

non-WIC-participating women, 612–613

postpartum women, 130–131, 172, 173, 204, 234–238, 684–685, 849–852, 867

pregnant women, 127, 130–131, 172, 173, 204, 224–229, 567, 569, 682, 845–848, 867

priorities and preliminary actions for food packages, 12, 220, 224–241

revised versus current packages, 12, 357, 377, 378, 379, 845–867

saturated fats, 131, 133, 135, 173, 225, 230, 235, 682–684, 777, 779, 781, 783, 784, 785, 787, 789, 791, 793, 795, 797, 799, 801, 803, 805, 807, 809, 811, 813, 814, 845, 847, 849, 851, 853, 855, 858, 860, 861, 862, 863, 865

substitutions and, 814–815

Allergies and sensitivities

eggs, 7, 142, 143, 150, 284, 700, 702

infant formula, 142, 146

Page 1000 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

lactose intolerance, 27, 28, 40, 145, 150, 267, 269, 270, 282, 476, 515, 700, 702, 704, 706, 887, 888, 892, 896, 897, 898–899, 901, 902

options unsuitable for, 143

peanuts, 7, 142, 267, 269, 282, 284, 517, 700, 703, 703, 706

American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidance

added sugars, 124, 798, 800, 802

aligning infant food amounts with recommendations of, 32, 40, 83, 109, 126, 242, 244, 254, 287–292, 388, 876–877, 881

allergy prevention, 88, 142

complementary foods for breastfed infants, 139, 146, 180, 188, 190, 217, 254, 288, 290–291, 388, 881, 885

cultural considerations, 137

dairy products, 88, 175 n.10

energy density of human milk, 729

fish, 110–111, 120, 128, 390

home preparation of foods, 290

infant cereal, 126, 138, 287–288, 884

infant formula, 128, 146, 264, 519, 728–729, 881, 919

jarred infant foods, 126, 190, 287, 288, 290–291, 881, 884, 885, 887

juices, 13, 118, 126, 129, 137, 149, 190, 254, 275, 841, 842, 843, 844

USDA reliance on, 447, 528–529

whole grains, 278

American College of Cardiology, 87

American Heart Association (AHA), 87, 110–111, 120

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, 56, 167, 586 n.5

American Time Use Survey, 61–62

Arsenic, 160, 161

B

Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative, 22 n.8, 74, 472

Behavioral economic approaches to improve intakes, 220, 221, 223, 226, 227, 229, 231, 232–233, 234, 236–237, 244, 249, 253–254, 256, 288, 323, 452, 457–458, 689–691

Behavioral Economics Research Center, 458

Bioavailability of nutrients, 23, 179 n.13, 188, 291, 492, 734

Breads (see also Whole grains)

added sugars limit, 123

alignment with DGA, 112, 113, 116, 118, 119, 375, 376, 825, 827, 829, 831, 837, 839, 841, 843

alignment with DRIs, 224, 235, 731, 754

children 2 to <5 years, 118, 119, 239, 278–279, 300, 410–411, 421, 422, 699, 721, 841, 843, 888–889, 915, 923, 943, 944, 946, 947

complementary foods, 556

cost considerations, 324, 326, 419, 421, 422, 423, 438, 742, 888, 922, 923, 925, 979, 983, 984

cultural preferences, 148, 903, 914–915

current food packages, 2, 26, 31, 52, 112, 113, 116, 118, 119, 121, 122, 123, 139, 279, 300, 410, 419, 423, 438, 699, 700, 701, 705, 721, 825, 827, 829, 831, 837, 839, 841, 843, 925, 943, 944, 957, 984

effect of proposed revision, 410–411, 888–889, 892, 914–915

federal implementation guidance to states, 446, 889, 892

fully breastfeeding women (VII), 116, 117, 230, 300, 410–411, 705, 721, 837, 839, 899, 914–915, 944, 948

gluten-free option, 143, 144, 308

healthy food availability score, 96

implementation of 2006 recommendations, 485

marketplace options, 83, 279, 307–308, 410, 514, 515

nutrient contributions/priorities, 224, 235, 731, 754

postpartum women, 234, 300, 721

pregnant and partially breastfeeding women, 112, 224, 300, 410–411, 701, 721, 825, 827, 829, 831, 892, 896, 914–915, 944, 947

prices, 950, 954, 957, 958

product size considerations, 52, 278–279, 327, 375, 393, 410, 515, 542, 889, 914–915, 979, 983

Page 1001 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

redemption rates, 92, 446, 522, 831, 943, 944, 946, 947, 948, 954, 979

regulatory impact analysis, 419, 421, 422, 423, 438, 888–889, 922, 923, 925, 979, 983, 984

revised food packages, 7, 22, 224, 225, 235, 239, 267, 270, 278–279, 284, 300, 307–308, 309, 326–327, 376, 393, 411, 419, 421, 422, 423, 438, 446, 699, 700, 701, 705, 721, 825, 827, 829, 831, 837, 839, 841, 843, 923, 925, 946, 947, 948, 957, 958, 984

saturated fat limit, 122

sodium limit, 121, 225, 229–230, 235, 239, 731

substitutions, 22, 28, 31, 143, 267, 270, 279, 284, 324, 326–327, 410, 484, 485, 700, 702, 706, 733, 888–889, 892, 896, 899, 903

vendor burdens, 279, 383, 410, 542, 889, 914–915

whole grain specification, 7, 22, 139, 300, 307–308, 309, 376, 721, 888, 888–889, 892, 896, 899, 903, 914–915

Breakfast cereal

added sugar limits, 123, 124, 225, 230, 234, 235, 240, 306, 348, 487, 720, 729, 754, 782, 784, 785

alignment with DGA, 112, 116, 118, 123, 124, 138, 245, 247, 248, 251, 253, 255, 309, 825, 827, 829, 831, 833, 835, 837, 841, 843, 881, 904

alignment with DRIs, 224, 226, 227, 230, 231, 232–233, 234, 235, 236–237, 238, 306

children 1 to <2 years, 10, 26, 240, 268, 299, 306, 699, 720, 940, 943, 946

children 2 to <5 years, 10, 26, 118, 138, 240, 255, 268, 299, 306, 347, 348, 699, 720, 791, 841, 843, 940, 944, 947

costs, 347, 348–349, 350, 368, 419, 423, 438, 742, 922, 925, 984

criteria for inclusion, 375

cultural alternatives or preferences, 148

current food packages, 26, 112, 116, 118, 123, 124, 138, 299, 303, 305, 306, 307, 347, 348–349, 419, 423, 438, 699, 701, 703, 705, 720, 729–730, 731, 742, 753, 763, 782–785, 791, 825, 827, 829, 831, 833, 835, 837, 839, 841, 843, 922, 925, 940, 943, 944, 957, 984

expenditures, 65, 66, 68

fully breastfeeding women (VII), 9, 26, 116, 229, 230, 231, 232–233, 248, 265, 299, 306, 347, 349, 705, 720, 791, 837, 839, 940, 944, 948

gluten-free, 307, 904

HEI score, 348–349

implementation of 2006 recommendations, 484, 487, 904

labeling, 484

marketplace options, 307–308, 904

mother–infant dyad, 265

nutrient levels/priorities, 138, 224, 226, 227, 230, 231, 232–233, 234, 235, 236–237, 238, 280, 306, 307, 309, 347, 348–349, 350, 368, 455, 730, 753–754, 904

partially (mostly) breastfeeding women (V-B), 9, 26, 112, 229, 230, 231, 232–233, 248, 265, 306, 701, 720, 829, 831, 940, 944, 947

postpartum women (VI), 9, 26, 116, 234, 235, 236–237, 238, 251, 253, 265, 299, 306, 703, 720, 833, 835, 940, 944, 947

pregnant women (V-A), 10, 26, 112, 224, 226, 227, 245, 247, 268, 299, 306, 347, 348–349, 701, 720, 791, 827, 940, 944, 947

price, 957

product list, 753

public comments, 516

redemption rates, 92, 307, 347, 348–350, 753, 782–785, 791, 825, 827, 829, 831, 833, 835, 837, 839, 841, 938, 940, 943, 944, 946, 947, 948

revised food packages, 9, 10, 265, 267, 268, 270, 280, 299, 303, 305–308, 309, 347, 419, 423, 438, 699, 701, 703, 705, 720, 742, 753–754, 791, 827, 831, 835, 839, 841, 843, 922, 925, 940, 946, 947, 948, 957, 984

Page 1002 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

sensitivity analysis, 339, 347–350, 368, 773, 782–784, 791

sodium limits, 225, 229, 234

specifications, 7, 28, 123, 124, 138, 267, 299, 303, 305–307, 309, 347–350, 484, 487, 700, 720, 729–730, 903–904, 958

total sugars limit, 303, 309, 487, 729–730

vendor burdens, 305, 375

whole grain, 7, 28, 138, 267, 299, 305–307, 309, 347–350, 484, 700, 720, 730, 903–904, 958

Breastfeeding

Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative, 22 n.8, 74, 472

barriers, 15, 77

changes in food packages since last review and, 5, 53, 55, 57, 59, 70–77, 97, 525, 526, 527, 530

and complementary foods, 128, 146, 180, 188, 217, 254, 288, 290–291, 388, 873, 880

cost incentives compared, 315, 317, 331–334, 335

criterion for revision of foods and, 383, 388–390

current program, 1, 5, 17, 19–22, 74, 75–76

CVV incentives, 383, 414, 486

effects of, 21–22, 55, 75–78, 97

evaluation of, 74

formula limits to encourage breastfeeding choice, 5, 20, 74–77, 93, 285–286, 331–334, 452–453, 690, 881

guidance for infant nutrition, 128

Healthy Habits Begin at Birth campaign, 76

Healthy Habits for Life campaign, 76

Healthy People 2020 objectives, 1, 20, 40, 70

income relative to poverty level and, 15, 71, 72, 73

infant food package amounts and, 288, 884

infant formula introduction and, 5, 20, 74–77, 93, 285

infants’ and children’s diets and, 39–40, 383, 388–390

intensity, 14, 77, 331

Loving Support© program, 74, 446, 476

multiple infants, 11

NHANES data, 5–6, 14

prevalence, 70, 71–72, 73

promotion and support strategies, 5, 11, 20, 21, 22 n.8, 44, 74, 77–78, 150, 157, 206 n.19, 285–286, 288, 331, 383, 388–390, 884

proportion of children by age, 70

race/ethnicity and, 71–72

recommendations, 11, 14, 285, 446–447

shift from fully formula-feeding to, 402, 415, 416, 417, 419, 420, 422, 425, 431, 434–436, 438, 439, 876, 905, 906, 919, 920, 922, 924, 926, 931–933, 936–937, 941, 973, 976–978, 980–981, 984, 985

statutory basis, 21

trends of WIC participants, 40, 55, 57, 59, 70–74, 97

worksite lactation support programs, 74

Breastfeeding women/dyads (see also Fully breastfeeding women; Partially breastfeeding; Package V-B; Package VII)

DGA, 110

EER distribution, 591

food group intakes, 188, 189–190, 648, 652

gap analysis, 229–233, 683

HEI score, 195, 668

nutrient intakes, inadequacies, and excesses, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 217, 589, 594, 595, 608–609

Buckwheat, 13, 267, 270, 279, 284, 300, 308, 324, 326, 411, 472, 700, 702, 722, 731, 881, 888, 889, 892, 896, 899, 903, 915

C

Calcium, 86, 130, 132, 134, 170, 171, 176, 178, 182, 186, 217, 227, 228, 231, 234, 297, 344, 345, 346, 566, 585, 604–641, 682–684, 708, 709, 717, 731, 776, 778, 780, 782, 784, 785, 786, 788, 790, 792, 794, 796, 798, 800, 802, 804, 806, 808, 810, 812, 814, 845, 848, 849, 851, 853, 855, 857, 859, 861, 862, 863, 864

Page 1003 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

California Cancer Research Program, 544

Calories for other uses (COU)

added sugars, 124, 125, 126, 149, 188 n.15, 192–193, 295, 381, 472

alignment with DGA, 13, 84, 85, 87, 109, 124–126, 149, 192, 194, 386

current packages, 124–126, 295, 303, 381

defined, 87 n.13, 188 n.15, 295 n.19, 472

intake patterns, 84, 85, 188, 192, 194

revised packages, 376, 380, 381, 386

yogurt total sugars, 376

Carbohydrate (see also Calories for other uses), 80, 144, 159, 177, 218, 219, 570, 571, 573, 593–603, 708, 709, 717, 731, 776, 778, 780, 782, 784, 785, 786, 788, 790, 792, 794, 796, 798, 800, 802, 804, 806, 808, 810, 812, 814

Cash value voucher (CVV)

and added sugars, 218

administrative burdens, 53, 93, 289, 374, 393, 404, 413, 908, 909, 918

and alignment of intakes with dietary guidance, 221, 223–227, 229–232, 234–236, 239, 244, 247–252, 254, 255, 256, 258, 276, 283, 289, 350, 351, 352–353, 356–357, 358–359, 366, 368, 374, 382, 386, 387, 388, 391, 414, 484, 486, 820–839, 843, 867, 880, 887, 984

allowance relative to DGA food pattern, 112–118, 149

barriers and incentives to use, 542, 543

for children, 10, 15, 26, 118, 239, 255, 256, 268, 269, 271, 273, 283, 340, 350, 351, 352–353, 356, 358–359, 374, 382, 388, 413, 418, 421, 454–456, 488, 699, 765, 773, 786–787, 792–793, 798–801, 820, 824, 841, 843, 867, 890–891

and costs, 289, 327, 331, 340, 350, 352–359, 366, 390, 404, 413–414, 418, 420, 421, 428–431, 438, 744, 763, 890–891, 909, 911, 918, 921–922, 923–924, 926, 962–972, 984–985

cultural considerations, 7, 13, 147–148, 150, 272, 284, 289, 374, 388, 392, 413–414

current versus revised allowances, 26, 350–353, 356–357, 413–414, 696, 697, 699, 701, 703, 705, 773–774, 786–803, 814–815, 820–824, 825, 827, 829, 831, 833, 837, 839, 841, 843, 867, 918, 921–922

defined, 18, 472

and EBT-linked Universal Product Codes, 273, 289

and expenditures by participants, 65 nn.8 & 9

forms of fruits and vegetables, 7, 28, 53, 223, 224, 226, 235, 239, 266, 269, 272–273, 284, 289–290, 292, 295, 392, 393, 404, 715, 908

for fully breastfeeding women, 9, 26, 116, 229, 230, 231, 232, 244, 248, 249, 250, 264, 283, 288, 289, 293, 350, 351, 352–353, 356–357, 358–359, 413–414, 420, 421, 445, 705, 767, 774, 790–791, 796–797, 802–803, 823, 837, 839, 867, 898–899

funding above cost neutrality, 454–456

and HEI scores, 352–353, 356, 358–359, 374

implementation challenges, 52, 53, 484, 488

and incentives for breastfeeding, 383, 414, 486

incremental increases, 961

inflation adjustment, 28, 418 n.5, 420, 422, 426–427, 430, 439 n.8, 488, 921 n.8, 926, 956–961, 964–965, 966–969, 985

introduction, 2, 22, 29

and jarred infant food substitution, 7, 8, 11, 13, 53, 139, 141 n.9, 147–148, 264, 265, 266, 267–268, 288, 289, 292, 293, 296, 327, 340, 363, 366, 374, 389, 392, 393, 404, 421, 525, 696, 697, 764, 775, 814–815, 881, 884, 885, 901, 908, 909, 941, 965, 970–971

juice substitution, 7, 12, 13, 149, 227, 232, 236, 265, 267, 269, 275–276, 284, 288, 327, 339, 340, 343, 356–357, 358–359, 368, 374, 392, 393, 406–407, 441, 701, 705, 765, 766, 767, 774, 798–803, 886–887, 891, 895, 897, 901, 911, 921, 941, 962, 965, 972–973

Page 1004 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

legume reduction and, 7, 223, 229, 235, 239, 274, 374

for mother–infant dyads, 8–9, 26, 264, 288, 422

multiple fetuses and, 294

paper vouchers, 445

for partially breastfeeding women, 9, 10, 26, 112, 224, 225, 226, 227, 245, 247, 264, 268, 271, 283, 288, 289, 293, 294, 340, 356, 358–359, 413–414, 421, 422, 701, 766, 774, 788–789, 794–795, 821, 825, 827, 829, 831, 867, 894, 895–897, 900

for postpartum (nonbreastfeeding) women, 9, 26, 114, 234, 235, 236, 251, 252, 254, 264, 283, 293, 414–415, 421, 422, 703, 774, 822, 833, 835, 898

for pregnant women, 9, 10, 26, 112, 224, 225, 226, 227, 245, 247, 264, 268, 271, 283, 288, 289, 293, 294, 340, 352–353, 356, 358–359, 413–414, 421, 422, 701, 766, 774, 788–789, 794–795, 821, 825, 827, 829, 831, 867, 894, 895–897, 900

promoting effective use, 457, 460

proportions of vegetables to fruits, 16, 351–356, 457, 460, 984

public comments on proposed revisions, 515, 517, 518, 519

recommended increase, 7, 15, 271–272, 283, 284, 292, 454–456

redemption rates, 16, 44, 92, 94, 113, 115, 117, 119, 272, 322, 350–351, 352–353, 356, 357, 382, 390, 404, 428, 429, 445, 522, 524, 525, 757, 758, 760, 763, 764, 765, 766, 773–774, 775, 786–803, 814–815, 820–824, 831, 835, 839, 841, 908, 941, 962–964

regional variation in purchasing power, 15, 95, 453–454

research designs on, 206 n.19, 522

research recommendation on, 15, 452–454

revising monthly allowance, 5, 6, 8–10, 12, 16, 220, 221, 262, 350–351, 515, 517

sensitivity analysis, 339, 340, 343, 350–359, 368, 773–774, 775, 786–803, 814–815

and shopping experience of participants, 94, 404, 542, 543

and shopping process, 29, 93, 444

for special dietary needs, 293

split tender, 29, 53, 94–95, 488

USDA studies on outcomes, 522, 524, 525

vendor burdens, 53, 94, 299, 373, 984

white potatoes, 2, 31, 85, 488

Celiac disease, 41, 141, 144–145, 150, 282, 308, 472

Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion

Nutrition Evidence Library, 459

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 70, 73, 280, 526, 527

Changes in food packages since last review

adaptation to 2006 proposals, 51–55, 97

and availability and variety of foods, 52, 53, 54, 80–83, 88, 89, 90, 91, 93, 94, 95, 96, 98, 522–523, 524, 526, 527, 530, 545

barriers to participation and redemption, 90, 91, 93–94, 97

and breastfeeding trends and promotion, 53, 55, 57, 59, 70–77, 97, 525, 526, 527, 530

and costs, 51, 53, 54, 78–79, 95, 96, 97, 528, 529, 530

cultural considerations, 88, 89, 94, 524, 526–527, 530, 545

and dietary guidance changes, 51, 74–76, 83–88, 98, 484–487

and dietary pattern changes, 80, 81, 82, 84, 85, 87, 88, 523, 529

and expenditures for food, 51, 55, 64, 65, 66, 68, 70, 97

implementation of 2009 packages, 2, 52–55, 56, 97, 484–487

infant formula and formula feeding, 57, 59, 67, 70, 73, 74–76, 77, 78, 79, 83, 92, 93, 97, 527, 529, 530

outcomes studies of 2009 changes, 522–531

participant characteristics and, 55–78, 524

participant satisfaction today, 88–98, 524, 525, 526–527

and participation rates, 55, 56–58, 59, 71, 78, 79, 93–94, 97, 535–540

and redemption trends, 89, 91, 92–95, 98, 522, 523, 525

Page 1005 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

and shopping experience of participants, 93, 94–98

substitutions, 2, 53, 93, 96, 528–529

“supplemental” concept and, 45

vendor behavior and challenges, 2, 52, 53, 54, 55, 88, 90, 91, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 545

