National Academies Press: OpenBook

Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks: 2016 Letter Report (2017)

Chapter: Appendix B: Committee Biographical Sketches

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographical Sketches." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks: 2016 Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23678.
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B

Committee Biographical Sketches

Carol E. H. Scott-Conner, M.D., Ph.D., M.B.A. (Chair), is a professor emerita in the Department of Surgery, University of Iowa, Iowa City. Dr. Scott-Conner received her undergraduate training in electrical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and worked as an engineer before attending medical school at New York University (NYU). She received her M.D. from NYU, where she also completed a residency in surgery. After leaving NYU, she joined the faculty at Marshall University and then moved to the University of Mississippi. During her tenure there, she earned a Ph.D. in anatomy from the University of Kentucky and an M.B.A. In 1995, she became professor and head of surgery at the University of Iowa. Dr. Scott-Conner has been active on 22 editorial boards and has written more than 200 original papers, abstracts, reviews, and book chapters. She is certified by the National Board of Medical Examiners and the American Board of Surgery and has a certification of added qualifications in surgical critical care. Dr. Scott-Conner has served on a number of National Academies’ committees, and she chairs the Standing Committee on Aerospace Medicine and the Medicine of Extreme Environments.

Daniel R. Masys, M.D. (Vice Chair), is an affiliate professor of biomedical and health informatics at the University of Washington School of Medicine, where he joined the Department of Biomedical Informatics and Medical Education in 2011. Previously, he served as a professor and chair of the Department of Biomedical Informatics and a professor of medicine at the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. An honors graduate of Princeton University and the Ohio State University College of Medicine, he completed postgraduate training in internal medicine, hematology, and medical oncology at the University of California, San

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographical Sketches." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks: 2016 Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23678.
×

Diego (UCSD), and the Naval Regional Medical Center, San Diego. He served as chief of the International Cancer Research Data Bank of the National Cancer Institute, the National Institutes of Health, and was director of the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications, which is a computer research and development division of the National Library of Medicine. He also served as director of Biomedical Informatics at the UCSD School of Medicine, director of the UCSD Human Research Protections Program, and professor of medicine. Dr. Masys is an elected member of the National Academy of Medicine. He is a diplomate of the American Board of Internal Medicine in medicine, hematology, and medical oncology. He is a fellow of the American College of Physicians and fellow and past president of the American College of Medical Informatics. Dr. Masys served as a member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) Committee on Aerospace Medicine and Medicine of Extreme Environments and chaired the 2008 IOM review of NASA’s Human Research Program evidence books.

Susan M. Bailey, Ph.D., is a professor and a cancer molecular biologist in the Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences at Colorado State University. Her current research focuses on the roles of chromosome aberrations and telomere length changes following exposure to ionizing radiations, including those experienced during spaceflight and in cancer and aging; implications for other age-associated degenerative diseases are also explored. Dr. Bailey received her doctorate in biomedical sciences from the University of New Mexico School of Medicine.

Susan A. Bloomfield, Ph.D., earned her B.S. in biology at Oberlin College (Ohio) and her M.A. in physical education (exercise physiology) at The University of Iowa. After completing a Ph.D. (exercise physiology) at The Ohio State University, Dr. Bloomfield joined the faculty in the Department of Health and Kinesiology at Texas A&M University, where she currently holds the rank of professor and is director of the Bone Biology Laboratory. In addition, she serves as associate dean for research in the College of Education and Human Development. Her research interests focus on the integrative physiology of bone, with specific reference to adaptations to disuse, microgravity, radiation, and caloric deficiency and how the sympathetic nervous system, altered blood flow, and endocrine factors modify those adaptations. Her more recent work has focused on the independent and combined effects of simulated mi-

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographical Sketches." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks: 2016 Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23678.
×

crogravity and space-relevant radiation on the integrity of bone and muscle, involving several experiments at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Collaborations with muscle biologists have enabled definition of concurrent changes in muscle–bone pairs with disuse and/or radiation exposure. She has served as principal investigator for a number of multidisciplinary team of investigators, and is funded by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), the U.S. Department of Defense, and NASA’s Space Biology Program. From 2000 to 2012, Dr. Bloomfield served as the associate lead for the NSBRI Bone Loss (later, Musculoskeletal Alterations) Team, in addition to serving on numerous NASA and European Space Agency review panels over the past 16 years. Dr. Bloomfield is a fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine, a member of the Texas A&M Department of Nutrition and Food Science graduate faculty, and an associate member of the Texas A&M University Health Sciences Center School of Graduate Studies.

