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17 In contrast to the sprawling nature of supply chains, which can encompass municipal, regional, national, and international levels, FSA is easily observed at the (local) establishment level. At this level, FSA arrives to perform an activity, and leaves to perform activities elsewhere. In accordance with the transportation planning nomenclature, this generation activity is decomposed into a process of attraction (the flows that arrive to perform an activity at the establishment), and a process of production (the flows that depart from the establishment to perform an activity at a different location). The various expressions of FSA can be measured using different metrics, as follows: â¢ Freight Generation (FG) is the amount of cargoâtypically measured in units of weight such as pounds/day or tons/dayâgenerated by a commercial establishment. The FG is the summation of: â Freight Attraction (FA), which is the amount of cargo that is brought to the establishment to be processed, stored, or sold to customers. Most establishments receive supplies. â Freight Production (FP), which is the amount of cargo sent out of the establishment for use at another establishment. Typically, establishments that sell final products to consumers have FP = 0. Establishments that conduct intermediate processing activities have FP > 0. â¢ Freight Trip Generation (FTG) is the number of freight vehicle trips generated by a com- mercial establishment. The FTG is the sum of: â Freight Trip Attraction (FTA), which is the number of freight vehicle trips arriving at the establishment to transport the FA. Most establishments receive freight vehicle trips. Deliv- ering supplies to an establishment will create two vehicle trips (inbound and outbound). â Freight Trip Production (FTP), which is the number of freight vehicle trips that depart from the establishment to transport cargo to other destinations. Establishments that do not have FP will not generate FTP. In most cases, picking up a shipment from an establishment will necessitate two vehicle trips (inbound and outbound). â¢ Service Trip Generation (STG) is the number of service trips generated by a commercial establishment. As in the previous cases, STG is the summation of: â Service Trip Attraction (STA), which is the number of vehicle trips that arrive at the estab- lishment to perform a service activity. Most establishments receive service trips. As before, performing a service will create two vehicle trips (one inbound and one outbound). â Service Trip Production (STP), which is the number of vehicle trips that depart from the establishment to perform a service at other locations. Typically, only establishments in the service sector will perform service trips. C h a p t e r 4 The Generation of Freight, Freight Trips, and Service Trips
18 Using Commodity Flow Survey Microdata and Other establishment Data to estimate the Generation of Freight, Freight trips, and Service trips Generation by Industry Sector In the industry sectors of urban economies, the vast majority of industry segments create FG, FTG, or STG, though they do so in different amounts. Table 3 shows qualitative estimates of the amounts of FG, FTG, and STG that are produced by the various industry sectors. The table includes all possible industry sectors, though not all of them are likely to be present in metropolitan areas. In general terms, FIS create the bulk of FG and FTG, whereas non-FISâ particularly those in service sectorsâcreate the bulk of STG. Regrettably, there are not much data about service trips in metropolitan areas. The STA models in the guidebook are the first ones in the published literature. As Table 3 shows, the primary sectors in terms of FG are agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting (NAICS 11), mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction (NAICS 21), and construction (NAICS 23), which dominate the generation of cargo. These are followed by utilities (NAICS 22), manufacturing (NAICS 31-33), wholesale trade (NAICS 42), retail trade (NAICS 44-45), trans- portation and warehousing (NAICS 48-49), and accommodation and food services (NAICS 72), all of which are mid-level contributors to cargo generation. In terms of FTG, the rank order is radically different, as the vast majority of the trips are created by retail trade (NAICS 44-45), wholesale trade (NAICS 42), and accommodation and food services (NAICS 72). As mentioned, the bulk of STG trips are created by the service sectors. NAICS Description Freight Generation (FG) Freight Trip Generation (FTG) Service Trip Generation (STG) 11 Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting +++ + + 21 Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction +++ + + 22 Utilities ++ + + 23 Construction +++ + + 31-33 Manufacturing ++ ++ + 42 Wholesale Trade ++ +++ ++ 44-45 Retail Trade ++ +++ ++ 48-49 Transport and Warehousing ++ ++ ++ 72 Accommodation and Food Services ++ +++ ++ 51 Information + + ++ 52 Finance and Insurance + + ++ 53 Real Estate and Rental and Leasing + + ++ 54 Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services + + +++ 55 Management of Companies and Enterprises + + ++ 56 Administrative, Waste Managementâ¦ + + ++ 61 Educational Services + + ++ 62 Health Care and Social Assistance + + ++ 71 Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation + + ++ 81 Other Services (except Public Administration) + + ++ Non-Freight Intensive Sectors (non-FIS) Freight Intensive Sectors (FIS) +++ = major contributor; ++ = mid-level contributor; + = small contributor Table 3. Typical contributions to FG, FTG, and STG by industry sector.