Cheese

added sugars limit, 123

administrative burdens, 912

alignment with DGA, 116, 246, 247, 249, 250, 251, 253, 256, 780–781, 837–840

alignment with DRI, 224, 225, 227, 229, 230, 231, 234, 235, 239, 776–777, 780–781

allergies and intolerances and, 143, 145, 267, 269, 282, 517, 700, 702, 704, 706, 887, 892, 896, 897, 898–899, 901, 902

authoritative recommendations, 138

children 1 to <2 years, 26, 27, 138, 239, 240, 269, 276–277, 298, 408, 556, 700, 718–719, 741, 751, 887

children 2 to <5 years, 26, 27, 82, 239, 240, 256, 269, 276–277, 339, 408–409, 718–719, 741, 751–752, 776–777, 887

cost considerations, 323, 326, 346, 419, 420, 422, 423, 438, 741, 742, 777, 781, 914, 922, 923, 924, 925, 984

cultural and preference considerations, 392

current packages, 26, 343, 346, 408–409, 312, 438, 705, 741, 750, 751–753, 776–777, 780–781, 837–840, 912–913, 922, 925, 958

expenditures for, 67, 69

fully breastfeeding women, 26, 27, 28, 116, 145, 229, 230, 231, 249, 250, 267, 276–277, 298, 408–409, 420, 421, 422, 486, 488, 705, 706, 718–719, 741, 742, 753, 780–781, 837–840, 898–899, 914, 923, 924, 925, 940, 944, 958

HEI score, 777

implementation of 2006 recommendations, 485, 486, 487, 488

intakes trends, 81, 82, 523

low-fat, 387, 392

marketplace availability, 387

nutrient levels/priorities, 224, 229, 231, 234, 239, 556, 750, 751–753, 754, 776–777, 780–781

partially breastfeeding women, 26, 27, 28, 229, 230, 231, 249, 250, 267, 276–277, 298, 408–409, 700, 702, 718–719, 741, 742, 752, 896

postpartum women, 26, 27, 28, 234, 235, 251, 253, 267, 276–277, 298, 408–409, 517, 704, 718–719, 741, 742, 752, 897

pregnant women, 26, 27, 28, 224, 225, 227, 246, 247, 269, 276–277, 298, 408–409, 517, 702, 718–719, 741, 742, 752, 887, 892

prices, 341, 387, 957

redemption rates, 92, 323, 340, 517, 764, 938, 940, 944

retail sales, 439, 440, 986

revised packages, 276–277, 278, 303, 343, 346, 409, 421, 422, 423, 438, 705, 741, 750, 751–753, 776–777, 780–781, 837–840, 913–914, 922, 925, 958

saturated fat limits, 120, 122, 138, 225, 230, 235, 240, 340, 345, 346, 485, 523, 777, 779, 781

sensitivity testing, 339–340, 341, 776–777, 780–781

sodium limits, 111, 121, 225, 229, 234, 239

soy-based, 7, 267, 269, 276–277, 282, 284, 298, 309, 700, 702, 704, 706, 718–719, 887, 892, 896, 897, 898–899, 901, 902

specifications, 298, 309, 718–719, 887, 892, 896, 897, 901, 902

substitution amounts, 7, 27, 28, 30, 267, 268, 276–277, 282, 284, 408–409, 700, 702, 704, 706, 751–753, 887, 888, 892, 896, 897, 898

vegan diets, 7, 145, 146, 150, 269, 282, 298, 309, 700, 702, 704, 706, 887, 892, 896, 897, 898–899, 901, 902

Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), 18, 56, 119, 120, 296, 299, 304, 305–306, 308, 516, 519, 576, 716, 720, 732, 842, 900, 901, 904

Child Nutrition Act of 1966, 20, 489, 490

Page 1006 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act, 83, 490

Children 1 to <2 years (see also Package IV-A)

adverse health impacts of nutrient inadequacies and excesses, 217

cow’s milk, 2

dietary guidance, 88, 138–139

DRIs for, 134–135, 182, 183, 185, 186

EER distribution, 592

food group intakes, 82, 190, 192, 654–657

gap analysis, 239–241, 682, 686

identifying priorities for, 219

Nutrient-Based Diet Quality Index score, 197

nutrient intakes, inadequacies, and excesses, 180, 182–183, 184, 185, 186, 217, 590, 599–601, 626–633

Children 2 to <5 years (see also Package IV-B)

adverse health impacts of nutrient inadequacies and excesses, 217

DGA recommendations, 138–139, 193

DRIs for, 134–135, 182, 183, 185, 186

EER distribution, 592

food group intakes, 81, 82, 191–192, 193–194, 658–665

gap analysis, 239–241, 687

NHANES survey years, 167

Nutrient-Based Diet Quality Index score, 197

nutrient intakes, inadequacies, and excesses, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 217, 590, 601–603, 634–642

Choline, 12, 86, 87, 88, 127, 131, 133, 135, 146, 149, 158, 172, 174, 175, 176, 178, 180, 183, 184, 185, 204, 217, 224, 242, 350, 353, 355, 357, 358, 359, 377, 379, 460, 568, 572, 573, 604–642, 682, 708, 710, 777, 779, 781, 783, 784, 785, 787, 789, 791, 793, 795, 797, 799, 801, 803, 805, 807, 809, 811, 813, 814, 845, 847, 850, 852, 854, 856, 858, 860, 861, 862, 864, 866

Committee task, 2, 29, 31–34

definition of supplemental food, 33–34

limitations to, 34

special requests from FNS, 32–33

statement of task, 32–33

Competent Professional Authority (CPA; WIC program), 393, 402, 472, 488, 888–889, 906, 948

Complementary foods and feeding (see also Infant cereal; Infant food meat; Infant food vegetables and fruits; Package II)

alignment with dietary guidance, 146, 180, 188, 217, 254, 288, 290–291, 388–389, 881

authoritative recommendations, 120, 128–129, 146, 175, 188, 217, 388–389

breads, 556

breastfeeding and, 128, 146, 180, 188, 217, 254, 288, 290–291, 388, 873, 880

defined, 472

eggs, 138

energy intakes by food group, 556

evaluation of, 551–556

intake trends, 164–165, 175 n.10, 188, 190, 191, 554–555

juice, 554, 556

milks and milk substitutes, 165, 389, 554, 556

nutrient intakes/priorities, 146, 165, 180, 217, 218–219, 291, 556

public comments on, 518–519

study designs and characteristics of selected reports, 552–553

Consumer Price Index adjustments, 113, 115, 117, 119, 320, 327, 329, 426, 427, 428, 430–431, 528, 741, 742, 744, 745, 746, 826, 828, 830, 832, 834, 836, 838, 840, 842, 844, 954, 956–957, 958, 959, 960, 961, 964–965, 966–967, 968–969

Container/product size

breads, 52, 278–279, 327, 375, 393, 410, 515, 542, 889, 914–915, 979, 983

juice, 52, 53, 54, 275–276, 391, 393, 518, 911

legumes and peanut butter, 275, 733

milks and milk substitutes, 52, 53, 277, 375, 376, 393, 407–408, 888, 912, 978

and redemption rates, 408, 888, 912, 979

Page 1007 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

Copper, 12, 130, 132, 134, 170, 171, 174, 176, 182, 183, 185, 186, 232, 236, 350, 351, 352, 353, 354, 355, 357, 358, 359, 363, 364, 365, 377, 566–567, 572, 573, 604–641, 683, 685, 708, 709, 776, 778, 780, 782, 784, 785, 786, 788, 790, 792, 794, 796, 798, 800, 802, 804, 806, 808, 810, 812, 814, 846, 848, 849, 851, 853, 855, 857, 859, 861, 862, 863, 864

Corn masa flour, 13, 158, 267, 270, 279, 280, 284, 300, 301, 308, 387, 411, 472, 700, 702, 706, 722, 723, 731, 754, 888, 889, 892, 896, 899, 903, 915

Cost profiles of food packages, current versus revised packages (see also Food cost estimates of proposed revisions; Regulatory impact analysis; Sensitivity analysis)

average package cost versus USDA national average, 325, 330

breads, 324, 326, 419, 421, 422, 423, 438, 742, 888, 922, 923, 925, 979, 983, 984

breakfast cereals, 347, 348–349, 350, 368, 419, 423, 438, 742, 922, 925, 984

breastfeeding cost incentives compared, 315, 317, 331–334, 335

composites of food categories, 321–322

cost neutrality constraint, 3, 6, 18, 44, 315–316, 317, 324, 330–331, 334, 763–767

CVV and, 289, 327, 331, 340, 350, 352–359, 366, 390, 404, 413–414, 418, 420, 421, 428–431, 438, 744, 763, 890–891, 909, 911, 918, 921–922, 923–924, 926, 962–972, 984–985

data and assumptions, 316, 317, 320, 321, 322–323, 325, 330, 331, 741–746

eggs, 323, 327, 419, 420, 423, 438, 741, 922, 925, 926, 940, 984

infant cereal, 403, 419, 421, 423, 438, 922, 923, 925, 984

infant food meat, 327, 405, 419, 423, 438, 746, 909, 922, 925, 984

infant food vegetables and fruits, 289, 404–405, 909, 962, 965, 970

infant formula, 16, 78, 79, 315, 317–318, 320, 321, 330, 331–334, 335, 399, 401, 403, 415, 416, 417, 419, 420, 422, 425, 431, 432–433, 434–435, 460, 746, 875, 882, 883, 906–907, 910, 919, 922, 925, 926, 949, 973, 974–981, 984

juice, 15, 327, 356–357, 358–359, 741

legumes and peanut butter, 320, 322, 363, 364–365, 413, 419, 421, 423, 438, 742–743, 763, 811, 813, 917, 922, 923, 925, 984

milks and milk substitutes, 323–324, 326, 344–345, 346, 419, 420, 422, 423, 438, 741, 742, 777, 779, 781, 914, 922, 923, 924, 925, 978, 984

overview, 36, 315–316

participant distribution across food packages, 316, 317–320, 325, 334

per-participant costs of food packages, 79, 316, 324–325, 329, 330–331, 334–335

program costs, 78–79, 324–331

redemption data and, 11, 315–316, 320, 321–323, 324, 325–326, 328–329, 330, 331, 333, 338, 344–345, 347, 348–349, 350, 351, 352–355, 356, 358–362, 363, 364–365, 395, 397, 739, 741–744, 745, 746, 763–768, 869, 871, 909, 921, 938, 980

substitutions, 317, 323–324, 326–327, 330

WIC food costs, 320–324

Criteria for inclusion of foods

administrative burdens, 3, 13, 38, 42, 372, 374–376, 390, 391, 394, 519, 543, 887, 889, 901

balanced supplement to participants’ diets, 3, 12, 37, 38, 371–373, 374–377

consistency with DGA, 3, 12–13, 39, 379–383, 386–387

DRI alignment, 3, 12, 39, 373, 377–379

cultural eating patterns and food preferences, 3, 13, 40–42, 387, 390, 392

infants’ and children’s diets and breastfeeding support, 39–40, 383, 388–390

Page 1008 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

rationales for, 37–42

transportation, storage, and cooking facility considerations, 3, 13, 40, 383, 387, 391

Cultural considerations (see also Kosher or Halal diets; Vegetarian or vegan diets)

and alignment with DGA, 147–148, 150

breads, 148, 903, 914–915

breakfast cereals, 148

CVV and, 7, 13, 147–148, 150, 272, 284, 289, 374, 388, 392, 413–414

in current packages, 147–148, 150, 279–280

eggs, 392

juices, 89, 392, 517, 526–527

legumes and peanut butter, 7, 148, 274

milks and milk substitutes, 13, 89, 150, 392, 526–527, 888, 912

satisfaction with food packages, 89

vendor burdens, 93–94

Current food packages (see also Changes in food packages; Cost profiles; Food cost estimates; Regulatory impact analysis; Sensitivity analysis; specific foods and packages)

added sugar limits, 123–125, 218, 296, 300, 306, 714, 715, 716, 717, 720, 722–723, 724, 729, 784, 785, 786, 788, 790, 792, 794, 796, 798, 800, 802, 804, 806, 808, 810, 812, 814

administrative burdens, 289

alignment with dietary guidance, 12, 109–126, 128–129, 137, 149, 263, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 287, 377, 820

alignment with DRIs, 126–127, 130–137, 149, 179 n.13, 181, 207, 263, 373, 588

amounts of foods contributed to USDA food patterns, 5, 110, 112–119

breads, 2, 26, 31, 52, 112, 113, 116, 118, 119, 121, 122, 123, 139, 279, 300, 307–308, 410, 419, 423, 438, 699, 700, 701, 705, 721, 731, 742, 825, 827, 829, 831, 837, 839, 841, 843, 925, 943, 944, 957, 984

breakfast cereals, 26, 112, 116, 118, 123, 124, 138, 299, 303, 305, 306, 307, 347, 348–349, 419, 423, 438, 699, 701, 703, 705, 720, 729–730, 731, 742, 753, 763, 782–785, 791, 825, 827, 829, 831, 833, 835, 837, 839, 841, 843, 922, 925, 940, 943, 944, 957, 984

breastfeeding promotion, 1, 5, 17, 19–22, 74, 75–76

calories for other uses, 124–126, 295, 303, 381

categorical eligibility by package, 23, 400

children 1 to <5 years, 26, 118–119, 134–135, 136–137, 273, 274, 275, 277, 296–302, 318–319, 329, 339, 344, 348, 352, 354, 358, 360, 373, 381, 382, 406–409, 410, 411–412, 413, 699–700, 715–724, 776–777, 786–787, 792–793, 798–799, 804–805

container size issues, 279, 519

criteria for inclusion, 38, 373

cultural needs, preferences, and practices considered in, 147–148, 150, 279–280

CVV, 18, 26, 271, 289, 293, 296, 350–353, 356–357, 413–414, 438, 696, 697, 699, 701, 703, 705, 744, 773–774, 786–803, 812–813, 814–815, 820–824, 825, 827, 829, 831, 833, 837, 839, 841, 843, 867, 918, 921–922

eggs, 2, 26, 87–88, 377, 419, 420, 423, 438, 518, 699, 701, 703, 705, 719, 754, 764, 820–844, 922, 925, 926, 940, 943, 944, 984

financial value of, 11, 286

fish, 110–111, 120, 258, 280, 281, 302, 310, 357, 360–361, 411, 438, 518, 723–724, 733–734, 742, 766, 767, 804–809

food group intakes, 576

food-triggered immune-mediated sensitivities and, 141–145, 150

forms and composition of foods in, 137, 138–139, 149, 272, 281, 782–785

Page 1009 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

for fully breastfeeding women (VII), 26, 116–117, 130–131, 136, 280, 294, 296–302, 319, 329, 331, 344–345, 349, 353, 355, 357, 359, 360, 381, 406–409, 410, 411–412, 705–706, 715–724, 780–781, 785, 790–791, 796–797, 802–803, 808–809

implementation of most recent package changes, 488

infant cereal, 25, 287, 403, 419, 423, 438, 696, 697, 714, 765, 873, 907, 922, 925, 940, 984

infant formula, 2, 5, 22, 24–25, 33, 75, 139, 181, 207, 286–287, 292–293, 310, 318, 402–403, 419, 420, 423, 434–435, 439, 458, 459, 588, 694–695, 696, 697, 698, 714, 727–729, 748–749, 764, 906–907, 910, 922, 925, 934–935, 940, 976–977, 984

jarred infant food meat, 25, 126, 139, 149, 290, 405, 419, 438, 696, 715, 734–735, 764, 873, 881, 885, 909, 922, 925

jarred infant food vegetables and fruits, 25, 288, 292, 293, 404, 438, 696, 697, 714, 764, 696, 715, 873, 908–909

juice, 2, 12–13, 26, 27, 52, 53, 54, 110, 112, 113, 114, 116, 118, 139, 149, 275, 356–357, 377, 406–407, 419, 423, 438, 488, 699, 701, 703, 705, 719, 741, 765, 766, 767, 774, 798–803, 820–844, 887, 922, 925, 943, 944, 984

Kosher or Halal diets, 146–147, 150

legumes and peanut butter, 12, 26, 30, 92, 273, 274, 281, 362–363, 364–365, 377, 382, 412–413, 419, 423, 438, 699, 701, 703, 705, 724–725, 733, 742, 743, 755, 763, 810–813, 825, 827, 829, 831, 833, 835, 837, 839, 841, 843, 922, 923, 925, 941, 952–953, 957, 984

marketplace options, 295, 303–304, 307, 506

for medical needs, 24–25, 137, 140–145, 150, 292, 328, 405–406, 698, 735

milks and milk substitutes (dairy), 2, 26–28, 30, 52, 112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 121, 122, 123, 136–137, 138, 143, 145, 150, 276, 277, 278, 296–298, 303–304, 305, 308, 339, 340, 344–345, 407–409, 438, 488, 699, 701, 703, 705, 716–719, 730, 732–733, 734, 741, 751, 752, 753, 765, 766, 767, 773, 776–781, 825, 827, 829, 831, 833, 835, 837, 839, 841, 843, 941, 943, 944, 951, 955, 984

nutrient levels, 5, 130–135, 242, 258, 306, 307, 310, 344–345, 348–349, 373, 459, 575, 588, 727–728, 731, 732–733, 776–815

nutrients to limit, 111–124

nutrition education, 456

overview, 22–23

participant burdens, 289

participation distribution across, 317–320

postpartum women, 26, 114–115, 130–131, 136, 242, 273, 296–302, 317, 319, 329, 381, 406–407, 408–409, 411–412, 703–704, 715–724

potential areas for modification, 41, 148–150

pregnant and partially breastfeeding women, 26, 112–113, 127–135, 130–131, 294, 296–302, 319, 329, 331, 344, 348–349, 352–353, 354–355, 358–359, 360–361, 381, 406–409, 410, 411–412, 701–702, 715–724, 778–779, 782–783, 784, 788–789, 794–795, 800–801, 806–807, 810–811

redemption rates, 12, 92, 278, 290, 347, 378, 381, 382, 758, 760, 763–768, 773–815

saturated fat limits, 120–122, 126, 131, 131, 133, 135, 218, 340, 344–345, 373, 378, 777, 779, 781, 783, 784, 785, 787, 789, 791, 793, 795, 797, 799, 801, 803, 805, 807, 809, 811, 813, 814, 845

sensitivity analysis, 343, 346, 347, 350, 356–357, 362–363, 773–815

sodium limits, 111, 116–117, 121, 730

specifications for foods, 296–302, 303–304, 305, 714–724, 728–729

Page 1010 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
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substitutions, 23, 279–280, 284, 289, 296, 734–735, 780–781

total sugars limit, 304, 729–730

unsuitable foods for special diets, 143

vegetables and fruits, 26, 271, 272, 273, 289, 296, 354–355, 438, 699, 701, 703, 705, 715–716

vegetarian or vegan diets, 145–146, 150, 518, 724

vendor stocking requirements and burdens, 273, 295, 305

whole grains, 278–280, 284, 300–301, 305, 307–308, 410, 699, 701, 703, 705, 721–723, 731, 733, 742, 763, 792–797, 812–813

WIC-eligible nutritionals, 725

Current Population Survey, 535

D

Dairy foods (see also Cheese; Milks and milk substitutes; Tofu; Yogurt)

dioxins in full-fat foods, 160

Healthy Eating Index, 344–345, 777

sensitivity analysis, 339–340, 341, 343–346, 368, 773, 776–781

Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Eating Plan, 85, 473

Dietary guidance (see also Alignment of food packages with DGA; American Academy of Pediatrics; Dietary Guidelines for Americans)

changes in, 83–88, 98

food group intake recommendations, 84–85

Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) (see also Alignment of food packages with DGA)

added sugar limits, 87

cholesterol limits, 87–88

nutrient intake recommendations, 88

redeemed amounts of food groups as proportion of, 820–846

saturated fat limits, 87, 111, 122

shortfall nutrients and nutrients of public health concern, 85–87

sodium limits, 87

Dietary intake analyses (see also Food group intake; Healthy Eating Index; Nutrient intake)

challenges, 170

committee’s analyses versus other published results, 204–205

comparison group design, 206, 527, 677

design of studies, 205–207

food safety considerations, 159–160

generalizability of data to national level, 94, 206–207, 678, 938

interpretation of findings, 166, 196–207, 572

literature and report review, 159–165

measurement issues, 205–206

nutrition-related health priorities, 159

regression discontinuity design, 206, 479, 675–677

sampling, 200

selection bias, 78, 166, 167, 197–199, 201, 206, 207, 479, 587, 675–678

strengths and limitations of NHANES data, 199–204

Dietary intake patterns (see specific foods and nutrients)

Dietary Reference Intakes (see also Alignment of food packages with DRIs)

defined, 565

by population subgroup, 566–569

E

Economic Research Service, 80, 322, 356 n.2, 454, 507, 525, 690, 744, 826, 828, 830, 832, 834, 836, 838, 840, 842, 844, 964