Torin K. Clark, Ph.D., received his doctorate in aeronautics and astronautics with a focus on humans in aerospace from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 2013. While there he studied the effect of altered gravity on human spatial orientation perception and control with a focus on the vestibular system. As part of this work, he extended a mathematical model of dynamic integration of semicircular canal and otolith signals to predict human orientation perception in altered gravity. Dr. Clark was an NSBRI First Award (post-doctoral) fellow in the Jenks Vestibular Physiology Laboratory at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Harvard Medical School from 2013 to 2015. His research focused on understanding and predicting individual differences in sensorimotor adaptation to altered gravity environments. Specifically, Dr. Clark studied the relationship between sensory noise, such as in the vestibular system, and perceptual adaptation, as required for astronauts during space exploration missions. He is an assistant professor of aerospace engineering sciences at the University of Colorado Boulder. Dr. Clark is a principal investigator in the Bioastronautics Laboratory and a faculty affiliate of BioServe Space Technologies. His current research focuses on vestibular adaptation relevant for astronauts and ground-based vestibular rehabilitation, spaceflight human factors, and artificial gravity.

Andrew P. Feinberg, M.D., M.P.H., is a Bloomberg Distinguished Professor at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Whiting School of Engineering, and Bloomberg School of Public Health, where

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographical Sketches." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks: 2016 Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23678.
×

he is director of the Center for Epigenetics. Dr. Feinberg is considered the founder of the field of cancer epigenetics, having discovered altered DNA methylation in cancer as a postdoctoral fellow with Bert Vogelstein in the early 1980s. Over the decades since then, Dr. Feinberg and his colleagues have shaped the landscape of our understanding of DNA methylation and other epigenetic changes, and their applications to epidemiology and medicine, and have introduced groundbreaking statistical and laboratory methods to the study of the epigenome. He and his colleagues discovered human imprinted genes and loss of imprinting in cancer, and they proved the epigenetic hypothesis of cancer through their work on Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome. Most recently, he pioneered genome-scale epigenetics (epigenomics), with the first National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded Epigenome Center, pioneering methods that include the first comprehensive genome-scale methylation discovering the major target for epigenetic variation in humans, CpG island shores. Dr. Feinberg led the first whole-genome bisulfite sequencing analysis of human cancer, discovering large hypomethylated blocks that correspond to nuclear lamina–associated heterochromatin, as well as a mechanism for disruption of these blocks in epithelial–mesenchymal transition. He has also helped to create the field of epigenetic epidemiology, discovering epigenetic mediation of genetic variants in disease. He is a recipient of an NIH Director’s Pioneer Award, is a member of the National Academy of Medicine, and has received honorary doctorates from the University of Uppsala, the Karolinska Institute, and the University of Amsterdam.

Namni Goel, Ph.D., is an associate professor of psychology in psychiatry in the Division of Sleep and Chronobiology, Department of Psychiatry, at the University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine. Dr. Goel received her B.A. in psychology and anthropology from the University of California, Berkeley, and her Ph.D. in biological psychology from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. She completed her postdoctoral training at Columbia University Medical Center and Cornell University Medical Center. Throughout her interdisciplinary career, as a broadly trained biological psychologist and behavioral neuroscientist, Dr. Goel has been investigating individual differences in how genetic, physiological, behavioral, hormonal, and environmental factors relate to resilience and vulnerability in sleep–wake functions and circadian rhythm physiology, and regulate eating behavior (including night eating), energy balance, mood, and cognitive performance in humans. She also has published a substantial number of papers on circadian rhythm physiology

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographical Sketches." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks: 2016 Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23678.
×

and sleep–wake functions in animal models. Dr. Goel is currently the principal investigator of a major 4-year grant from NASA investigating biomarkers as predictors of resiliency and susceptibility to stress and sleep loss in spaceflight. Dr. Goel has served as president of the Society for Light Treatment and Biological Rhythms and is on the board of directors of the Center for Environmental Therapeutics. Dr. Goel is an associate editor of SLEEP, an academic editor of PLoS ONE, and a review editor for Frontiers in Behavioral and Psychiatric Genetics. She also serves on the editorial boards of Scientific Reports, Chronobiology International, Journal of Circadian Rhythms, Journal of Neurology Research, and Journal of Sleep Disorders: Treatment and Care. She has been a grant reviewer for various NIH, NASA, and U.S. Department of Defense study sections and for many international granting organizations, including the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Wellcome Trust, The Royal Society, and the Medical Research Council, among others. In 2014, she was awarded the prestigious NASA Johnson Space Center Group Achievement Award.