Eggs

alignment with DGA, 84, 113, 114, 116, 118, 191, 247, 249, 253, 256, 377, 382, 825–844

alignment with DRIs, 224

allergies, 7, 142, 143, 150, 284, 700, 702

children 1 to <2 years, 10, 26, 138, 268, 718, 940, 943, 946

children 2 to <5 years, 10, 26, 82, 118, 191, 256, 268, 377, 382, 718, 824, 841, 843, 940, 944, 947

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cost considerations, 323, 327, 419, 420, 423, 438, 741, 922, 925, 926, 940, 984

criteria for inclusion, 375

cultural considerations, 392

current food packages, 2, 26, 87–88, 377, 419, 420, 423, 438, 518, 699, 701, 703, 705, 719, 754, 764, 820–844, 922, 925, 926, 940, 943, 944, 984

expenditures, 65, 66, 69, 70

fully breastfeeding women, 9, 26, 116, 189, 249, 294, 705, 718, 823, 837, 839, 940, 944, 948

health concerns, 87–88

infants, 556, 734, 735

intake patterns, 81, 82, 189, 191, 382

IOM 2006 recommendations, 2, 485, 486, 487

Kosher or Halal options, 147, 150

mother–infant dyad package, 9, 265

nutrient intakes, 84, 556, 741, 742, 754

nutrients profiles and priorities, 224, 242, 247, 249, 253, 256, 735

partially breastfeeding women, 9, 26, 113, 189, 249, 701, 718, 821, 829, 831, 940, 944, 947

postpartum women, 9, 26, 114, 189, 253, 703, 718, 822, 833, 835, 940, 944, 948

pregnant women, 10, 26, 113, 189, 224, 242, 247, 268, 701, 718, 820, 825, 827, 940, 944, 947

prices, 957

public comments, 517

recommendation, 7, 284

redemption rates, 92, 382, 764, 820–824, 940, 943, 944, 946, 947, 948

regulatory impact analysis, 440, 986

retail sales/market share, 440, 986

revised food packages, 9, 10, 265, 268, 377, 382, 419, 420, 423, 438, 701, 703, 704, 705, 741, 754, 764, 820–844, 922, 925, 926, 940, 946, 947, 948, 984

special medical needs, 518

specifications, 718, 734

substitutions, 7, 282, 284, 323, 327, 375, 488, 700, 702, 704

vegan options, 7, 146, 150, 282, 284, 518, 700, 702, 704

Electronic benefit transfer (EBT)

administrative burdens and benefits, 29, 55, 273, 274, 444

calendar validity, 91

cost data, 330

CVV compatibility, 393

defined, 18, 473

and early implementation of proposed food package changes, 398, 872

nationwide implementation, 18, 29, 94, 330, 444, 450, 879

redemption data, 89, 323, 325, 397, 450, 453, 759, 871, 933

research recommendation, 14, 449

and shopping process, 29, 55, 444, 512, 514

UPC database, 29, 53, 55, 272–273, 274

Energy (see also Added sugars; Calories for other uses; Saturated fats)

alignment of packages and intakes with DGA, 39, 87, 112–119, 188, 194, 386, 573, 576

alignment of packages and intakes with DRIs, 110 n.3, 130, 132, 134, 173, 174, 177, 181, 184, 185, 846, 848, 850, 852, 854, 856, 857, 859, 861, 862, 863, 865

complementary foods, 556

current package, 130, 132, 134, 776, 778, 780, 782, 784, 785, 786, 788, 790, 792, 794, 796, 798, 800, 802, 804, 806, 808, 810, 812, 814, 846, 848, 850, 852, 854, 856, 857, 859, 861, 862, 863, 865

EERs by population subgroup, 130, 132, 134, 169 n.8, 174, 177, 185, 202, 473, 575–576, 591–592, 727

estimation challenges, 168, 202–203, 294, 390, 576

food sources and contributions, 112–119, 179, 181, 184, 185, 281, 294, 386, 708, 709, 890

health concerns, 158, 215, 487

infant formula, 33, 310, 519, 588, 714, 727, 728–729

intake patterns, 45, 80, 112–119, 163, 172, 173, 174, 175, 177, 178–179, 180, 183, 185, 188, 192–193, 202–203, 556, 575–576, 589–590

from other macronutrients, 218

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multiple infants or fetuses, 294

NBDQ index and, 671

priority, 218

revised, 278, 294, 344, 776, 778, 780, 782, 784, 785, 786, 788, 790, 792, 794, 796, 798, 800, 802, 804, 806, 808, 810, 812, 814, 846, 848, 850, 852, 854, 856, 857, 859, 861, 862, 863, 865

sensitivity analysis, 344, 776, 778, 780, 782, 784, 785, 786, 788, 790, 792, 794, 796, 798, 800, 802, 804, 806, 808, 810, 812, 814

specifications related to, 302, 310

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 110, 120

Estimated Average Requirement (EAR; see also Alignment of food packages with DRIs; Dietary Reference Intakes)

cut-point method, 201, 570, 572

defined, 471, 565

Estimated Energy Requirements (EERs)

intake analysis, 172, 173, 174, 175, 177, 178–179, 180, 181, 183, 184, 185, 202–203, 575–576

by population subgroup, 591–592

Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program, 457

Expenditures for foods, 65, 66, 67, 69–70, 87, 89

F

Fat (see Saturated fats; Total fat)

Federal government

implementation challenges for 2009 changes, 53

Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS), 165, 290, 551, 552–556

Fiber, 12, 85, 86, 127, 130, 132, 134, 136, 144, 162, 172, 173, 175, 178, 180, 184, 197, 204, 217, 204, 223, 225, 229, 234, 239, 273, 275, 299, 305, 307, 347, 348, 349, 350, 351, 352, 353, 354, 355, 356, 357, 358, 359, 363, 364, 365, 368, 377, 378, 394, 516, 571, 585, 593, 594, 595, 597, 598, 599, 600, 601, 602, 603, 670, 671, 682, 683, 684, 686, 687, 708, 709, 720, 721, 731, 776, 778, 780, 782, 784, 785, 786, 788, 790, 792, 794, 796, 798, 800, 802, 804, 806, 808, 810, 812, 814, 845, 847, 849, 851, 853, 855, 857, 859, 861, 862, 865, 867, 887, 890–891, 893

Final Rule, 18, 20, 22, 28, 31, 52, 54, 88, 123, 140–141, 144, 266, 272, 278, 279–280, 293, 295, 303, 304, 305, 307, 309, 474, 487, 488, 528, 695, 697, 700, 725, 728, 730, 731, 733, 748, 869

Fish

administrative burdens, 405, 411, 890, 909, 916, 917

alignment of food packages with DGA, 110–111, 113, 114, 116, 118, 120, 149, 246, 247, 252, 253, 255, 256, 280, 281, 283, 363, 387, 411, 825, 827, 829, 831, 833, 835, 837, 839, 841, 843, 880

alignment of food packages with DRIs, 357–362, 804–809

allergy considerations, 142, 143, 150

authoritative recommendations, 120, 128, 139, 280, 361, 387, 890, 893

children 1 to <2 years, 10, 26, 268, 281, 283, 291, 292, 302, 327, 412, 413, 421, 436, 437, 697, 723–724, 812–813, 889–890, 916, 917, 923, 940, 946, 949

children 2 to <5 years, 10, 26, 118, 268, 281, 283, 302, 360, 362–363, 364, 388, 412, 413, 421, 436, 437, 697, 723–724, 774, 804–805, 810–811, 841, 843, 889–890, 916, 917, 923, 940, 947, 949

container size, 391

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×

cost considerations, 280–282, 323, 327, 331, 360, 362, 363, 364–365, 368, 405, 411, 419, 421, 423, 436–438, 455–456, 742, 805, 807, 809, 811, 813, 900, 909, 917, 922, 923, 925

criteria for inclusion, 376, 387, 388, 391, 392

current food packages, 26, 30, 110–111, 120, 137, 139, 149, 258, 280, 281, 302, 310, 357, 360–361, 411, 419, 423, 438, 518, 699, 701, 703, 705, 723–724, 733–734, 742, 764, 766, 767, 804–813, 825, 827, 829, 831, 833, 835, 837, 839, 841, 843, 909, 916, 917, 922, 940, 941, 944

expenditures, 67, 69

fully breastfeeding women, 9, 26, 92, 110, 116, 137, 149, 265, 280, 281, 283, 302, 340, 357, 361, 362, 411, 412, 705, 723–724, 775, 808–809, 837, 839, 900, 916–917, 940, 944, 948

HEI–2010 scores, 362, 363, 364–365, 805, 811

implementation of 2006 recommendations, 485, 486

infants 6 to <12 mo, 11, 266, 291, 292, 327, 376, 392, 405, 697, 711, 734, 881, 885, 882, 909, 941, 951

market share, 440

mercury concerns, 111, 129, 160, 390

mother–infant dyad, 265

nutrient levels/priorities, 231, 244, 246, 248, 362, 363, 711, 755, 886

partially breastfeeding women, 9, 26, 113, 244, 255, 256, 265, 281, 283, 294, 302, 363, 383, 701, 723–724, 766, 775, 829, 831, 895, 897, 916, 940, 947

postpartum (nonbreastfeeding) women, 9, 26, 114, 252, 253, 265, 283, 302, 412, 436, 437, 703, 723–724, 833, 835, 897–898, 916, 940, 948

pregnant women, 10, 26, 113, 246, 247, 268, 283, 294, 302, 360, 362, 364–365, 388, 412, 436, 437, 701, 723–724, 766, 775, 806–807, 825, 827, 893–894, 897, 916, 940, 947

price, 957

rationale for changes, 5, 516, 518, 885–886, 889–890, 893–894, 895, 897, 898, 900, 904

recommendations, 7, 11, 283, 291

redemption rates, 92, 357, 360–361, 362, 364–365, 392, 405, 733, 755, 758, 764, 766, 767, 804–813, 825, 827, 881, 909, 933, 940, 941, 944, 946, 947, 948, 951

regulatory impact analysis, 405, 411, 412, 413, 419, 421, 423, 436–438, 440, 880, 881, 885–886, 889, 890, 893–894, 895, 897–898, 900, 904, 909, 916, 917, 922, 923, 933, 940, 941, 944, 946, 947, 948, 949, 951, 953, 957, 958, 959, 979, 982, 984, 986, 987

revised food package, 7, 12, 265, 266, 268, 280–282, 283, 289, 291, 292, 294–295, 302, 310, 380, 383, 419, 423, 436–438, 699, 701, 703, 705, 723–724, 804–813, 825, 827, 829, 831, 833, 835, 837, 839, 841, 843, 885, 909, 916–917, 922, 940, 941, 946, 947, 948

rotation, 265, 268, 281–282, 343, 357, 362–363, 364–365, 412, 413, 436–437, 438, 775, 810–813, 889–890, 893–894, 895, 897–898, 917, 949

sensitivity analysis, 339, 340, 357, 360–363, 368, 774–775, 804–813

sodium limits, 111

species options, 30, 32, 110, 310, 733–734

specifications, 281, 292, 302, 310, 723–724, 889, 890, 893–894, 895, 900, 904, 909, 916–917

substitution options, 7, 30, 146, 150, 266, 281, 291, 292, 323, 327, 376, 392, 405, 518, 697, 711, 734, 881, 885–886

supply and demand, 81

vendor burdens, 411, 909, 916

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Folate, 85, 86, 87, 127, 131, 133, 135, 136, 137, 144, 158, 170, 171, 176, 182, 197, 204, 217, 226, 230, 235, 273, 280, 307, 342, 347, 348, 350, 353, 355, 357, 359, 504, 520, 568, 571, 573, 604–640, 670, 682, 683, 684, 708, 710, 730, 731, 777, 779, 781, 783, 784, 785, 787, 789, 791, 793, 795, 797, 799, 801, 803, 805, 807, 809, 811, 813, 814, 845, 847, 849, 851, 853, 855, 858, 860, 861, 862, 864, 866, 893, 894

Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey (FoodAPS), 62–63, 65, 95, 447

Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 32 n.12, 110, 111, 120, 124, 140, 144, 159, 160, 161, 178, 242, 280, 296, 297, 298, 300, 301, 302, 303, 305, 307, 448 n.1, 573, 588, 715, 716, 717, 718, 719, 721, 722, 723, 725, 727, 728–729, 734 n.5, 903

Food categories, creating composites for, 321–322

Food consumption patterns (see also specific food groups)

children, by food group, 82

kilocalorie intake patterns, 84, 576

racial/ethnic differences, 164

satisfaction with packages and, 2

women, by food group, 81

Food cost estimation, current and revised packages (see also Regulatory impact analysis)

CPI base year for revised packages, 425, 427–428, 430–431, 954, 956, 959, 960, 961, 964–965, 968

CPI inflation scenarios, 395, 418, 425, 426, 427, 428, 430–431, 964–965, 966–967, 968–969

current food costs, 396

CVV assumptions and, 426–427, 428–431, 962–972, 984–985

by item category, 415, 418, 419–420, 423, 438, 439, 921, 922, 925, 933, 938, 950, 954, 984, 985–986

by items over time, 420, 422–424, 924–926

by items within each food package, 418, 420, 421–422, 921, 923–924

methodology, 315–324, 424–427, 926–961

phased-in differences, 398, 415, 417–418, 419–420, 421–422, 423, 425, 427, 429, 430, 431, 432–435, 436, 437, 478, 870, 872, 905, 920, 921, 922, 923–924, 925, 932, 961–962, 963, 964, 966–972, 973, 974–977, 978, 980–983

prices of food package items and, 395, 396, 397, 405, 419, 424, 425–427, 438, 439, 869, 870, 871, 909, 922, 927, 933, 942, 945, 949–960, 965, 966, 979, 986

redemption data and, 395, 397, 415, 418, 425, 428, 429, 869, 871, 909, 921, 933, 938–945, 946–949, 978, 980–981

shift in fully formula-fed to breastfed dyads anticipated in, 402, 415, 416, 417, 419, 420, 422, 425, 431, 434–436, 438, 439, 876, 905, 906, 919, 920, 922, 924, 926, 931–933, 936–937, 941, 973, 976–978, 980–981, 984, 985

sources of differences, 415, 418–424, 921–926

total cost differences, 396, 415, 416, 418, 421, 422, 424, 429, 430, 432, 434, 437, 870, 905, 919, 921, 923, 924, 926, 963, 968, 970, 972, 974, 976, 980, 982, 983

types of estimates, 396, 870

unadjusted, 396, 398, 415, 416, 417, 419, 420, 423, 481, 870, 872, 905, 919, 920, 922, 924, 925

uncertainties in, 427–436, 960, 962–978

“up to” amount of infant formula and, 399, 401, 403, 431, 432–433, 875, 882, 883, 907, 973, 974–975

WIC program participation levels and, 395, 397 n.1, 398 n.4, 399, 415, 419, 420, 424–425, 435, 869, 870, 871, 872 n.3, 876, 905, 922, 926, 927–931, 932, 934–937, 938, 945 n.15, 977

Food expenditures

changes since 2009 review, 98

committee analysis, 36–37

Food group intakes

2009 revisions and, 162–164

alignment with recommendations, 187–194

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analysis by population subgroup, 644–665

by breastfeeding women, 188, 189–190, 648, 652

changes in recommendations, 84–85

by children 1 to <2 years, 82, 190, 192, 654–657

by children 2 to <5 years, 81, 82, 191–192, 193, 658–665

committee process, 36

committee’s analyses versus other published results, 204

complementary foods, 164–165, 191

eggs, 81, 82, 189, 191, 382

geographical differences, 164

Healthy Eating Index by, 195, 196

infant cereal, 554, 696

infant food meat, 188, 190, 191, 290

by infants, 188, 190, 191

juice, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 455, 644–658

kilocalorie intake patterns, 84

milks and milk substitutes, 55, 81, 82, 163, 529–530, 554, 888

of NHANES findings, 187–194

by postpartum women, 188, 189–190, 650–653

by pregnant women, 81, 188, 189–190, 644–647

racial and ethnic differences in purchasing and consumption, 164

Food packages (see Alignment of food packages with DGA; Changes in food packages; Current food packages; Revised food packages; Substitutions in food packages; specific foods and packages)

categorical eligibility, 23

Food Patterns Equivalents Database (FPED), 121, 122, 123, 306, 341, 577, 578, 579

Food Patterns Ingredients Database (FPID), 578

Food safety, 159–161

Food supply, WIC’s influence on, 83

Formula (see Infant formula and formula feeding)

Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program, 18 n.1

Fruits (see also Vegetables and fruits)

Full nutrition benefit (FNB), 22, 24–25, 75, 179, 181, 265–266, 287, 402–403, 694–697, 727–728, 749, 882, 907

Fully breastfeeding women (see also Breastfeeding women/dyads; Package VII)

adverse health impacts of nutrient inadequacies and excesses, 217

DGA recommendations, 138–139, 189–190

DRIs for, 130–131, 171, 186

food group intakes, 189–190, 648–653

Nutrient-Based Diet Quality Index score, 197

nutrient intakes, inadequacies, and excesses, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 217

G

Gap analysis

breastfeeding women, 229–233, 683

children 1 to <2 years, 239–241, 686

children 2 to <5 years, 239–241, 687

Package II, 243

Package IV-B, 373, 378, 380, 382

postpartum women, 234–238, 684–685

pregnant women, 224–228, 682

target, 244

Geographical differences in food intakes, 164

Gluten-free foods, 143, 144, 307, 308, 904

Grains (see Breads; Breakfast cereals; Whole grains; specific grains)

H

Health risks (see Nutrition-related health risks)

Healthy Eating Index–2010 (HEI–2010)

added sugars and, 196–197

breakfast cereals, 348–349

breastfeeding women, 195, 668

children 2 to <5 years, 196, 197, 669

committee’s analyses versus other published results, 205

components and scoring, 666, 667, 670–671

current versus revised packages 380–381, 383, 384–385

CVV and, 352–353, 356, 358–359, 374

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juice, 195, 196, 358–359

legumes and peanut butter, 363, 368, 811

milks and milk substitutes, 344–345, 777

limitations, 203–204

Nutrient-Based Diet Quality (NBDQ) index scores, 194, 197, 477, 670, 671, 672

postpartum women, 195, 668

pregnant women, 195, 668

saturated fats and, 340, 344–345

within-person variance, 671–672

Healthy food availability score, 96

Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010, 53

Healthy Meals for Healthy Americans Act, 21

Healthy People 2020 goals, 1, 20, 40, 70, 74, 475, 878

I

Implementation of food package changes (see also Regulation of food packages)

challenges of 2009 changes, 52–55, 98, 484, 486–487, 904

Income level/distribution

breastfeeding prevalence, 73

WIC participants, 60–61

Infant cereal (see also Package II)

AAP guidance, 126, 138, 287–288, 884

administrative effects of revisions, 403, 907–908

alignment with dietary guidance, 149, 254, 287–288, 399, 881, 884

alignment with DRIs, 728

for breastfed infants, 8, 264, 518, 696, 765, 873, 880 n.5, 883, 943, 946

cost considerations, 403, 419, 421, 423, 438, 922, 923, 925, 984

criteria for inclusion, 375

current benefit, 25, 287, 403, 419, 423, 438, 696, 697, 714, 765, 873, 907, 922, 925, 940, 984

expenditures, 66, 68

food safety considerations, 159–160, 161

for formula-fed and partially breastfeeding infants, 8, 264, 697, 765, 873, 880 n.5, 883, 943, 946

grains, 161, 696, 697

intake patterns, 554, 696

introduction, 388

iron fortified, 138, 161, 287–288, 388, 696, 697

nutrient content and priorities, 243, 287, 291, 884

options, 161

prices, 957

recommendation, 11, 291

redemption rates, 92, 518, 748, 765, 940, 943, 946

regulatory impact analysis, 404, 907–908

revised benefit, 8, 9, 264, 287–288, 291, 403, 419, 421, 518, 696, 714, 765, 880 n.5, 883–884, 907–908, 922, 923, 925, 940, 943, 984

specifications, 714

vendor burdens, 404, 907

Infant Feeding Practices Study II, 78, 165, 551, 552–554

Infant food meat

AAP guidance, 139, 190, 885

administrative burden 405, 909

alignment with dietary guidance, 126, 149, 254, 388, 881, 885

alignment with DRIs, 291

cost considerations, 327, 405, 419, 423, 438, 746, 909, 922, 925, 984

breastfed infants, 8, 25, 188, 191, 243, 264, 288, 290–291, 292, 388, 405, 690, 696, 873, 951

criteria for inclusion, 327

current benefit, 25, 126, 139, 149, 290, 405, 419, 438, 696, 715, 734–735, 764, 873, 881, 885, 909, 922, 925

defined, 476

expenditures, 66, 69

fish (canned), substitution for, 7, 11, 266, 291, 292, 327, 376, 392, 405, 436, 438, 697, 711, 734, 881, 885, 882, 909, 941, 951, 979

implementation of 2006 IOM recommendations, 486

intake patterns, 188, 190, 191, 290

introduction, 128, 139, 146, 388

nutrient content and priorities, 128, 188, 243, 288, 711, 734–735, 748

options, 748

prices, 957

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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

recommendation, 11, 291

redemption rates, 92, 93, 290, 392, 405, 518, 746, 764, 885, 941, 943, 946, 951

regulatory impact analysis, 405, 909

revised benefit, 7, 8, 11, 264, 266, 290–291, 292, 327, 376, 388, 392, 405, 419, 423, 697, 711, 734, 764, 881, 885, 882, 909, 941, 951, 909, 922, 925, 946, 951

specifications, 715

substitutions, 7, 11, 146, 266, 291, 292, 327, 376, 392, 405, 436, 438, 697, 711, 734–735, 881, 885, 882, 909, 941, 951, 979

vendor burdens, 405, 909

Infant food vegetables and fruits

AAP guidance, 126, 190, 287, 288, 290–291, 881, 884, 885, 887

administrative burdens, 404–405, 908–909

alignment with dietary guidance, 386, 389, 881

challenges to implementation of 2009 revisions, 53

cost considerations, 289, 404–405, 909, 962, 965, 970

cultural considerations, 392

current benefit, 25, 288, 292, 293, 404, 438, 696, 697, 714, 764, 696, 715, 873, 908–909

CVV substitution, 7, 8, 11, 13, 53, 139, 141 n.9, 147–148, 264, 265, 266, 267–268, 288, 289, 292, 293, 296, 327, 340, 363, 366, 374, 389, 392, 393, 404, 421, 525, 696, 697, 764, 775, 814–815, 881, 884, 885, 901, 908, 909, 941, 965, 970–971

implementation of IOM 2006 recommendations, 484, 486

juice, 264, 487, 554, 556

legumes-based, 734, 735

nutrient content, 708, 709–710, 747

prices, 957

and promotion of full breastfeeding, 884

recommendation, 11, 291

redemption rates, 92, 941, 943, 946, 965

regulatory impact analysis, 404–405, 908–909

revised benefit, 8, 9, 10, 25, 264, 265, 266, 268, 285–288, 291, 292–293, 310, 363, 366, 404–405, 428, 696, 697, 715, 873, 884, 908–909, 943, 946

sensitivity analysis, 340, 363, 366, 775, 814

specifications, 715

vendor burdens, 404, 484, 908

Infant formula and formula feeding (see also Package I; Package II; Package III)

AAP guidance, 128, 146, 264, 519, 728–729, 881, 919

administrative burdens, 402–403, 405–406, 440, 906–907, 910

alignment with DRIs, 727–729

allergies and, 142, 146

and breastfeeding choice, 5, 20, 74–77, 93, 285

changes since last review, 57, 59, 67, 70, 73, 74–77, 78, 79, 83, 92, 93, 97, 527, 529, 530

cost considerations, 16, 78, 79, 315, 317–318, 320, 321, 330, 331–334, 335, 399, 401, 403, 415, 416, 417, 419, 420, 422, 425, 431, 432–433, 434–435, 460, 746, 875, 882, 883, 906–907, 910, 919, 922, 925, 926, 949, 973, 974–981, 984

current food packages, 2, 5, 22, 24–25, 33, 75, 139, 181, 207, 286–287, 292–293, 310, 318, 402–403, 419, 420, 423, 434–435, 439, 458, 459, 588, 694–695, 696, 697, 698, 714, 727–729, 748–749, 764, 906–907, 910, 922, 925, 934–935, 940, 976–977, 984

dietary guidance, 128, 139, 388, 576

evaluation of requirements, 588

exempt, 25, 140 n.7, 265, 268, 292, 330, 401, 406, 416, 417, 448, 698, 735, 875, 886, 910

expenditures, 67, 69, 70

Final Rule, 20 n.5, 728

first-month options, 5, 74–75, 285–286, 317 n.3, 383, 393, 399, 906, 946, 948

hydrolyzed protein, 142, 475

implementation of 2006 recommendations, 486–487

Page 1018 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

infants 0 to <6 months, 8, 24, 75, 76, 179, 181, 186–187, 264, 285, 318, 324, 328, 399, 400, 402, 432–433, 435, 694, 695, 714, 745, 873, 874, 880, 882–883, 932, 934, 936, 940, 946, 977

infants 6 to <12 months, 8, 24, 136, 179, 181, 186–187, 264, 285, 318, 324, 432–433, 694, 696, 697, 714, 745, 873, 883, 946

iron-fortified, 128, 139, 388, 694, 697

limits to encourage breastfeeding choice, 5, 20, 74–77, 93, 285–286, 331–334, 452–453, 690, 881

marketplace options, 83

nutrient content, 33, 83, 136, 158, 310, 519, 727–729, 748–749

nutrient intakes and priorities, 128, 167, 174–179, 181, 187, 207, 242, 288, 573, 576

nutrition-related health risks, 158, 576

prices, 320, 321, 950, 957

products analyzed, 748–749

proportion of WIC participants, 57, 59, 317–319, 340–341, 366–367, 425, 926, 934–937

ready-to-feed, 24, 25, 179 n.11, 268, 287 n.15, 321, 391, 694, 695, 696, 697, 698, 745, 747, 882, 883, 945, 948, 950, 957, 958

rebates from manufacturers, 53, 78, 79, 140 n.7, 321, 324, 328, 330, 331, 332, 334, 366, 367, 419, 423, 439, 478, 519, 528, 745, 922, 925, 945, 948–949, 950–951, 957, 985

recommendations, 11, 291, 293

reconsideration in future reviews, 458–459

redemption rates, 92, 93, 320, 747, 748, 764, 765, 940, 943, 945, 946, 948, 950, 980–981

regulatory impact analysis, 402–403, 405–406, 440, 906–907, 910

research potential, 676

retail sales, 435, 440, 986

revised benefit, 8, 9, 10, 264, 265, 266, 268, 271, 285–288, 291, 292–293, 310, 318, 403, 419, 420, 423, 434–435, 458, 694, 696, 697, 698, 714, 748–749, 881, 882–883, 906–907, 910, 922, 925, 936–937, 940, 946, 948–949

shift from fully formula-fed to breastfed dyads, 402, 415, 416, 417, 419, 420, 422, 425, 431, 434–436, 438, 439, 876, 905, 906, 919, 920, 922, 924, 926, 931–933, 936–937, 941, 973, 976–978, 980–981, 984, 985

soy protein–based, 146

special medical needs, 8, 10, 24, 140–141, 142, 150, 81, 268, 285, 292–293, 330, 405–406, 698, 735, 745, 886, 910

specifications, 20 n.5, 714, 727–729

tailoring amounts of, 22, 74–75, 285, 440, 452–453, 486, 695, 880, 881, 882–886, 907

“up to” amount, 399, 401, 403, 431, 432–433, 875, 882, 883, 907, 973, 974–975

USDA-FNS guidance, 74–76

vegan substitutes, 146

vendor burdens, 402–403, 906–907

Infants (see also Complementary foods and feeding; Infant cereal; Infant food meat; Infant food vegetables and fruits; Infant formula and formula feeding; Package I; Package II; Package III)

AAP recommendations, 32, 40, 83, 109, 126, 242, 244, 254, 287–292, 388, 876–877, 881

added sugars, 133, 175, 178, 207, 217, 219, 290, 714, 715, 858, 860

adverse health impacts of nutrient inadequacies and excesses, 217

cow’s milk, 554

dietary guidance for, 128, 138–139

DRIs for, 132–133, 176, 177, 187

energy requirements, 591

fully breastfed, 24–25, 70, 128, 132–133, 167, 180, 182, 191, 318, 328, 400, 403, 404, 405, 873, 874, 883, 884, 885, 907, 908, 909, 934, 936, 940, 941, 943, 941, 946, 958

fully formula fed, 24–25, 129, 132–133, 167, 174–179, 181, 187, 318, 328, 400, 403, 435, 873, 874, 880, 882, 883, 907, 932, 934, 936, 940, 941, 943, 946, 977

NHANES survey years, 167

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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

nutrient intakes, inadequacies, and excesses, 167, 174–179, 180, 181, 182, 187, 207, 217, 242, 288, 573, 575, 576, 589, 595, 596–599, 614–625

partially breastfed, 24–25, 70, 318, 328, 399, 400, 401, 402, 431, 432, 433, 435, 873, 874, 875, 876, 882, 883, 906, 934, 936, 940, 943, 946, 973, 974, 975, 977

Information Resources, Inc., 279, 304, 320, 425

Intakes (see Dietary intake analyses; Food group intake; Nutrient intake analysis; specific foods and nutrients)

Interim Rule, 2, 22, 23, 31, 34, 440, 488, 527, 548, 578, 869, 878, 986–987

International Lactation Consultant Association, 21

Iowa State University, 63 n.3, 559

ISU method, 476, 565, 570

PC Software for Intake Distribution Estimation (PC-SIDE), 478, 565, 570, 586

Iron, 45, 86, 87, 127, 128, 129, 130, 132, 134, 136, 137, 139, 144, 146, 158, 161, 165, 168, 170, 171, 174, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 185, 187, 188, 197, 201, 204, 207, 217, 218, 224, 235, 242, 243, 280, 287–288, 290, 291, 299, 306, 309, 310, 347, 348, 349, 388, 389, 475, 489, 503, 504, 518, 566, 571, 572, 573, 574, 581, 588, 604–641, 670, 682, 684, 686, 694, 696, 697, 699, 701, 703, 705, 708, 709, 711, 714, 720, 727–728, 730, 731, 734–735, 776, 778, 780, 782, 784, 785, 786, 788, 790, 792, 794, 796, 798, 800, 802, 804, 806, 808, 810, 812, 814, 845, 847, 849, 851, 854, 856, 857, 859, 861, 862, 863, 865, 884, 885–886

J

Juice

AAP guidance, 13, 118, 126, 129, 137, 149, 190, 254, 275, 841, 842, 843, 844

added sugars, 124, 798, 800, 802

alignment with DGA, 112, 113, 114, 116, 118, 124, 126, 137, 138, 139, 149, 188, 254, 275, 276, 377, 379, 388, 455, 484, 487, 517, 820–844, 880, 887

administrative burdens, 52, 276, 375, 393, 406–407, 911

children 1 to <2 years, 10, 13, 26, 110, 126, 129, 254, 268, 275, 283, 389, 421, 455, 654–658, 699, 719, 765, 886–887, 923, 943, 946

children 2 to <5 years, 10, 13, 26, 110, 118, 129, 268, 275, 283, 358, 388, 389, 421, 658–665, 699, 719, 765, 774, 798–799, 824, 841, 843, 886–887, 923, 944, 947

complementary food, 554, 556

container size considerations, 52, 53, 54, 275–276, 391, 393, 518, 911

cost considerations, 15, 275 n.7, 327, 356–357, 358–359, 418, 419, 421, 423, 438, 441, 455, 741, 887, 911, 921, 922, 923, 925, 965, 972, 984

criteria addressed, 374, 379, 388, 389, 391, 393

CVV substitution, 7, 12, 13, 149, 227, 232, 236, 265, 267, 269, 275–276, 284, 288, 327, 339, 340, 343, 356–357, 358–359, 368, 374, 392, 393, 406–407, 441, 701, 705, 765, 766, 767, 774, 798–803, 886–887, 891, 895, 897, 901, 911, 921, 941, 962, 965, 972–973

definition and unit, 579

effects of revisions, 523, 526–527, 887, 891, 895, 897, 898, 911

expenditures, 67, 68, 69–70

Final Rule, 26

fully breastfeeding women, 9, 26, 116, 283, 356–357, 359, 488, 648–653, 705, 719, 767, 802–803, 823, 837, 839, 898, 941, 944, 948

health concerns, 487, 507, 515

HEI scores, 195, 196, 358–359

infants, 264, 487, 554, 556

intake distributions and trends, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 455, 644–658

interim rule, 2, 440, 986

Kosher or Halal diets, 147

Page 1020 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

marketplace options/availability, 52, 53, 81, 96, 391, 526, 887, 901

mother–infant dyads, 265

nutrient analysis and contributions, 227, 232, 236, 357, 455, 556, 750, 798–803

nutrient priorities, 227, 232, 236, 357, 455

nutrition education, 393

partially breastfeeding women (V-B), 9, 26, 112, 283, 421, 701, 766, 829, 831, 895, 941, 944, 947

postpartum women (VI), 9, 26, 114, 275 n.7, 283, 421, 650, 652, 703, 719, 822, 833, 835, 897, 923, 941, 944

preferences and cultural considerations, 89, 392, 517, 526–527

prices, 957, 960, 965

recommendations, 7, 15, 283, 284, 455

redemption rates, 92, 356, 358–359, 523, 741, 750, 758, 764, 765, 766, 767, 798–803, 820, 938, 941, 943–944, 946, 947, 965

regulations/regulatory analysis, 406–407, 911

retail sales/market share, 439–440, 986

revised food packages, 7, 9, 10, 12, 265, 267, 268, 269, 275–276, 283, 284, 339, 340, 343, 356–357, 358–359, 368, 374, 377, 379, 419, 423, 438, 699, 701, 703, 705, 719, 741, 765, 766, 767, 774, 798–803, 820–844, 886–887, 891, 901, 922, 925, 984

sensitivity analysis, 339, 340, 343, 356–357, 358–359, 368, 774, 798–803

special dietary needs (III), 10, 265

specifications, 719

vegetable, 393, 719

vendor burden, 52, 276, 375, 393, 406–407, 887, 901, 911

vitamin C, 227, 232, 236, 357, 887

K

Kosher or Halal diets

and alignment of food packages with DGA, 143, 146–147, 150

authorization of substitutions, 548

eggs, 146–147, 150

milks and milk substitutes, 146–147, 548

percentage of mothers, 548

L

Labeling, 124, 295, 303, 484

Lactose intolerance, 27, 28, 40, 145, 150, 267, 269, 270, 282, 476, 515, 700, 702, 704, 706, 887, 888, 892, 896, 897, 898–899, 901, 902

Legumes and peanut butter

administrative burdens, 274, 281, 412–413, 917

alignment with DGA, 110, 112, 114, 116, 118, 149, 246–247, 249, 252, 253, 256–257, 281–282, 377, 382, 825, 827, 829, 831, 833, 835, 837, 839, 841, 843, 890, 893, 894, 917

alignment with DRIs, 224, 225, 226, 229–230, 231, 232, 234, 235, 236–237, 239, 810–811

children 1 to <2 years, 10, 26, 92, 139, 239, 268, 173, 274, 281, 283, 412–413, 724–725, 755, 763, 884, 890, 941, 943, 945, 946, 952–953, 957

children 2 to <5 years, 10, 26, 92, 118, 239, 268, 273, 274, 281, 283, 364–365, 368, 377, 382, 412–413, 421, 724–725, 755, 763, 775, 810–811, 841, 843, 884, 890, 923, 941, 944, 945, 947, 952–953, 957

cost considerations, 320, 322, 363, 364–365, 413, 419, 421, 423, 438, 742–743, 763, 811, 813, 917, 922, 923, 925, 984

criteria for inclusion, 374, 375

cultural considerations, 7, 148, 274

current food packages, 12, 26, 30, 92, 273, 274, 281, 362–363, 364–365, 377, 382, 412–413, 419, 423, 438, 699, 701, 703, 705, 724–725, 733, 742, 743, 755, 763, 810–813, 825, 827, 829, 831, 833, 835, 837, 839, 841, 843, 922, 923, 925, 941, 952–953, 957, 984

CVV and, 7, 223, 229, 235, 239, 274, 374

defined, 476

expenditures, 87, 89

fish rotation with, 265, 268, 281–282, 343, 357, 362–363, 364–365, 412, 413, 436–437, 438, 775, 810–813, 889–890, 893–894, 895, 897–898, 917, 949

Page 1021 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

forms/options, 7, 13, 223, 224, 225, 226, 229, 234, 246, 252, 256–257, 258, 274, 283, 284, 391, 457, 517, 890, 895, 898, 951

fully breastfeeding women, 9, 26, 92, 116, 229–230, 231, 232, 249, 265, 274, 281, 283, 412–413, 705, 724–725, 755, 763, 837, 839, 899, 941, 944, 948, 952–953, 957

HEI–2010 score, 363, 368, 811

implementation of most recent changes, 488

infant foods, 734, 735

mother–infant dyad package, 9, 265

nutrients levels/priorities, 223, 224, 225, 226, 229–230, 231, 232, 234, 235, 236–237, 239, 273, 363, 364–365, 455, 735, 755, 810–813, 890, 893

nutrition education or behavioral interventions to improve intakes, 231, 232–233, 234, 236–237, 244, 249, 253

package size considerations, 275, 733

partially breastfeeding women, 9, 26, 92, 112, 229–230, 231, 232, 249, 256–257, 265, 274, 281, 283, 412–413, 699, 701, 702, 724–725, 755, 763, 829, 831, 895, 941, 944, 947, 952–953, 957

postpartum women, 9, 26, 92, 114, 234, 235, 236–237, 252, 253, 265, 274, 281, 283, 412–413, 703, 724–725, 755, 763, 833, 835, 897–898, 941, 944, 945, 947, 952–953, 957

pregnant women, 10, 26, 92, 112, 224, 225, 226, 246–247, 268, 274, 281, 283, 364–365, 412–413, 421, 699, 701, 702, 724–725, 755, 763, 775, 812–813, 825, 827, 893–894, 897, 923, 941, 944, 947, 952–953, 957

prices, 951, 952–953, 957

recommendation, 7, 283

redemption rates, 12, 92, 274, 281, 321–322, 323, 362, 363, 364–365, 758, 763, 775, 810–813, 825, 827, 829, 831, 833, 835, 837, 839, 841, 843, 925, 941, 943, 944, 946, 947, 948

regulatory impact analysis, 412–413, 917–918

revised, 7, 9, 10, 149, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 273–274, 281–282, 283, 284, 362–363, 364–365, 377, 382, 412–413, 419, 421, 423, 438, 699, 701, 703, 705, 742–743, 755, 763, 775, 810–813, 825, 829, 831, 833, 835, 837, 839, 841, 843, 922, 941, 952–953, 957, 984

rotation, 273–275, 339, 343, 357, 362–363, 364–365, 763, 775, 810–813, 884, 893, 894

sensitivity analysis, 339, 343, 357, 362–363, 364–365, 775, 810–813

serving equivalents, 579

special medical needs, 143, 268

specifications, 724–725, 884, 893

substitutions allowed, 7, 30, 142, 143, 267, 269, 282, 284, 375, 392, 517, 700, 702, 703, 704, 706, 764

vegetarian and vegan diets, 146, 282, 284, 392, 702, 704, 706

vendor burdens, 412, 514, 917

M

Medicaid, 19, 56, 140 n.7, 199, 201, 293, 448, 502, 508, 510, 511, 536, 581, 676–677, 678

Magnesium, 85, 86, 127, 130, 131, 132, 134, 170, 171, 176, 182, 197, 204, 226, 231, 236, 297, 344, 345, 347, 348, 350, 353, 355, 357, 359, 363, 364, 365, 566, 567, 571, 573, 604–642, 670, 682, 683, 685, 708, 709, 717, 713, 776, 778, 780, 782, 784, 785, 786, 788, 790, 792, 794, 796, 798, 800, 802, 804, 806, 808, 810, 812, 814, 845, 847, 849, 851, 853, 855, 857, 859, 861, 862, 863, 865

Marketplace availability/options

breads, 83, 279, 307–308, 410, 514, 515

breakfast cereals, 307–308, 904

consideration of, 6

current foods, 295, 303–304, 307, 506

expansion since 2006, 2, 80–83, 98

infant formula, 83

juice, 52, 53, 81, 96, 391, 526, 887, 901

milks and milk substitutes, 96, 527

Page 1022 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

Maximum monthly allowance (MMA), 8, 10, 22, 24–27, 141, 179, 181, 264, 266, 268, 287, 477, 694–699, 701, 703, 705, 727, 748, 883, 907, 952, 955

Milks and milk substitutes (see also Cheese; Infant formula; Yogurt)