Tom K. Hei, Ph.D., is professor and vice-chair of radiation oncology, associate director of the Center for Radiological Research, and professor of environmental health sciences at Columbia University Medical Center in New York. Dr. Hei’s research focuses on understanding the basic mechanisms of radiation and environmental cancer. Using a charged particle microbeam, his laboratory has made seminal contributions in our understanding of extranuclear and extracellular effects of ionizing radiation. The nontargeted response of radiation has resulted in a paradigm shift in our appreciation of the relevant targets of radiation. Dr. Hei was a committee member on the Institute of Medicine review of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Roadmap for Research on Mineral Fibers and served on many NIH advisory panels over the years. Dr. Hei was elected an overseas expert by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and was elected Educator of the Year by the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology in 2012. He is past president of the Radiation Research Society and has trained many graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and resident physicians in radiological sciences, many of whom are now leaders in their fields. Dr. Hei is the chair of Sub-Commission F2 on radiation environment, biology, and health of the International Council of Scientific Unions’ Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). He is currently the editor-in-chief of Life Sciences in Space Research, one of the two flagship journals of COSPAR, and he is

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographical Sketches." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks: 2016 Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23678.
×

on the editorial board of the Journal of Radiation Research and Translational Cancer Research.

James A. Pawelczyk, Ph.D., is an associate professor of physiology, kinesiology, and medicine at Pennsylvania State University. Dr. Pawelczyk served as a payload specialist on STS-90 Neurolab (April 17 to May 3, 1998); the experiments on-board the space shuttle Columbia flight focused on the effects of microgravity on the brain and nervous system. Dr. Pawelczyk is a former member of the NASA Life Sciences Advisory Subcommittee in the Office of Biological and Physical Research, and he served as a member of NASA’s ReMaP Task Force in 2002, which was charged with reprioritizing research on the space station. Dr. Pawelczyk’s research areas include central neural control of the cardiovascular system and compensatory mechanisms to conditioning and deconditioning. He received his M.S. in physiology from Pennsylvania State University and his Ph.D. in biology (physiology) from the University of North Texas. He chaired the National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey on Biological and Physical Sciences in Space: Integrative and Translational Research for the Human System Panel. He also chaired an Institute of Medicine (IOM) report on NASA’s directed research programs in 2012. He has served on several NRC and IOM committees and recently completed rotations on the IOM Committee on Aerospace Medicine and the Medicine of Extreme Environments and the National Academies’ Space Studies Board.

Robert L. Satcher, Jr., M.D., Ph.D., is an assistant professor of surgical oncology at MD Anderson Cancer Center. He earned a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and an M.D. from Harvard Medical School. His medical specialties are orthopedics and oncology, and he has done much work in treating bone cancer in adults and children. Selected as an astronaut candidate by NASA in 2004, he completed his training 2 years later. He was aboard the space shuttle Atlantis that journeyed to the ISS for nearly 11 days in November 2009. Classified as a mission specialist, he studied the influence of zero gravity on muscles and bone density as well as the effects of space on the immune system. He also used his surgical training to install an antenna and help repair two robotic arms on the space station. Dr. Satcher is director of the eHealth Research Institute at Texas Medical Center and a member of the User Panel at NSBRI. He is a frequent reviewer and adviser for medical issues related to spaceflight.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographical Sketches." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks: 2016 Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23678.
×