AAP guidance, 88, 129, 146

added sugar limit, 7, 13, 123, 149, 225, 230, 240, 296, 303, 304, 305, 344–345, 346, 376, 379, 386, 716, 776, 778, 780, 900, 902

administrative burdens, 52, 53, 277, 375, 376, 393, 407–408, 888, 912, 978

alignment with DGA, 112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 129, 137, 138, 246, 247, 249, 250, 251, 253, 254, 256, 277–278, 389, 825, 827, 829, 831, 833, 835, 837, 839, 841, 843

alignment with DRIs, 224, 225, 226, 227, 229, 230, 231, 232–233, 239, 240, 773, 776–781

Child and Adult Care Food Program, 120

children 1 to <2 years, 2, 7, 10, 26, 129, 136, 137, 138, 239, 240, 268, 277–278, 283, 296, 339–340, 421, 516, 554, 699, 700, 716, 732, 741, 750–751, 766, 887, 888, 923, 941, 946, 955

children 2 to <5 years, 7, 10, 26, 82, 118, 137, 239, 240, 256, 268, 277–278, 283, 296, 339–340, 344, 699, 732, 741, 750–751, 766, 773, 776–777, 843, 887–888, 941, 944, 947, 951, 955

complementary food, 165, 389, 554, 556

container size considerations (“dangling quart”), 52, 53, 277, 375, 376, 393, 407–408, 888, 912, 978

cost considerations, 323–324, 326, 344–345, 346, 419, 420, 422, 423, 438, 741, 742, 777, 779, 781, 914, 922, 923, 924, 925, 978, 984

criteria for inclusion, 376, 386, 389, 391

cultural considerations and preferences, 13, 89, 150, 392, 526–527, 888, 912

current food packages, 2, 26–28, 30, 52, 112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 121, 122, 123, 136–137, 138, 143, 145, 150, 276, 277, 278, 296–298, 303–304, 305, 308, 339, 340, 344–345, 407–409, 438, 488, 699, 701, 703, 705, 716–719, 730, 732–733, 734, 741, 751, 752, 753, 765, 766, 767, 766, 767, 773, 776–781, 825, 827, 829, 831, 833, 835, 837, 839, 841, 843, 941, 943, 944, 951, 955, 984

dried/powdered milk, 27, 267, 269, 391, 700, 702, 703, 706, 951

effects of 2009 revisions, 163

evaporated, 27, 267, 269, 296, 700, 702, 703, 706, 716, 951

expenditures, 65, 67, 69

flavored, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 296, 298, 305, 309, 515, 556, 716, 900, 901, 851 n.17

fully breastfeeding women, 9, 26, 116, 229, 230, 231, 232–233, 249, 250, 265, 277, 283, 296, 344–345, 346, 705, 716, 732, 741, 767, 773, 780–781, 837, 839, 841, 897, 898, 941, 944, 948, 954, 955

health concerns, 486, 487

HEI scores, 344–345, 777

implementation of 2006 IOM recommendations, 486, 487

infants, 554

intake distributions and trends, 55, 81, 82, 163, 529–530, 554, 888

Kosher or Halal diets, 146–147, 548

lactose-free, 143, 227, 422, 741, 747, 748, 750, 751, 924, 951, 955, 956, 957

lactose intolerance or allergy, 27, 28, 40, 145, 150, 267, 269, 270, 282, 476, 515, 700, 702, 704, 706, 887, 888, 892, 896, 897, 898–899, 901, 902

marketplace options/availability, 96, 527

National School Lunch Program, 120

nutrition education, 55, 145, 232–233, 237

partially breastfeeding women, 9, 26, 112, 229, 230, 231, 232–233, 249, 250, 265, 277, 283, 296, 344, 455, 701, 716, 732, 741, 766, 829, 831, 896, 941, 944, 947, 955

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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

postpartum women, 9, 26, 114, 234, 235, 236, 237, 251, 253, 254, 265, 277, 283, 296, 703, 704, 716, 732, 741, 767, 833, 835, 897, 941, 944, 947, 955

pregnant women, 10, 26, 112, 224, 225, 226, 227, 246, 247, 268, 277, 283, 296, 346, 421, 701, 716, 732, 741, 766, 773, 778–779, 825, 827, 891–892, 923, 941, 944, 947, 955

prices, 341, 426, 950, 951, 954, 955, 956, 957, 958

promoting consumption of, 730

public comments, 515, 516

recommendations, 7, 283

redemption rates, 92, 276, 277, 282, 322, 323, 340, 343, 344–345, 346, 408, 523, 732, 741, 750, 751, 754, 758–759, 766, 767, 776–781, 888, 938, 941, 943, 944, 946, 947, 948, 950, 951, 978, 980–981

reduced fat, 2, 27, 52, 120, 129, 137, 163, 267, 276, 485, 488, 515, 526, 529–530, 554, 700, 702, 703, 706, 730, 732

regulatory impact analysis, 407–411, 419–420, 421, 422, 423, 426, 438, 439–440, 886, 887–888, 891–892, 896, 897, 898–899, 900–902, 912–914, 922, 923, 924, 925, 938, 941, 943, 944, 946, 947, 948, 950, 951, 953–954, 955, 956, 957, 958, 978, 980–981, 984, 986

retail sales/market share, 27, 440, 732, 986

revised food packages, 7, 9, 10, 12, 265, 267, 268, 269, 270, 276–278, 280, 282, 283, 284, 296, 297, 298, 303, 304, 305, 308, 309, 701, 703, 705, 732, 825, 827, 829, 831, 833, 835, 837, 839, 841, 843, 941, 946, 947, 948, 955, 984

saturated fat limits, 120, 122, 218, 225, 230, 235, 240, 343, 485, 523, 732

sensitivity analysis, 339–340, 341, 343–346, 368, 773, 776–781

sodium, 121, 225, 229, 239

special dietary needs, 141, 142, 143, 150, 268, 886

specifications, 31, 52, 88, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 296, 298, 305, 309, 488, 556, 716, 732, 851 n.17, 892, 900–901

total sugars, 304

transportation considerations, 12

vegan diet, 145, 146, 888, 892, 896, 897

vendor burden, 52, 53, 375, 376, 387, 393, 407–408, 912

whole milk, 27, 92, 129, 136, 137, 138

Mother–infant dyads

breakfast cereals, 265

CVVs for, 8–9, 26, 264, 288, 422

juice, 265

market value of current versus revised packages, 333

package costs with rebates, 332

revised packages as benefits to, 6–9, 262, 263, 264–267, 271, 285–286, 287, 288

shift from fully formula-fed to breastfed dyads, 402, 415, 416, 417, 419, 420, 422, 425, 431, 434–436, 438, 439, 876, 905, 906, 919, 920, 922, 924, 926, 931–933, 936–937, 941, 973, 976–978, 980–981, 984, 985

N

National Cancer Institute method, 203, 205, 570, 586, 587, 666 n.6, 672

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data

breastfeeding, 5–6

complementary feeding study, 552–553

estimation issues, 201–203

food intakes by food group, 5, 81–82, 187–194, 203

income reporting, 201

limitations, 5–6, 166–168, 199–204, 581, 585–587

misclassification of WIC program use, 166–167, 200–201

nutrient intake inadequacies and excesses, 5, 165–187, 201–203, 577–578, 581–583, 584–585

population subgroups, 168

sampling and sample size issues, 5, 6, 200, 583, 584–585

Page 1024 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

selection bias, 166

serum vitamin D evaluation, 575

strengths, 199–204

survey years by subgroup, 167, 169

What We Eat in America dataset, 571–572, 577

National Immunization Survey, 70, 525

National School Lunch Program, 18 n.1, 56, 120, 299, 305–306, 720

National School Nutrition Program, 732

Niacin, 127, 131, 133, 135, 136, 144, 170 n.9, 171, 176, 182, 238, 348, 353, 355, 357, 359, 361, 362, 363, 364, 365, 568, 571, 573, 604–642, 685, 708, 710, 777, 779, 781, 783, 784, 785, 787, 789, 791, 793, 795, 797, 799, 801, 803, 805, 807, 809, 811, 813, 814, 846, 848, 850, 852, 854, 856, 857, 859, 861, 862, 864, 866

Nutrient-Based Diet Quality (NBDQ) index scores, 194, 197, 477, 670, 671, 672

Nutrient content (see also Gap analysis)

alignment of packages and intakes with DRIs, 130, 132, 134, 228, 231, 234, 604–641, 845, 848, 849, 851, 853, 855, 857, 859, 861, 862, 863, 864

breads, 224, 235, 731, 754

breakfast cereals, 138, 224, 226, 227, 230, 231, 232–233, 234, 235, 236–237, 238, 280, 306, 307, 309, 347, 348–349, 350, 368, 455, 730, 753–754, 904

current packages, 5, 130–135, 242, 258, 306, 307, 310, 343–366, 373, 459, 575, 588, 727–728, 731, 732–733, 776–815

eggs, 224, 242, 247, 249, 253, 256, 735

infant cereal, 243, 287, 291, 884

infant food meat, 128, 188, 243, 288, 711, 734–735, 748

infant food vegetables and fruits, 708, 747

infant formula, 33, 83, 136, 158, 310, 519, 727–729, 748–749

legumes and peanut butter, 223, 224, 225, 226, 229–230, 231, 232, 234, 235, 236–237, 239, 273, 363, 364–365, 455, 735, 755, 810–813, 890, 893

milks and milk substitution, 224, 225, 226, 227, 229, 230, 231, 232–233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 239, 240, 277, 343, 346, 556, 734

priorities, 227, 231, 234

Nutrient intake analysis (see also Gap analysis; specific food groups and nutrients)

AI-only values and, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 183, 184, 187, 204

basis for concern, 574

before and after 2009 package changes, 36, 160–163

best linear unbiased predictor, 670, 672

breastfeeding women, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 217, 583–585, 585, 589, 591, 594, 595, 608–609

challenges, 170, 583–585, 585

children 1 to <2 years, 180, 182–183, 184, 185, 186, 217, 590, 599–601, 626–633

children 2 to <5 years, 167, 182, 183–185, 186, 217, 590, 601–603, 634–642

committee’s analyses versus other published results, 204

committee’s task, 36

design effects, 585, 586

DRIs by population subgroup, 566–569

EAR cut-point method, 201, 570, 572

effects of 2009 revisions, 162

energy, 172, 173, 174, 175, 177, 178–179, 180, 181, 183, 184, 185, 202–203, 575–576, 589–590

excess intakes, 3, 5, 39, 166, 170, 174, 175, 177–178, 179, 183, 185, 186, 572–573, 574

food pattern food groups, definitions, and example foods, 579–580

Food Patterns Equivalents Database, 121, 122, 123, 306, 341, 577, 578, 579

Food Patterns Ingredients Database, 578

inadequate intakes, 3, 5, 39, 166, 170, 171, 182, 373, 377, 378, 570, 572, 573, 574, 585, 586

infant formula evaluation, 588

infants, 167, 174–179, 180, 181, 182, 187, 207, 217, 242, 288, 573, 575, 576, 589, 595, 596–599, 614–625

Page 1025 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

limitations of datasets, 581

macronutrients, 172, 173, 175, 177, 178–179, 180, 183, 184, 570, 573, 593–603

methods, 166–170

micronutrients, 170–171, 172, 174, 175, 176, 177–179, 180, 183, 184, 185, 186, 201–202, 572–573, 604–642

NHANES data, 165–187, 577–578, 581–583, 584–587

nutrients selected for, 571–572

patterns, 170, 171, 176, 178, 182, 186, 585, 604–641

postpartum women, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 585, 589, 591, 594, 595, 610

pregnant women, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 585, 589, 591, 593, 604–607

recommended intakes compared to, 173, 174, 175, 184, 185

sampling and sample size issues, 5, 6, 200, 583, 584–587

statistical comparisons, 587

survey years by subgroup, 582

thresholds for inadequacies and excesses, 166, 170

usual intake distributions, 169, 172, 175–178, 182, 192, 202, 565–570, 589–590, 593–642

vitamin D special case, 185–187, 574–575, 643

WIC population versus WIC-eligible population, 36

women, 170–171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 186

WWEIA dataset, 571–572, 577–578, 581–583, 584–585

Nutrition education, 16, 17, 20, 39, 41, 47, 54–55, 97, 145, 206–207, 231, 232–233, 234, 236–237, 244, 249, 253, 272, 334, 393, 399, 401, 456–457, 525, 542, 543, 875, 876, 878

Nutrition-related health concerns, 86, 158, 159–160, 161, 217, 218, 227, 231, 234, 486, 487, 507, 515, 576

Nutritionals, WIC-eligible, 25, 140, 141, 265, 268, 292, 330, 401, 416, 417, 698, 725, 875, 886, 917, 920, 945, 980

O

Obesity/overweight concerns

childhood, 52, 88, 119, 129, 138, 147, 158–159, 209, 389, 503, 519, 576, 700, 842, 844

and energy content of diet, 202, 215, 487, 519, 576, 700, 730, 842, 944

maternal/postpartum, 158, 503

and WIC eligibility, 878

Overview of WIC program

administrative and participant processes, 90–91

barriers to participation, 93–94

breastfeeding promotion and support, 1, 20–22, 74

current food packages, 22–23, 24–28

CVV introduction, 29

eligibility criteria, 19, 23

goals, 1, 19–20

nutrition education, 1, 20

participation rates, 1, 56–57, 98

shopping process, 29

substitutions in food packages, 1, 23, 30–31

P

Package I (infants 0 to 6 months)

alignment with DGA, 126, 132–135, 136

alignment with DRIs, 132–133, 179, 181, 186–187

categorical eligibility, 23, 168, 400

costs, 328, 329, 332

current, 24–25, 132–133, 328, 329, 694–695

formula, 8, 24, 75, 76, 179, 181, 186–187, 264, 285, 318, 324, 328, 399, 400, 402, 432–433, 435, 694, 695, 714, 745, 873, 874, 880, 882–883, 932, 934, 936, 940, 946, 977

for fully formula-fed infants (I-FF), 24, 318, 328, 400, 435, 874, 880, 882, 883, 932, 934, 936, 940, 977

nomenclature, 874

for partially (mostly) breastfed infants (I-BF/FF), 24, 318, 328, 399, 400, 401, 402, 431, 432, 433, 435, 873, 874, 875, 876, 882, 883, 906, 934, 936, 940, 943, 946, 973, 974, 975, 977

Page 1026 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

revised, 8, 328, 329, 694–695, 881–883

rationale and benefits of changes, 882, 883

saturated fats, 133

Package II (infants 6 to 12 months)

alignment with dietary guidance, 126, 132–135, 136, 149, 254, 287–288, 388, 399, 881, 884

alignment with DRIs, 132–133, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 186–187, 291, 566, 568, 728, 814–815, 857–860

categorical eligibility, 23, 168, 400

cereal, 8, 9, 11, 24, 25, 92, 126, 149, 264, 287–288, 291, 403, 404, 419, 421, 438, 518, 696, 697, 714, 748, 765, 880 n.5, 883–884, 907–908, 922, 923, 925, 940, 943, 984

current food packages, 24–25, 132–133, 328, 329, 696–697

CVV, 7, 8, 11, 13, 53, 139, 141 n.9, 147–148, 264, 265, 266, 267–268, 288, 289, 292, 293, 296, 327, 340, 363, 366, 374, 389, 392, 393, 404, 421, 525, 696, 697, 764, 775, 814–815, 881, 884, 885, 901, 908, 909, 941, 965, 970–971

fish substitution for infant food meat, 11, 266, 291, 292, 327, 376, 392, 405, 697, 711, 734, 881, 885, 882, 909, 941, 951

formula, 8, 24, 136, 179, 181, 186–187, 264, 285, 318, 324, 432–433, 694, 696, 697, 714, 745, 873, 883, 946

gap analysis, 243

fully breastfed infants (II-BF), 8, 24, 25, 188, 191, 243, 264, 288, 290–291, 292, 318, 328, 388, 400, 403, 404, 405, 518, 690, 696, 765, 873, 874, 880 n.5, 883, 884, 885, 907, 908, 909, 934, 936, 940, 941, 943, 951, 946, 958

fully formula-fed infants (II-FF), 8, 24, 264, 318, 328, 400, 403, 433, 435, 697, 765, 873, 874, 880 n.5, 883, 907, 932, 934, 936, 940, 941, 943, 946, 977

jarred infant food meat, 7, 8, 11, 25, 188, 191, 243, 264, 266, 288, 290–291, 292, 327, 376, 388, 392, 405, 419, 423, 438, 690, 696, 697, 711, 715, 734–735, 764, 873, 881, 885, 882, 909, 941, 951, 909, 922, 925, 946, 951

jarred infant food vegetables and fruits, 8, 9, 10, 25, 264, 265, 266, 268, 285–288, 291, 292–293, 310, 363, 366, 404–405, 428, 696, 697, 715, 873, 884, 908–909, 943, 946

juice, 264, 487, 554, 556

milks and milk substitutes, 516

nomenclature, 874

nutrient priorities, 218–219, 242, 243, 254, 686

partially (mostly) breastfed infants (II-BF/FF), 8, 24, 264, 318, 328, 400, 403, 697, 765, 873, 874, 880 n.5, 883, 907, 934, 936, 940, 941, 943, 946, 975

revised benefit, 8, 264, 265, 266, 268, 285–289, 290–291, 292–293, 310, 328, 696–697, 883–886

rationale and benefits of changes, 883, 884–886

saturated fats, 133, 814, 858, 860

Package III (participants with special medical needs)

alignment with dietary guidance, 141–152

alignment with DRIs, 181

categorical eligibility, 23, 400

costs, 320–321, 328, 329, 330

current benefit, 24–25, 137, 140–145, 150, 292, 328, 405–406, 698, 735

CVV, 293

formula, 8, 10, 24, 140–141, 142, 150, 181, 268, 285, 292–293, 330, 405–406, 698, 735, 745, 886, 910

human milk fortifier, 735

jarred infant food vegetables and fruits, 292, 293, 696, 697

juice, 10, 265

legumes and peanut butter, 143, 268

Medicaid coverage of formulas and medical foods, 448

milks and milk substitutes, 141, 142, 143, 150, 268, 886

nomenclature, 874

Page 1027 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

rationale and benefits of changes, 886

revised benefit, 8, 10, 265, 268, 285, 292–293, 328, 698, 886

nutritionals, WIC-eligible, 25, 140, 141, 265, 268, 292, 330, 401, 416, 417, 698, 725, 875, 886, 917, 920, 945, 980

unsuitable foods for special diets, 143

Package IV-A (children 1 to <2 years)

added sugar limits, 135, 180, 184, 192, 207, 217, 240, 654–657, 715, 716, 720, 861, 862

alignment with DGA, 126, 132–135, 136

alignment with DRIs, 134–135, 861–864

breads, 118, 119, 239, 278–279, 300, 410–411, 421, 422, 699, 721, 841, 843, 888–889, 915, 923, 943, 944, 946, 947

breakfast cereals, 10, 26, 240, 268, 299, 306, 699, 720, 940, 943, 946

categorical eligibility, 23, 400

cheese, 26, 27, 239, 240, 269, 276–277, 298, 408, 556, 700, 718–719, 741, 751, 887

current, 2, 26–28, 118–119, 126, 134–135, 136–137, 273, 274, 275, 277, 296–302, 318–319, 329, 339, 344, 348, 352, 354, 358, 360, 373, 381, 382, 406–409, 410, 411–412, 413, 699–700, 715–724, 776–777, 786–787, 792–793, 798–799, 804–805

eggs, 10, 26, 268, 718, 940, 943, 946

fish, 10, 26, 268, 281, 283, 291, 292, 302, 327, 412, 413, 421, 436, 437, 697, 723–724, 812–813, 889–890, 916, 917, 923, 940, 946, 949

formula, 24–25

juice, 10, 13, 26, 110, 126, 129, 254, 268, 275, 283, 389, 421, 455, 699, 719, 765, 886–887, 923, 943, 946

legumes and peanut butter, 10, 26, 92, 139, 239, 268, 173, 274, 281, 283, 412–413, 724–725, 755, 763, 884, 890, 941, 943, 945, 946, 952–953, 957

milks and milk substitutes, 2, 7, 10, 26, 239, 240, 268, 277–278, 283, 296, 339–340, 421, 699, 700, 716, 732, 741, 750–751, 766, 887, 888, 923, 941, 946, 955

nomenclature, 874

nutrient intake analysis, 180, 182–183, 184, 185, 186

nutrient priorities, 219, 223, 239–241, 242, 254, 255–257, 686

proposed revisions, 886–891

rationale and benefits of changes, 887–891

revised package, 10, 268–270, 271, 272–274, 275, 276, 277–278, 279, 280, 281, 289, 293, 296–300, 305, 306, 329, 699–700

saturated fats, 135, 240, 340, 485, 777, 861, 862, 863

yogurt, 27, 240, 269, 275, 298, 409, 488, 516, 556, 700, 718, 751, 887, 892

Package IV-B (children 2 to <5 years)

added sugar, 82, 109, 120, 125, 135, 149, 180, 184, 191, 193, 195, 196, 204, 207, 217, 218, 219, 223, 240, 344–345, 348, 658–665, 687, 715, 716, 720, 863, 865

alignment with DGA, 118–119, 125, 134–135, 136–137, 841–844

alignment with DRIs, 134–135, 861–864

breads, 118, 119, 239, 278–279, 300, 410–411, 421, 422, 699, 721, 841, 843, 888–889, 915, 923, 943, 944, 946, 947

breakfast cereal, 10, 26, 118, 138, 240, 255, 268, 299, 306, 347, 348, 699, 720, 791, 841, 843, 940, 944, 947

categorical eligibility, 23, 400

cheese, 26, 27, 239, 240, 256, 269, 276–277, 339, 408–409, 718–719, 741, 751–752, 776–777, 887

current, 26–28, 118–119, 329, 699–700

CVV, 10, 15, 26, 118, 239, 255, 256, 268, 269, 271, 273, 283, 340, 350, 351, 352–353, 356, 358–359, 374, 382, 388, 413, 418, 421, 454–456, 488, 699, 765, 773, 786–787, 792–793, 798–801, 820, 824, 841, 843, 867, 890–891

Page 1028 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

eggs, 10, 26, 118, 256, 268, 377, 382, 718, 824, 841, 843, 940, 944, 947

fish, 10, 26, 118, 268, 281, 283, 302, 360, 362–363, 364, 388, 412, 413, 421, 436, 437, 697, 723–724, 774, 804–805, 810–811, 841, 843, 889–890, 916, 917, 923, 940, 947, 949

food group priorities, 255–257

gap analysis, 373, 378, 380, 382

HEI score, 196, 197, 348, 352, 354, 358, 360, 364, 669

juice, 10, 13, 26, 110, 118, 129, 268, 275, 283, 358, 388, 389, 421, 699, 719, 765, 774, 798–799, 824, 841, 843, 886–887, 923, 944, 947

legumes and peanut butter, 10, 26, 92, 118, 239, 268, 273, 274, 281, 283, 364–365, 368, 377, 382, 412–413, 421, 724–725, 755, 763, 775, 810–811, 841, 843, 884, 890, 923, 941, 944, 945, 947, 952–953, 957

milks and milk substitutes, 7, 10, 26, 118, 239, 240, 256, 268, 277–278, 283, 296, 339–340, 344, 699, 732, 741, 750–751, 766, 773, 776–777, 843, 887–888, 941, 944, 947, 951, 955

nomenclature, 874

nutrient priorities, 216–218, 219, 223, 239–241, 242, 254, 255–257, 687

proposed revisions, 886–891

rationale and benefits of changes, 887–891

revised, 329

saturated fats, 135, 240, 340, 344, 378, 777, 783, 786, 793, 799, 805, 811, 865

sensitivity analysis, 338–340, 341, 342, 344, 346, 347, 348, 350–351, 352, 354, 357, 358, 360, 362–363, 364, 368, 773, 775

Package V-A (pregnant women)

alignment with DGA, 112–113, 125, 127–135, 825–828

alignment with DRI, 127–135, 845–848

breads, 112, 224, 300, 410–411, 701, 721, 825, 827, 829, 831, 892, 896, 914–915, 944, 947

breakfast cereal, 10, 26, 112, 224, 226, 227, 245, 247, 268, 299, 306, 347, 348–349, 701, 720, 791, 827, 940, 944, 947

categorical eligibility, 400

cheese, 26, 27, 28, 224, 225, 227, 246, 247, 269, 276–277, 298, 408–409, 517, 702, 718–719, 741, 742, 752, 887, 892

current, 26, 112–113, 127–135, 130–131, 294, 296–302, 319, 329, 331, 344, 348–349, 352–353, 354–355, 358–359, 360–361, 381, 406–409, 410, 411–412, 701–702, 715–724, 778–779, 782–783, 784, 788–789, 794–795, 800–801, 806–807, 810–811

CVV, 10, 26, 112, 224, 225, 226, 227, 245, 247, 264, 268, 271, 283, 288, 289, 293, 294, 340, 352–353, 356, 358–359, 413–414, 421, 422, 701, 766, 774, 788–789, 794–795, 821, 825, 827, 829, 831, 867, 894, 895–897, 900

eggs, 10, 26, 113, 224, 247, 268, 701, 718, 820, 825, 827, 940, 944, 947

fish, 10, 26, 113, 246, 247, 268, 283, 294, 302, 360, 362, 364–365, 388, 412, 436, 437, 701, 723–724, 766, 775, 806–807, 825, 827, 893–894, 897, 916, 940, 947

HEI score, 348, 352, 354, 358–359, 360, 364–365

juice, 10, 26, 112, 268, 283, 358–359, 421, 644–657, 701, 719, 766, 774, 800–801, 821, 825, 827, 891, 923, 941, 944, 947

legumes and peanut butter, 10, 26, 92, 112, 224, 225, 226, 246–247, 268, 274, 281, 283, 364–365, 412–413, 421, 699, 701, 702, 724–725, 755, 763, 775, 812–813, 825, 827, 893–894, 897, 923, 941, 944, 947, 952–953, 957

milks and milk substitutes, 10, 26, 112, 224, 225, 226, 227, 246, 247, 268, 277, 283, 296, 346, 421, 701, 716, 732, 741, 766, 773, 778–779, 825, 827, 891–892, 923, 941, 944, 947, 955

nomenclature, 874

Page 1029 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

nutrient priorities, 224–228, 242, 244–246, 377, 682

rationale and benefits of changes, 891–894

revised, 9, 10, 263, 266, 268–270, 271, 272–274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281, 283, 289, 294, 296–300, 305, 306, 329, 701–702, 891–894

saturated fats, 125, 131, 223, 225, 344, 363, 364–365, 779, 784, 788, 795, 801, 807, 813, 845, 847

sensitivity analysis, 338, 340, 342, 344, 348–349, 351, 352–353, 354, 358–359, 360, 362, 363, 364–365, 773–775

yogurt, 27, 28, 224, 225, 227, 246, 267, 269, 275, 298, 488, 702, 718, 752, 887

Package V-B (partially breastfeeding women)

alignment with DGA, 112–113, 125, 829–832

alignment with DRIs, 130–131, 845–848

breads, 112, 224, 300, 410–411, 701, 721, 825, 827, 829, 831, 892, 896, 914–915, 944, 947

breakfast cereal, 9, 26, 112, 229, 230, 231, 232–233, 248, 265, 306, 701, 720, 829, 831, 940, 944, 947

categorical eligibility, 23, 401

cheese, 26, 27, 28, 229, 230, 231, 249, 250, 267, 276–277, 298, 408–409, 700, 702, 718–719, 741, 742, 752, 896

current, 26, 112–113, 127–135, 294, 296–302, 319, 329, 331, 344, 348–349, 352–353, 354–355, 358–359, 360–361, 381, 406–409, 410, 411–412, 701–702, 715–724, 778–779, 782–783, 784, 788–789, 794–795, 800–801, 806–807, 810–811

eggs, 9, 26, 113, 249, 701, 718, 821, 829, 831, 940, 944, 947

fish, 9, 26, 113, 244, 255, 256, 265, 281, 283, 294, 302, 363, 383, 701, 723–724, 766, 775, 829, 831, 895, 897, 916, 940, 947

food group priorities, 245–247

HEI score, 195

juice, 9, 26, 112, 283, 421, 701, 766, 829, 831, 895, 941, 944, 947

legumes and peanut butter, 9, 26, 92, 112, 229–230, 231, 232, 249, 256–257, 265, 274, 281, 283, 412–413, 699, 701, 702, 724–725, 755, 763, 829, 831, 895, 941, 944, 947, 952–953, 957

milks and milk substitutes, 9, 26, 112, 229, 230, 231, 232–233, 249, 250, 265, 277, 283, 296, 344, 455, 701, 716, 732, 741, 766, 829, 831, 896, 941, 944, 947, 955

nomenclature, 874

nutrient priorities, 12, 221–222, 223, 229–233, 242, 244, 248–250, 253, 254, 684

rationale and benefits of changes, 894–897

revised, 9, 264–265, 317, 329, 381, 388, 389, 401, 416, 420, 421, 422, 693–694, 701–702, 821, 829–832, 845–848, 867, 875, 881, 894–897, 919, 923, 926, 932, 937, 947, 955

saturated fats, 125, 131, 223, 230, 845, 847

yogurt, 230, 231, 250, 267, 275, 298, 488, 702, 718, 751–752, 896

Package VI (postpartum women)

alignment with DGA, 114–115, 125, 130–131, 136, 849–850

alignment with DRIs, 130–131, 136, 851–852

breads, 234, 300, 721

breakfast cereals, 9, 26, 116, 234, 235, 236–237, 238, 251, 253, 265, 299, 306, 703, 720, 833, 835, 940, 944, 947

categorical eligibility, 23, 401

cheese, 26, 27, 28, 234, 235, 251, 253, 267, 276–277, 298, 408–409, 517, 704, 718–719, 741, 742, 752, 897

current, 26, 114–115, 130–131, 136, 242, 273, 296–302, 317, 319, 329, 381, 406–407, 408–409, 411–412, 703–704, 715–724

CVV, 9, 26, 114, 234, 235, 236, 251, 252, 254, 264, 283, 293, 414–415, 421, 422, 703, 774, 822, 833, 835, 898

eggs, 9, 26, 114, 253, 703, 718, 822, 833, 835, 940, 944, 948

Page 1030 Cite
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×

fish, 9, 26, 114, 252, 253, 265, 283, 302, 412, 436, 437, 703, 723–724, 833, 835, 897–898, 916, 940, 948

food group priorities, 251–253

gap analysis, 234–238, 684–685

HEI score, 195, 668

juice, 9, 26, 114, 275 n.7, 283, 421, 650, 652, 703, 719, 822, 833, 835, 897, 923, 941, 944

legumes and peanut butter, 9, 26, 92, 114, 234, 235, 236–237, 252, 253, 265, 274, 281, 283, 412–413, 703, 724–725, 755, 763, 833, 835, 897–898, 941, 944, 945, 947, 952–953, 957

milks and milk substitutes, 9, 26, 114, 234, 235, 236, 237, 251, 253, 254, 265, 277, 283, 296, 703, 704, 716, 732, 741, 767, 833, 835, 897, 941, 944, 947, 955

nomenclature, 874

Nutrient-Based Diet Quality Index score, 197

nutrient priorities, 223, 234–238, 242, 251–253, 254, 377, 684–685

rationale and benefits of changes, 897–898

revised, 9, 234, 251–253, 264–265, 329, 416, 417, 421, 437, 703–704, 822, 833–836, 849–852, 895, 897–898, 919, 920, 923, 926, 947–948, 955, 982

saturated fats, 125, 131, 223, 235, 849, 851

yogurt, 27, 28, 234, 251, 267, 275, 298, 488, 704, 718, 752, 897

Package VII (fully breastfeeding women)

alignment with DGA, 116–117, 125, 229–233, 248–250, 823, 837–840

alignment with DRI, 130–131, 136, 853–856

breads, 116, 117, 230, 300, 410–411, 705, 721, 837, 839, 899, 914–915, 944, 948

breakfast cereals, 9, 26, 116, 229, 230, 231, 232–233, 248, 265, 299, 306, 347, 349, 705, 720, 791, 837, 839, 940, 944, 948

categorical eligibility, 23, 401

cheese, 26, 27, 28, 116, 145, 229, 230, 231, 249, 250, 267, 276–277, 298, 408–409, 420, 421, 422, 486, 488, 705, 706, 718–719, 741, 742, 753, 780–781, 837–840, 898–899, 914, 923, 924, 925, 940, 944, 958

current, 26, 116–117, 130–131, 136, 280, 294, 296–302, 319, 329, 331, 344–345, 349, 353, 355, 357, 359, 360, 381, 406–409, 410, 411–412, 705–706, 715–724, 780–781, 785, 790–791, 796–797, 802–803, 808–809

CVV, 9, 26, 116, 229, 230, 231, 232, 244, 248, 249, 250, 264, 283, 288, 289, 293, 350, 351, 352–353, 356–357, 358–359, 413–414, 420, 421, 445, 705, 767, 774, 790–791, 796–797, 802–803, 823, 837, 839, 867, 898–899

eggs, 9, 26, 116, 249, 294, 705, 718, 823, 837, 839, 940, 944, 948

fish, 9, 26, 92, 110, 116, 137, 149, 265, 280, 281, 283, 302, 340, 357, 361, 362, 411, 412, 705, 723–724, 775, 808–809, 837, 839, 900, 916–917, 940, 944, 948

food group priorities, 248–250

HEI score, 349, 353, 355, 359, 361

juice, 9, 26, 116, 283, 356–357, 359, 488, 705, 719, 767, 802–803, 823, 837, 839, 898, 941, 944, 948

legumes and peanut butter, 9, 26, 92, 116, 229–230, 231, 232, 249, 265, 274, 281, 283, 412–413, 705, 724–725, 755, 763, 837, 839, 899, 941, 944, 948, 952–953, 957

milks and milk substitutes, 9, 26, 116, 229, 230, 231, 232–233, 249, 250, 265, 277, 283, 296, 344–345, 346, 705, 716, 732, 741, 767, 773, 780–781, 837, 839, 841, 897, 898, 941, 944, 948, 954, 955

nomenclature, 874

nutrient priorities, 221–222, 223, 229–233, 242, 244, 248–250, 253, 254, 684

rationale and benefits of changes, 898–904

Page 1031 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

revised, 9, 229–233, 248–250, 264–265, 276–277, 281, 294, 329, 340, 344–345, 349, 353, 355, 359, 361, 416, 421, 705–706, 733, 780–781, 785, 790–791, 796–797, 802–803, 808–809, 823, 837–840, 853–856, 867, 881, 897, 898–904, 919, 920, 922, 923, 924, 926, 928, 937, 948, 955

saturated fats, 125, 131, 223, 230, 344–345, 781, 785, 791, 797, 803, 809, 853, 855

sensitivity analysis, 338, 340, 344–345, 349, 350, 351, 353, 355, 356–357, 359, 361, 773–775, 780–781, 785, 790–791, 796–797, 802–803, 808–809

yogurt, 27, 28, 230, 231, 250, 267, 275–276, 298, 409, 488, 706, 718, 752–753, 780–781, 898–899

Palatability of nutrient-dense foods, added sugars and, 124, 295, 303, 379, 730

Partially breastfeeding women (see also Package V-B)

adverse health impacts of nutrient inadequacies and excesses, 217

DGA recommendations, 138–139, 189–190

DRIs for, 130–131, 171, 186

food group intakes, 189–190, 648–653

Nutrient-Based Diet Quality Index score, 197

nutrient intakes, inadequacies, and excesses, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 217

Participation in WIC

age of children, 57–58

barriers to, 542–544

breastfeeding trends, 70–77

and changes in food packages since 2006, 55–78

demographics, 57–62

distribution across packages, 317–320

employment status and, 61–62

infant formula-feeding proportion, 57, 59, 317–319, 340–341, 366–367, 425, 926, 934–937

food expenditures, 62–70

incentives/strategies to improve, 542–544

income distribution and, 60–61

physiologic state or feeding mode of women, 57–58, 59

racial and ethnic composition, 58, 60, 61

rates, 1, 56–57, 58, 97

satisfaction today, 2, 88–98

shopping experience, 94–98

Peanut butter (see also Legumes and peanut butter)

allergies, 7, 142, 267, 269, 282, 284, 517, 700, 703, 706

package size considerations, 275, 733

Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, 74

Phosphorus, 86, 87, 127, 130, 132, 134, 136, 144, 170 n.9, 171, 174, 176, 182, 183, 185, 297, 344, 345, 346, 347, 348, 566, 567, 571, 573, 604–642, 708, 709, 717, 731, 776, 778, 780, 782, 784, 785, 786, 788, 790, 792, 794, 796, 798, 800, 802, 804, 806, 808, 810, 812, 814, 846, 848, 850, 852, 854, 856, 858, 859, 861, 863, 865

Postpartum women (see also Fully breastfeeding women; Package VI)

DGA recommendations, 138–139, 189–190

DRIs for, 130–131, 171, 186

energy requirements, 591

food group intakes, 188, 189–190, 650–653

nutrient intakes, inadequacies, and excesses, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 585, 589, 594, 595, 610

Potassium, 12, 85, 86, 127, 130, 132, 134, 136, 149, 172, 176, 180, 183, 184, 197, 204, 217, 223, 224, 229, 234, 239, 273, 297, 344, 345, 346, 350, 352, 353, 355, 357, 359, 368, 373, 377, 378, 460, 503, 566, 571, 585, 604–642, 671, 672, 680, 683, 684, 686, 687, 708, 709, 717, 731, 776, 778, 780, 782, 784, 785, 786, 788, 790, 792, 794, 796, 798, 800, 802, 804, 806, 808, 810, 812, 814, 845, 847, 849, 851, 853, 855, 857, 859, 861, 862, 865, 891, 893

Pregnant women (see also Package V-A)

current food package, 26–28

current versus revised packages, 701–702

Page 1032 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

DGA recommendations, 138–139, 189–190

dietary intake assessment challenges, 170

DRIs for, 130–131, 171, 186

energy requirements, 591

food group intakes, 81, 188, 189–190, 644–647

gap analysis, 224–228, 682

Healthy Eating Index, 195, 668

Nutrient-Based Diet Quality Index score, 197

nutrient intakes, inadequacies, and excesses, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 589, 593, 604–607

Prices of foods, 320, 321, 341, 426, 950, 951, 952–953, 954, 955, 956, 957, 958, 960, 965

Priorities identified for food packages

added sugar limits, 217, 218, 219, 223–224, 225, 230, 235, 240, 295, 303, 343, 363, 378, 682, 683, 684, 687, 900, 902

alignment of revised packages with DRIs, 12, 377, 379

behavioral approaches, 220, 221, 223, 226, 227, 229, 231, 232, 236, 237, 244, 249, 253–254, 256, 457–458, 689

for breastfeeding women, 217, 221–222, 223, 229–233, 242, 244, 248–250, 253, 254, 684

calcium, 217, 227, 231, 234, 242, 682, 683, 684

for children 1 to <2 years, 217, 219, 223, 239–241, 242, 254, 255–257, 686

for children 2 to <5 years, 216–218, 219, 223, 239–241, 242, 254, 255–257, 687

choline, 217, 224, 242, 377, 379, 460, 682

copper, 363, 377

cost-neutrality constraint, 6, 15, 373

current versus revised packages, 373

decision tree, 3, 5, 215, 216, 219, 220, 221–254, 262, 378, 447, 448, 689

energy from carbohydrate, protein, and fat, 218, 225, 230, 235, 240, 242

fiber, 217, 223, 225, 229–234, 239, 350, 363, 377, 378, 682, 683, 684, 686, 687

folate, 217, 226, 230, 235, 682, 683, 684

food groups, 46, 219–220, 221, 222, 223, 242, 244–254, 271–272, 276, 342–343, 363, 730

gap analysis, 378, 681, 682–687

for infants, 217, 218–219, 242, 243, 254, 686

iron, 217, 218, 224, 235, 242, 243, 682, 684, 686

magnesium, 363

micronutrient intakes above UL, 217, 218, 225, 229, 234, 239, 682–687

micronutrient intakes below AIs, 6, 46, 202, 216, 220, 224, 228, 229, 233, 234, 238, 239, 241, 243, 377, 379, 682–687

micronutrient intakes below EARs, 6, 45, 46, 216, 219, 220, 224, 226–227, 377, 379, 682–687

niacin, 363

nutrient inadequacies and excesses linked to adverse health consequences, 46, 217, 218, 224, 241

nutrients, 46, 202, 215–219, 223–242, 243, 282, 342–343

nutrition education, 220, 221, 222–223, 225, 226, 227, 229, 231, 232, 234, 236, 237, 239, 244, 249, 254, 256, 682

for postpartum women, 217, 223, 234–238, 242, 251–253, 254, 377, 684–685

potential actions for food package revisions, 219–257

potassium, 217, 223, 224, 229, 234, 239, 346, 373, 377, 378, 379, 460, 682, 683, 684, 685, 687

for pregnant women, 217, 224–228, 242, 244–246, 377, 682

rationales, 217, 218, 219, 224–250, 255–257

saturated fat limits, 215, 217, 218, 219, 223, 225, 228, 230, 233, 235, 238, 240, 241, 343, 363, 373, 378, 682, 683, 684, 687

sodium limits, 217, 223–224, 225, 229, 234, 238, 239, 241, 373, 378, 682, 683, 684, 686, 687

translating decision tree into preliminary actions, 222

Page 1033 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

vitamin A, 346

vitamin C, 350, 357

vitamin D, 217, 218–219, 227, 231, 235, 346, 377, 379, 460, 682, 683, 684

vitamin E, 216, 228, 233, 238, 241, 377

zinc, 217, 218, 227, 232, 237, 242, 243, 682, 683, 685, 686

Process for revising food packages (see also Criteria for inclusion of foods; Nutrient intake analysis; Priorities identified for food packages; Sensitivity analysis)

challenges, 5–6

evidence review strategy, 35, 159–165, 502–507

identification of relevant reports, 507, 511

information collection, 35–36

key questions and study eligibility, 503–506

literature and report review, 35, 159–165, 502, 506, 507, 508–511

MEDLINE search strategy, 508–510

overview, 3–5

public comment review, 37, 514–519

shopping for WIC foods, 37

site visits, 37, 512–514

study selection, 507, 508–511

workshops, 35, 493–501

Protein, 45, 130, 132, 134, 136, 172, 173, 175, 177, 178, 180, 184, 218, 242, 244, 292, 293, 297, 298, 309, 344, 489, 516, 517, 518, 570, 571, 573, 585, 593–603, 708, 709, 717, 718, 719, 776, 778, 780, 782, 784, 786, 788, 790, 792, 794, 796, 798, 800, 802, 804, 806, 808, 810, 812, 814, 846, 848, 850, 852, 854, 856, 857, 859, 861, 862, 863, 865, 887