Murray B. Stein, M.D., M.P.H., FRCPC, is Distinguished Professor of Psychiatry and Family Medicine & Public Health and Vice Chair for Clinical Research in Psychiatry at the University of California, San Diego. Dr. Stein graduated from the University of Manitoba and completed his residency and post-residency fellowship at the University of Toronto and at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). He subsequently completed a Master of Public Health degree at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Dr. Stein’s research interests include the epidemiology, neurobiology, and treatment of anxiety and traumatic stressor-related disorders, especially social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. His federally funded research has included studies of interventions for anxiety disorders in primary care, pharmacological approaches to treatment-resistant anxiety disorders, and functional neuroimaging and genomic research in anxiety and trauma-related disorders. Dr. Stein is a fellow of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, a deputy editor for the journal Biological Psychiatry, and co-editor-in-chief for UpToDate in Psychiatry. Dr. Stein was scientific chair of the NIMH Interventions in Mood and Anxiety Review Group, and was a member of the DSM-5 Anxiety, Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum, Posttraumatic, and Dissociative Disorders Work Group. He is a past member of the National Academies’ Board on the Health of Select Populations and a past member of the Food and Drug Administration’s Psychopharmacologic Drugs Advisory Committee.

Ronald E. Turner, Ph.D., is a Distinguished Analyst at Analytic Services Inc. (ANSER). He has more than 25 years of experience, including expertise in space physics, life science systems, and space policy. He is the senior science advisor to the NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts Program. He is also an internationally recognized expert in radiation risk management for astronauts, particularly in response to solar storms, and he has frequently been an invited speaker to describe radiation risk management strategies. He is a member of the NASA Radiation Research and Clinical Advisory Panel. He has participated in several National Academies’ studies of radiation risk management for exploration missions, both as a panelist and as a reviewer, including Space Radiation Hazards and the Vision for Space Exploration, Managing Space Radiation Risks in the New Era of Space Exploration, Technical Evaluation of the NASA Model for Cancer Risk (reviewer), and NASA Space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities, Human Health and Exploration Systems (panelist). Dr. Turner was on the Advisory Council to the National Space

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographical Sketches." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks: 2016 Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23678.
×

Biomedical Research Institute Center for Acute Radiation Research. He led a NASA Office of the Chief Engineer study to understand NASA’s requirements for operational space weather support. He is a member of the International Academy of Astronautics, and also belongs to the American Geophysical Union and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Dr. Turner has a Ph.D. in nuclear/particle physics from The Ohio State University and a master’s and bachelor’s degree from the University of Florida.

Bill J. Yates, Ph.D., is a professor of otolaryngology, neuroscience, and clinical and translational science at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. His undergraduate and graduate studies in neuroscience were completed at the University of Florida, and in 1986 he relocated to Rockefeller University to pursue postdoctoral work under the mentorship of Victor Wilson. During his time as a postdoc, he became interested in the role of the vestibular system in maintaining postural stability and cardiovascular and respiratory homeostasis during postural alterations. His research has focused on contributions of the vestibular system to autonomic regulation. Dr. Yates is editor-in-chief of the Journal of Neurophysiology, and served as neurophysiology section editor for Experimental Brain Research from 2006 to 2014. He co-edited the books Vestibular Autonomic Regulation (CRC Press, 1996) and Research Regulatory Compliance (Elsevier, 2015). He has served on a variety of peer review committees for NASA and NIH, including service as a chartered member of NIH’s Sensorimotor Integration study section and a member of the External Advisory Committee for the National Space Biomedical Research Institute. Dr. Yates was awarded the University of Pittsburgh’s highest teaching honor, the Chancellor’s Distinguished Teaching Award, in 2010.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographical Sketches." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks: 2016 Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23678.
×
Page 59
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographical Sketches." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks: 2016 Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23678.
×
Page 60
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographical Sketches." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks: 2016 Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23678.
×
Page 61
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographical Sketches." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks: 2016 Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23678.
×
Page 62
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographical Sketches." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks: 2016 Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23678.
×
Page 63
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographical Sketches." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks: 2016 Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23678.
×
Page 64
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographical Sketches." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks: 2016 Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23678.
×
Page 65
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographical Sketches." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks: 2016 Letter Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23678.
×
Page 66
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This is the fourth in a series of five letter reports that provide an independent review of the more than 30 evidence reports that NASA has compiled on human health risks for long-duration and exploration spaceflights.This letter report reviews eight evidence reports and examines the quality of the evidence, analysis, and overall construction of each report; identifies existing gaps in report content; and provides suggestions for additional sources of expert input.

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