Protein foods (see Eggs; Fish; Infant food meat; Legumes and peanut butter)

Q

Quality of WIC participants’ diets (see Healthy Eating Index)

R

Race/ethnicity (see also Cultural considerations)

added sugar consumption, 164

breastfeeding trends, 71, 72

food purchasing and consumption differences, 164

WIC participants, 58, 60, 61

Recommendations for implementation and research, 13–15, 443–456

administrative relief, 14, 445

juices, 15, 485

vendor needs and barriers, 15, 452–453

Recommendations to revised WIC food packages, 6–7, 11, 283–284, 309–310

eggs, 7, 284

infant formula, 11, 291, 293

jarred infant foods, 11, 291

juices, 7, 283, 284

legumes and peanut butter, 7, 283

Redemption of WIC foods

alignment of intakes with dietary guidance, 41, 124–125, 825–826, 829–830, 833–834, 841–842, 845–846, 853–854, 857–858, 861, 863–864

Altarum redemption distributions, 323, 759–768, 933, 939, 942

barriers to, 93–94, 444, 445, 542–544

breads, 92, 446, 522, 831, 943, 944, 946, 947, 948, 954, 979

breakfast cereal, 92, 307, 347, 348–350, 753, 782–785, 791, 825, 827, 829, 831, 833, 835, 837, 839, 841, 938, 940, 943, 944, 946, 947, 948

calculation/projection of rates, 322–323, 324, 425, 758–762, 933, 939–945, 962–964

changes in packages since 2006 and, 89–94, 524

container/product size and, 408, 888, 912, 979

and costs of revised packages, 11, 315–316, 320, 321–323, 324, 325–326, 328–329, 330, 331, 333, 338, 344–345, 347, 348–349, 350, 351, 352–355, 356, 358–362, 363, 364–365, 395, 397, 415, 418, 425, 428, 429, 739, 741–744, 745, 746, 763–768, 869, 871, 909, 921, 938, 980

Page 1034 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

cultural considerations, 148, 150, 274, 524

current foods, 12, 92, 278, 290, 347, 378, 381, 382, 758, 760, 763–768, 773–815

CVV and, 16, 44, 92, 94, 113, 115, 117, 119, 272, 322, 350–351, 352–353, 356, 357, 382, 390, 404, 428, 429, 445, 522, 524, 525, 757, 758, 760, 763, 764, 765, 766, 773–774, 775, 786–803, 814–815, 820–824, 831, 835, 839, 841, 908, 941, 962–964, 965

data sources and availability, 320, 321, 325–326, 425, 450, 453, 460, 732, 739, 871, 933, 938–939, 954

defined, 18, 322 n.10, 474, 477, 478

eggs, 92, 382, 764, 820–824, 940, 943, 944, 946, 947, 948

fish, 92, 357, 360–361, 362, 364–365, 392, 405, 733, 755, 804–813, 909, 951

by food group, 92, 380, 382, 384–385, 741–744, 747–751, 753, 754, 755–758, 763–768, 773–775, 825–826, 829–834, 841–842, 845–846, 833–834, 841–842, 845–846, 940–941, 943–948

by food package, 16, 460–461, 776–781, 938–948

forms of food and, 274, 276, 446, 782–785, 890

HEI–2010 score based on, 384–385

incentives for, 457, 460, 542–544, 881, 890

infant cereal, 92, 518, 748, 765, 940, 943, 946

infant food meat, 92, 93, 290, 392, 405, 518, 746, 764, 885, 941, 943, 946, 951

infant food vegetables and fruits, 92, 941, 943, 946, 965

infant formula, 92, 93, 320, 747, 748, 764, 765, 940, 943, 945, 946, 948, 950, 980–981

juice, 356, 358–359, 741, 750, 798–803, 938, 965

legumes and peanut butter, 12, 92, 274, 281, 321–322, 323, 362, 363, 364–365, 758, 763, 775, 810–813, 825, 827, 829, 831, 833, 835, 837, 839, 841, 843, 925, 941, 943, 944, 946, 947, 948

milks and milk substitutes, 92, 276, 277, 282, 322, 323, 340, 343, 344–345, 346, 408, 523, 732, 741, 750, 751, 754, 758–759, 766, 767, 776–781, 888, 938, 941, 943, 944, 946, 947, 948, 950, 951, 978, 980–981

nutrient intakes based on, 378, 381, 853–854, 867

and nutrient profiles, 321, 344–345, 346, 347, 348–349, 350–351, 352–355, 358–362, 363, 364–365, 368, 739, 747–751, 753, 754, 755–758, 763–768, 776–815

peanut butter, 12, 92, 281, 362, 364–365, 810–813

perceived value of packages and, 41

preferences of participants, 12, 392, 732

and prices for each food package item, 425, 950–956

and qualitative assessment of package changes, 44

quantities of foods and, 340, 344–345, 346, 353–354

and regulatory impact analysis, 395, 397, 415, 418, 425, 428, 429, 869, 871, 909, 921, 933, 938–945, 946–949, 978, 980–981

research recommendations, 14, 15, 16, 445, 449, 450, 451, 452–453

rotation of foods and, 362, 364–365, 810–813

satisfaction of WIC participants with 2009 changes, 524, 525

and sensitivity analysis, 36, 43, 338, 339, 340, 341, 343, 344–365, 758 n.1, 773–815

and shopping behavior, 949–950

shopping experience and, 94, 979

shopping venue and, 95, 98

split tender and, 94

trends by category and package, 2, 89, 92–93

vegetable-to-fruit ratio, 16, 272, 322, 350, 351, 354–355, 356, 460, 757–758, 794–797

Page 1035 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

whole grains, 386, 446, 755

Regulation of food packages (see also Specifications)

chronology of statutes, 489–490

Final Rule, 18, 20, 22, 28, 31, 52, 54, 88, 123, 140–141, 144, 266, 272, 278, 279–280, 293, 295, 303, 304, 305, 307, 309, 474, 487, 488, 528, 695, 697, 700, 725, 728, 730, 731, 733, 748, 869

implementation of 2006 IOM recommendations, 22–23, 484–487

Interim Rule, 2, 22, 23, 31, 34, 440, 488, 527, 548, 578, 869, 878, 986–987

timeline for implementation of most recent changes, 488

Regulatory impact analysis, current and revised packages (see also Food cost estimates; individual packages)

action, 876–877

added sugar limit, 484

affected parties, 877

alignment with dietary guidance and, 411, 412, 414, 436, 876–877, 879–881, 884, 887, 888, 890, 892, 893, 894, 902, 904, 916, 917, 918, 979

alternatives rejected, 436–438, 978–979, 982–986

background on WIC program, 879–904

bread changes, 419, 421, 422, 423, 438, 888–889, 922, 923, 925, 979, 983, 984

breastfeeding support and incentives and, 881

complementary food changes, 403, 404, 873, 880 n.5, 881, 907, 909

CVV changes, 404, 413–414, 418, 419, 420, 421, 428–431, 438, 890–891, 909, 911, 918, 921–922, 923–924, 926, 962–972, 984–985

economic impacts of proposed revisions, 402–414, 877–905

effects of revisions on stakeholders, 402–414, 905, 906–918

fish additions/changes, 405, 411, 412, 413, 419, 421, 423, 436–438, 440, 880, 881, 885–886, 889, 890, 893–894, 895, 897–898, 900, 904, 909, 916, 917, 922, 923, 933, 940, 941, 944, 946, 947, 948, 949, 951, 953, 957, 958, 959, 979, 982, 984, 986, 987

food package nomenclature 398–399, 400–401, 873–876

infant cereal changes, 404, 907–908

infant food meat, 405, 909

infant formula, 402–403, 405–406, 440, 906–907, 910

juice changes, 406–407, 418, 419, 421, 423, 428, 438, 439–440, 441, 880, 886–887, 891, 895, 897, 898, 901, 911, 921, 922, 923, 938, 941, 943, 944, 947, 948, 957, 960, 961, 962, 965, 972, 984, 986

key considerations, 395–399, 870–876

legume and peanut butter changes, 412–413, 917–918

market analysis, 412, 438–440, 441, 984, 985–987

milks and milk substitution changes, 407–409, 419–420, 421, 422, 423, 426, 438, 439–440, 886, 887–888, 891–892, 896, 897, 898–899, 900–902, 912–914, 922, 923, 924, 925, 938, 941, 943, 944, 946, 947, 948, 950, 951, 953–954, 955, 956, 957, 958, 978, 980–981, 984, 986

nature of the action, 876

need for the action, 876–877

participant categories for food packages, 400–401, 874–875

representativeness of available data, 396–397, 871, 939, 949–950, 954

summary of proposed changes, 399, 402–414, 879–904

“supplemental” concept and, 412, 879–880, 884, 887, 893, 917

timing of implementation, 397–398, 872

vegetables and fruits, 984–985

Retail sales/market share

infant formula, 435, 440, 986

juice, 439–440, 986

milks and milk substitutes, 27, 440, 732, 986

Retail stores (see WIC vendors)

Page 1036 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

Revised food packages (see also Criteria for inclusion of foods; Priorities identified for food packages; Process for revising food packages; Sensitivity analysis)

added sugar limits, 290, 295, 296, 297, 299, 300, 303, 304, 305, 306, 343, 344–345, 346, 363, 364, 365, 720, 776, 778, 780, 782, 784, 785, 786, 788, 790, 792, 794, 796, 798, 800, 802, 804, 806, 808, 810, 812, 814

administrative burdens, 6, 7, 222, 310, 730

alignment with dietary guidance, 6, 262, 263, 275, 276, 280, 281–282, 283, 286, 287–292, 294, 298, 299, 301, 302, 304, 305, 308, 309–310, 820

allergy/intolerance options, 267, 269, 270, 280, 284, 298, 309

breads, 7, 22, 224, 225, 235, 239, 267, 270, 278–279, 284, 300, 307–308, 309, 326–327, 376, 393, 411, 419, 421, 422, 423, 438, 446, 699, 700, 701, 705, 721, 825, 827, 829, 831, 837, 839, 841, 843, 923, 925, 946, 947, 948, 957, 958, 984

breakfast cereals, 9, 10, 265, 267, 268, 270, 280, 299, 303, 305–308, 309, 347, 419, 423, 438, 699, 701, 703, 705, 720, 742, 753–754, 791, 827, 831, 835, 839, 841, 843, 922, 925, 940, 946, 947, 948, 957, 984

breastfeeding promotion, 280, 285–287, 288

calories for other uses, 376, 380, 381, 386

children 1 to <2 years, 10, 268–270, 271, 272–274, 275, 276, 277–278, 279, 280, 281, 289, 293, 296–300, 305, 306

children 2 to <5 years, monthly allowances, 10, 268–270, 271, 272–274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281, 283, 289, 296–300, 305, 306

committee’s overarching strategy, 261–263

cost-neutrality constraints, 262, 263, 271–273, 275 n.7, 280–282

culturally suitable options, 6, 392

CVV, 5, 6, 8–10, 12, 16, 220, 221, 262, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268, 289, 271–273, 274, 275–276, 283, 284, 288, 289–290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 296, 350–351, 515, 517

eggs, 9, 10, 265, 268, 377, 382, 419, 420, 423, 438, 701, 703, 704, 705, 741, 754, 764, 820–844, 922, 925, 926, 940, 946, 947, 948, 984

fish, 9, 10, 265, 266, 268, 280–282, 283, 289, 291, 292, 294–295, 302, 310

forms of foods (canned, dried, fresh, or frozen), 266, 267, 269, 270, 272–273, 274, 281, 283, 284, 289, 292, 295, 296, 307–308

infant cereal, 8, 9, 264, 287–288, 291, 403, 419, 421, 518, 696, 714, 765, 880 n.5, 883–884, 907–908, 922, 923, 925, 940, 943, 984

infant food meat, 7, 8, 11, 264, 266, 290–291, 292, 327, 376, 388, 392, 405, 419, 423, 697, 711, 734, 764, 881, 882, 885, 909, 922, 925, 941, 946, 951

infant formula, 8, 9, 10, 264, 265, 266, 268, 271, 285–288, 291, 292–293, 310, 318, 403, 419, 420, 423, 434–435, 458, 694, 696, 697, 698, 714, 748–749, 881, 882–883, 906–907, 910, 922, 925, 936–937, 940, 946, 948–949

jarred infant foods, 9, 264, 265, 268, 288–289, 290–291, 292, 293

juice, 7, 9, 10, 12, 265, 267, 268, 269, 275–276, 283, 284, 339, 340, 343, 356–357, 358–359, 368, 374, 377, 379, 419, 423, 438, 699, 701, 703, 705, 719, 741, 765, 766, 767, 774, 798–803, 820–844, 886–887, 891, 901, 922, 925, 984

legumes and peanut butter, 7, 9, 10, 149, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 273–274, 281–282, 283, 284, 362–363, 364–365, 377, 382, 412–413, 419, 421, 423, 438, 699, 701, 703, 705, 742–743, 755, 763, 775, 810–813, 825, 829, 831, 833, 835, 837, 839, 841, 843, 922, 941, 952–953, 957, 984

Page 1037 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

marketplace availability considerations, 263, 272, 275–276, 277, 278–279, 280, 282, 291, 295, 297, 298, 301, 302–303, 304, 305, 307–308, 310

medical needs (III), 265, 268, 285, 292–293

milks and milk substitutes, 7, 9, 10, 12, 265, 267, 268, 269, 270, 276–278, 280, 282, 283, 284, 296, 297, 298, 303, 304, 305, 308, 309, 701, 703, 705, 732, 825, 827, 829, 831, 833, 835, 837, 839, 841, 843, 941, 946, 947, 948, 955, 984

modifications of current food specifications, 294–310

mother–infant dyad, 6–9, 262, 263, 264–267, 271, 285–286, 287, 288

multiple fetuses or infants, 266, 294

partially breastfeeding women, 9, 264–265, 317, 329, 381, 388, 389, 401, 416, 420, 421, 422, 701–702, 693–694, 821, 829–832, 845–848, 867, 875, 881, 894–897, 919, 923, 926, 932, 937, 947, 955

peanut butter, 9, 10, 265, 267, 268, 269, 273, 274–275, 281–282, 283, 284

postpartum women, 9, 234, 251–253, 264–265, 329, 416, 417, 421, 437, 703–704, 822, 833–836, 849–852, 895, 897–898, 919, 920, 923, 926, 947–948, 955, 982

pregnant women, 9, 10, 263, 266, 268–270, 271, 272–274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281, 283, 289, 294, 296–300, 305, 306, 329, 701–702, 891–894

recommendations summarized, 6–7, 11, 283–284, 309–310

redemption considerations, 272, 274, 276, 277, 281 n.13, 282, 290, 291, 307–308, 310

rotation of foods, 265, 268, 273, 281–282

saturated fat limits, 344–345, 346, 363, 364, 373, 378, 379, 777, 779, 781, 783, 784, 785, 787, 789, 791, 793, 795, 797, 799, 801, 803, 805, 807, 809, 811, 813, 814, 845

soy options, 267, 269, 270, 274, 275, 277, 282, 284, 297, 298, 303, 304, 309

“supplemental” concept/criterion and, 262–263, 273–274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 281, 285, 287–288, 290–291, 310

tofu, 267, 269, 270, 297, 308, 309

total sugars specification, 295, 297, 298, 303–304, 309

varieties of foods, 266, 269, 273, 281, 284, 295, 296, 302, 307

vegans/vegetarians, 267, 269, 270, 282, 284, 298, 309

vegetables and fruits, 9, 10, 264, 265, 266, 268, 269, 271–272, 273, 274, 283, 284, 288, 289–290, 291, 292, 293, 295, 296, 310

vendor burdens, 402–414, 906–918

whole grains, 9, 10, 265, 267, 268, 270, 278–280, 282, 284, 299, 300, 302, 305–308, 309

yogurt, 267, 269, 276–277, 278, 282, 284, 298, 302, 303–304, 309

Riboflavin, 127, 131, 133, 136, 171, 176, 297, 344, 345, 346, 347, 348, 349, 353, 568, 571, 604–642, 685, 708, 709, 717, 777, 779, 781, 783, 784, 785, 787, 789, 791, 793, 795, 797, 799, 801, 803, 805, 807, 809, 810, 813, 814, 846, 848, 850, 852, 854, 856, 857, 859, 861, 862, 864, 866

Rice, food safety considerations, 160

Ross Laboratories Mothers’ Survey, 73

S

Saturated fats (see also Calories for other uses)

alignment with dietary guidance, 109, 120, 122, 131, 133, 135, 215, 219, 240, 386, 573

alignment with DRIs, 131, 133, 135, 173, 225, 230, 235, 682–684, 777, 779, 781, 783, 784, 785, 787, 789, 791, 793, 795, 797, 799, 801, 803, 805, 807, 809, 811, 813, 814, 845, 847, 849, 851, 853, 855, 858, 860, 861, 862, 863, 865

cheese, 120, 122, 138, 225, 230, 235, 240, 340, 345, 346, 485, 523, 777, 779, 781

Page 1038 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

children 1 to <2 years, 135, 184, 217, 240, 340, 485, 600, 777, 861, 862, 863

children 2 to <5 years, 131, 133, 135, 184, 217, 240, 340, 344, 378, 601–603, 687, 777, 783, 786, 793, 799, 805, 811, 865

content of foods, 708, 709, 731

criteria for inclusion, 376, 386

current food packages, 120–122, 126, 131, 133, 135, 218, 340, 344–345, 373, 378, 777, 779, 781, 783, 784, 785, 787, 789, 791, 793, 795, 797, 799, 801, 803, 805, 807, 809, 811, 813, 814, 845

DGA recommendations, 87, 111, 122

fully breastfeeding women, 125, 131, 223, 230, 344–345, 594, 595, 682, 683, 781, 785, 791, 797, 803, 809, 853, 855

health effects linked to, 217, 218

HEI score, 340, 344–345

impacts of changes, 162, 344–345

infants, 133, 217, 523, 595–599, 814, 858, 860

intake patterns/analysis, 172, 173, 180, 184, 204, 457, 523, 571, 574, 593–603

IOM 2006 recommendations, 485

limits in food packages, 218

in milks and milk substitutes, 120, 122, 218, 225, 230, 235, 240, 343, 485, 523, 732, 777, 779, 781

partially breastfeeding women, 125, 131, 223, 230, 594, 595, 682, 683, 845, 847

postpartum women, 125, 131, 223, 235, 594, 595, 682, 684, 849, 851

pregnant women, 125, 131, 223, 225, 344, 363, 364–365, 593, 682, 779, 784, 788, 795, 801, 807, 813, 845, 847

prioritization rationale and preliminary actions, 215, 217, 218, 219, 223, 225, 228, 230, 233, 235, 238, 240, 241, 343, 363, 373, 378, 682, 683, 684, 687

regulations, 298, 299, 720, 721

revised, 344–345, 346, 363, 364, 373, 378, 379, 777, 779, 781, 783, 784, 785, 787, 789, 791, 793, 795, 797, 799, 801, 803, 805, 807, 809, 811, 813, 814, 845

sensitivity analysis, 340, 343, 344–345, 346, 363, 364, 365, 777, 779, 781, 783, 784, 785, 787, 789, 791, 793, 795, 797, 799, 801, 803, 805, 807, 809, 811, 813, 814

soy beverages, 122

specifications, 298, 299, 720, 721

yogurt, 120, 122, 218, 516, 700, 718, 750

women, 217, 593

School Breakfast Program, 18 n.1, 56, 120, 299, 305–306, 720

Selenium, 127, 130, 132, 134, 136, 171, 174, 176, 177, 178, 182, 185, 186, 344, 360, 361, 362, 566, 572, 573, 604–642, 708, 709, 776, 778, 780, 781, 782, 784, 785, 786, 788, 790, 792, 795, 796, 798, 800, 803, 804, 807, 809, 810, 812, 814, 846, 848, 850, 852, 854, 856, 857, 859, 861, 862, 863, 865

Sensitivity analysis

alternatives to revised versus current packages, 339, 345, 346, 347, 350–351, 356, 357, 362–363

analyses conducted, 340–341

breakfast cereal, 339, 347–350, 368, 773, 782–784, 791

children 2 to <5 years (IV-B), 338–340, 341, 342, 344, 346, 347, 348, 350–351, 352, 354, 357, 358, 360, 362–363, 364, 368, 773, 775

cost effects, 5, 337–367, 777, 779, 781, 783, 784, 785, 787, 789, 791, 793, 795, 797, 799, 801, 803, 805, 807, 809, 811, 813, 814

current packages, 343, 346, 347, 350, 356–357, 362–363, 773–815

CVV, 339, 340, 343, 350–359, 368, 773–774, 775, 786–803, 814–815

dairy adjustment (milk and substitutes), 339–340, 341, 343–346, 368, 773, 776–781

defined, 479

Page 1039 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

energy, 344, 776, 778, 780, 782, 784, 786, 788, 790, 792, 794, 796, 798, 800, 802, 804, 806, 808, 810, 812, 814

evaluation of changes, 346, 350, 351, 356, 357, 362, 363

fish addition, 339, 340, 357, 360–362, 368, 774–775, 804–809

fully breastfeeding women (VII), 338, 340, 344–345, 349, 350, 351, 353, 355, 356–357, 359, 361, 773–775

interpretation of results, 342–343

jarred infant food vegetables and fruits, 340, 363, 366, 775, 814

juice tradeoffs, 339, 340, 343, 356–357, 358–359, 368, 774, 798–803

methodological approach, 337, 339–343

nutrients, 343–366, 776–814

outcome measures, 341

overall findings and conclusions, 368

overview, 36, 339–340, 343

pregnant women (V-A), 338, 340, 342, 344, 348–349, 351, 352–353, 354, 358–359, 360, 362, 363, 364–365, 773–775

purpose, goals, and limitations, 3, 4, 5, 36, 42, 43, 337, 338–339

redemption rates and, 36, 43, 338, 339, 340, 341, 343, 344–365, 758 n.1, 773–815

revised versus current packages, 343, 346, 347, 350, 356–357, 362–363, 773–815

rotation of peanut butter, legumes, and fish, 339, 343, 357, 362–363, 364–365, 775, 810–813

shift from formula feeding to breastfeeding, 340–341, 366–367

vegetable-to-fruit proportions, 351–352, 354–356

Shopping for WIC foods, 29, 37, 94–98

Sodium limits

alignment with dietary guidance, 111, 116–117, 121, 204, 387

breads, 121, 225, 229–230, 235, 239, 731

breakfast cereals, 225, 229, 234

cheese, 30, 111, 121, 138, 225, 229, 234, 239

current, 111, 116–117, 121, 130, 132, 373, 411, 730

DASH eating plan, 85, 473

DGA recommendation, 87, 111

in fish (canned), 111, 302, 411–412

gap analysis, 378, 681–684, 686, 687

and HEI–2010, 96 n.16, 164, 195, 196, 381, 385, 666, 667, 668, 669

infant food meats, 711

intake patterns, 164, 172, 174, 175, 176, 180, 183, 185, 186, 204, 378, 457, 566, 573, 604–640

low-sodium options, 30, 111, 446, 530, 545, 730

in milks and milk substitutes, 121, 225, 229, 239, 308, 379

peanut butter, 30

priorities, 44, 217, 223–224, 225, 229, 234, 238, 239, 241, 373, 378, 682, 683, 684, 686, 687

revised, 373, 378, 379, 380, 385, 387, 389

sensitivity analysis, 344, 345, 776, 778, 781, 782, 784, 785, 786, 788, 790, 792, 794, 796, 798, 800, 802, 804, 806, 808, 810, 812, 814

soy beverages, 121

vegetables and fruits, 530, 545, 708, 709–710

Soy beverages

added sugars, 7, 123, 124, 225, 230, 235, 240, 303, 389

calcium, 231, 234

cost difference of substitution, 326

costs, 326, 951, 957

culturally suitable option, 392

current packages, 30, 143, 145

defined, 579

DGA alignment, 309, 386, 485

flavored, 121, 122, 123

marketplace availability, 304

nutrient analysis, 750–751

saturated fat limit, 122

sodium limit, 121

substitution for cow’s milk, 30, 121, 143, 145, 323, 579

total sugars limit, 303, 304, 309, 386, 389, 392

vitamin D, 227, 231, 235

Special Milk Program, 18 n.1

Page 1040 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

Specifications

added sugars, 295, 296, 297, 299, 303, 720

breads, 7, 22, 139, 300, 307–308, 309, 376, 721, 888–889, 892, 896, 899, 903, 914–915

breakfast cereals, 7, 28, 123, 124, 138, 267, 299, 303, 305–307, 309, 347–350, 484, 700, 720, 729–730, 903, 958

current, 296–302, 303–304, 305, 714–724, 728–729

eggs, 718, 734

infant cereal, 714

infant formula, 20 n.5, 714, 727–729

jarred infant food, 709, 715

juice, 719

legumes and peanut butter, 724–725, 884, 893

milks and milk substitutes, 31, 52, 88, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 296, 298, 305, 309, 488, 556, 716, 732, 851 n.17, 892, 900–901

proposed revisions and rationales, 13, 296–303, 714–725

reviewed but unchanged, 725–727

saturated fat limits, 298, 299, 720, 721

Statement of task, 32–33

Statistical Program for Age-adjusted Dietary Assessment (SPADE), 479, 570, 586, 587, 664

Substitutions in food packages

breads, 22, 28, 31, 143, 267, 270, 279, 284, 324, 326–327, 410, 484, 485, 700, 702, 706, 733, 888–889, 892, 896, 899, 903

current, 23, 30–31, 279–280, 284, 289, 296, 734–735, 780–781

costs of, 323–324, 326–327

eggs, 7, 282, 284, 323, 327, 375, 488, 700, 702, 704

infant food meat substitutes, 7, 11, 146, 266, 291, 292, 327, 376, 392, 405, 436, 438, 697, 711, 734–735, 881, 885, 882, 909, 941, 951, 979

legumes and peanut butter, 30, 7, 142, 143, 267, 269, 282, 284, 375, 392, 517, 700, 702, 703, 704, 706, 764

milks and milk substitutes, 7, 30, 143, 145, 146, 734 (see also Cheese; Soy beverages; Tofu; Yogurt)

Sugars (see Added sugars; Total sugars)

Summer Food Service Program, 18 n.1

Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), 18 n.1, 29, 56, 63, 95, 167–168, 201, 262, 271, 449, 450, 454, 535, 536, 537, 538, 539, 581 n.4, 587, 678, 690, 878

T

Teff, 13, 267, 270, 279, 284, 300, 308, 324, 326, 411, 480, 515, 700, 702, 706, 722, 731, 881, 888, 889, 892, 896, 899

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), 19, 56, 480, 535, 536, 537, 538, 539, 581, 678, 878

Thiamin, 127, 132, 134, 136, 170, 171, 176, 187, 233, 237, 345, 348, 349, 353, 355, 357, 359, 568, 571, 604–642, 683, 685, 708, 709, 777, 779, 781, 783, 784, 785, 786, 788, 791, 793, 795, 797, 798, 801, 803, 805, 807, 809, 810, 813, 814, 846, 848, 849, 851, 853, 855, 857, 859, 861, 862, 864, 866

Tofu, 27–28, 30, 31, 67, 69, 96, 121, 122, 123, 143, 145, 227, 267, 269, 270, 297, 308, 309, 322, 326, 392, 408–409, 485, 488, 700, 702, 704, 706, 717, 741, 750, 902, 913, 951, 955, 956, 981

Total fat, 120, 218, 299, 344, 385, 485, 570, 573, 593, 594–603, 708, 709, 711, 720, 721, 776, 778, 780, 782, 784, 785, 786, 788, 790, 792, 794, 796, 798, 800, 802, 804, 806, 808, 810, 812, 814

Total sugars, 303, 304, 309, 487, 729–730

U

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), 320 n.6, 744, 746, 931, 935, 937, 954, 958

Page 1041 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

V

Vegan or vegetarian diets

current foods, 145–146, 150, 518, 724

percentage of mothers, 548

substitutions, 7, 146, 150, 282, 284, 392, 518, 700, 702, 704, 706

Vegetables and fruits (see also Cash value voucher; Infant food vegetables and fruits)

alignment of intakes with dietary guidance, 221, 223–227, 229–232, 234–236, 239, 244, 247–252, 254, 255, 256, 258, 276, 283, 289, 350, 351–352, 354–357, 358–359, 366, 368, 374, 377, 382, 386, 387, 388, 391, 414, 484, 486, 789, 791, 792–797, 801, 803, 821–825, 827, 829, 831, 835, 837, 839, 841, 843, 867, 880, 887, 984

Consumer Price Index, 960

cultural considerations, 7, 13, 147–148, 150, 272, 284, 289, 374, 388, 392, 413–414

current food packages, 26, 139, 271, 272, 273, 289, 296, 351–352, 354–355, 377, 438, 699, 701, 703, 705, 715–716, 756–757, 789, 791, 792–797, 801, 803, 821–825, 827, 829, 831, 835, 837, 839, 841, 843

dietary guidance, 139

expenditures, 66, 69

forms/options, 7, 28, 53, 223, 224, 226, 235, 239, 266, 269, 272–273, 284, 289–290, 292, 295, 392, 393, 404, 715, 908

food safety considerations, 160

Healthy Eating Index, 196, 352–353, 354–355, 356, 358–359, 374, 793

improving intake patterns, 2, 5, 84

intake patterns, 2, 5, 84, 867

market share, 440, 986

marketplace availability and stocking requirements, 52, 266, 273, 295, 374, 404, 453, 545, 908

nutrient intakes, 84, 867

nutrient profiles and priorities, 792–797, 867

proportions of vegetables to fruits, 16, 351–356, 457, 460, 792–795, 984

revised food packages, 9, 10, 264, 268, 351–352, 354–356, 377, 382, 438, 699, 701, 703, 705, 715–716, 756–757, 789, 791, 792–797, 801, 803, 821–825, 827, 829, 831, 835, 837, 839, 841, 843, 867

sensitivity analysis, 351–352, 354–356, 789, 791, 792–797, 801, 803

serving equivalent, 579

specifications, 296, 716

substitutions allowed, 30

vendor burdens, 54, 266, 269, 273, 284, 295, 405, 413–414, 453, 484, 487, 545, 901, 918, 984

white potatoes, 2, 31, 85, 488

Vendor effects of requirements (see also Administrative burden; Marketplace)

benefits of food package revisions, 52, 55

breads, 279, 383, 410, 542, 889, 914–915

breakfast cereals, 305, 375

burdens, 6, 52, 276, 310, 393, 406–407, 411, 444, 887, 901, 911, 916

cost containment issues, 53

culturally appropriate foods, 93–94

of current program, 273, 295, 305

CVV, 53, 94, 299, 373, 984

decreasing burdens in proposed revisions (Criterion 7), 3, 13, 38, 42, 372, 374–376, 390, 391, 394, 519, 543, 887, 889, 901

defined, 18, 262 n.2, 481

demand and supply challenges, 93, 94, 96

EBT system adaptation, 29, 55, 273, 274, 444

fish, 411, 909, 916

implementation challenges for 2009 changes, 2, 52, 53, 54, 55, 88, 90, 91, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 545

infant foods, 404–405, 484, 907, 908, 909

infant formula, 402–403, 906–907

juices, 52, 276, 373, 375, 393, 406–407, 887, 901, 911

legumes and peanut butter, 412, 514, 917

low-sodium options, 730

milks and milk substitutes, 52, 53, 375, 376, 387, 393, 407–408, 912

Page 1042 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

of proposed revisions, 402–414, 906–918

recommendations, 14, 445

research needs, 15, 452–453

on small stores, 95, 98, 444, 542, 730, 901, 984

stocking requirements, 53, 54, 94, 266, 269, 273, 295, 299, 305, 373, 403–404, 406–407, 413–414, 444, 445, 452–453, 484, 901, 912, 918, 979

UPC coding, 29, 273, 274, 444

vegetables and fruits, 54, 266, 269, 273, 284, 295, 405, 413–414, 453, 484, 487, 545, 901, 918, 984

Vitamin A, 85, 86, 127, 130, 132, 134, 136, 137, 170, 171, 176, 180, 182, 197, 204, 226, 231, 236, 296, 297, 344, 345, 346, 347, 348, 349, 353, 359, 489, 568–569, 571, 585, 604–642, 670, 682, 683, 685, 708, 710, 716, 731, 734, 777, 779, 781, 783, 784, 785, 787, 789, 791, 793, 795, 797, 799, 801, 803, 805, 807, 809, 811, 813, 814, 845, 847, 849, 851, 853, 855, 858, 860, 861, 862, 864, 866, 894

Vitamin B6, 127, 131, 133, 135, 136, 170, 171, 174, 180, 182, 183, 185, 227, 232, 237, 350, 353, 355, 357, 358, 359, 568–569, 571, 573, 604–642, 682, 683, 685, 708, 710, 777, 779, 781, 783, 784, 785, 787, 789, 791, 793, 795, 797, 799, 801, 803, 805, 807, 809, 811, 813, 814, 845, 847, 850, 852, 853, 855, 858, 860, 861, 862, 864, 866

Vitamin B12, 87, 127, 131, 133, 135, 136, 171, 176, 180, 182, 237, 297, 344, 345, 348, 568–569, 571, 585, 604–642, 683, 685, 708, 710, 717, 777, 779, 781, 783, 784, 785, 787, 789, 791, 793, 795, 797, 799, 801, 803, 805, 807, 809, 811, 813, 814, 846, 847, 848, 850, 852, 854, 858, 860, 861, 862, 864, 866

Vitamin C, 85, 86, 127, 130, 132, 134, 136, 137, 138, 170, 171, 174, 176, 180, 182, 186, 197, 227, 232, 236, 350, 351, 352, 353, 357, 368, 489, 503, 568–569, 571, 573, 604–642, 670, 682, 683, 685, 699, 701, 703, 705, 708, 709, 719, 731, 750, 776, 779, 781, 782, 784, 785, 786, 788, 791, 792, 795, 797, 798, 801, 803, 804, 807, 809, 810, 813, 814, 845, 847, 849, 851, 855, 856, 857, 859, 861, 862, 864, 866, 887, 894

Vitamin D, 12, 85, 86, 88, 127, 128, 130, 132, 134, 136, 137, 145–146, 158, 171, 185–187, 217, 218–219, 227, 231, 235, 296, 297, 302, 344, 345, 346, 377, 460, 503, 518, 568–569, 571, 574–575, 581, 604–642, 643, 670, 682, 683, 684, 708, 710, 716, 717, 730, 731, 732–733, 734, 777, 779, 781, 783, 784, 785, 787, 789, 791, 793, 795, 797, 799, 801, 803, 805, 807, 809, 811, 813, 814, 845, 848, 849, 851, 853, 855, 858, 860, 861, 862, 864, 866

Vitamin E, 85, 86, 127, 130, 132, 134, 149, 170, 176, 180, 182, 183, 197, 204, 216, 228, 233, 238, 241, 377, 568–569, 571, 573, 604–642, 670, 708, 710, 777, 779, 781, 783, 784, 785, 787, 789, 791, 793, 795, 797, 799, 801, 803, 805, 807, 809, 811, 813, 814, 846, 848, 849, 850, 852, 854, 856, 858, 860, 861, 862, 864, 866

Vitamin K, 86, 87, 571

W

What We Eat in America (WWEIA) dataset, 571–572, 577–578, 581–583, 584–585

Whole grains

bread specification, 7, 22, 139, 300, 307–308, 309, 376, 721, 888–889, 892, 896, 899, 903, 914–915

breakfast cereal specification, 7, 28, 138, 267, 299, 305–307, 309, 347–350, 484, 700, 720, 730, 903–904, 958

Page 1043 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
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current packages, 278–280, 284, 300–301, 305, 307–308, 410, 699, 701, 703, 705, 721–723, 731, 733, 742, 763, 792–797, 812–813

infant cereal options, 161, 696, 697

nutrient contributions, 731

substitutions allowed, 2, 30

Women (see Fully breastfeeding women; Postpartum women; Partially breastfeeding women; Pregnant women)

World Breastfeeding Week, 22 n.8

World Health Organization (WHO), 40

Code for the Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes, 22 n.8

Y

Yogurt

added sugars limit, 7, 13, 123, 218, 225, 227, 230, 235, 240, 303, 379, 386, 389, 781

and administrative burdens, 13, 277, 408–409, 912

alignment with DGA, 13, 149, 246, 250, 251, 298, 386, 718

alignment with DRI, 224, 225, 227, 230, 231, 234, 240, 704, 776–777, 780–781

allergies and intolerances and, 145, 269, 282, 298, 309, 700, 702, 706, 718, 887, 888, 892, 896, 897, 898–899, 901

children 1 to <2 years, 27, 240, 269, 275, 298, 409, 488, 516, 556, 700, 718, 751, 887, 892

children 2 to <5 years, 27, 80, 82, 240, 256, 269, 275, 298, 339, 409, 488, 700, 718

container size options, 277, 391, 392, 446, 516, 902, 912

cost considerations, 323–324, 326, 346, 422, 741, 777, 781, 924

criteria for inclusion, 375, 376, 379, 386, 389, 391, 392

cultural and preference considerations, 13, 278, 282, 284, 343, 392, 888

current packages, 121, 122, 343, 408–409, 718, 751–753, 912–913

expenditures for, 67, 69

fully breastfeeding women, 27, 28, 230, 231, 250, 267, 275–276, 298, 409, 488, 706, 718, 752–753, 780–781, 898–899

HEI score, 777

implementation of 2006 recommendations, 485, 487, 488

intakes trends, 80, 81, 82, 517

marketplace availability, 392, 514, 516

nutrient levels/priorities, 224, 231, 234, 309, 346, 556, 718, 750, 776–777, 780–781

partially breastfeeding women, 230, 231, 250, 267, 275, 298, 488, 702, 718, 751–752, 896

postpartum women, 27, 28, 234, 251, 267, 275, 298, 488, 704, 718, 752, 897

pregnant women, 27, 28, 224, 225, 227, 246, 267, 269, 275, 298, 488, 702, 718, 752, 887

prices, 320, 955

recommendations, 7, 284, 309

redemption rates, 282, 323

revised packages, 275–276, 278, 303, 343, 409–410, 718, 751–753, 913–914

saturated fat limits, 120, 122, 218, 516, 700, 718, 750

sensitivity testing, 338, 339–340, 341, 343, 776–777, 780–781

sodium limits, 121

soy-based, 269, 276, 282, 284, 309, 392, 700, 702, 704, 706, 887, 892, 896, 897, 898–899, 901, 902

specifications, 298, 303–304, 309, 718, 887, 896, 897, 901, 902

substitution amounts, 7, 27, 53, 258, 275–276, 282, 284, 391, 408, 485, 516, 751–753, 887, 888, 892, 896, 897, 898

total sugars, 22, 123, 124, 149, 303–304, 376, 386, 389, 392, 487, 516, 718, 902

vegan diets, 7, 145, 269, 282, 298, 309, 700, 702, 704, 706, 718, 887, 888, 892, 896, 897, 898–899, 901

Page 1044 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
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