National Academies Press: OpenBook

Assessment of Solid-State Lighting, Phase Two (2017)

Chapter: Front Matter

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Assessment of Solid-State Lighting, Phase Two. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24619.
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ASSESSMENT OF

SOLID-STATE LIGHTING,
PHASE TWO

Committee on Assessment of Solid-State Lighting, Phase 2

Board on Energy and Environmental Systems

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

A Report of

images

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Assessment of Solid-State Lighting, Phase Two. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24619.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS • 500 Fifth Street, NW • Washington, DC 20001

This activity was supported by Grant No. EE-0007045 from the U.S. Department of Energy. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

Cover: The elm path on the National Mall is shown illuminated by light fixtures originally installed in 1936 and which were specified by Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., as 21 foot tall, 300-pound, fluted bronze base and cast iron light fixtures. The retrofit kits were provided by OSRAM Sylvania and installed by PEPCO, a DC-area utility. The public domain image was photographed by Quentin Kruger in January 2012.

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Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Assessment of Solid-State Lighting, Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/24619.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Assessment of Solid-State Lighting, Phase Two. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24619.
×
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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

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Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Assessment of Solid-State Lighting, Phase Two. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24619.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Assessment of Solid-State Lighting, Phase Two. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24619.
×

COMMITTEE ON ASSESSMENT OF SOLID-STATE LIGHTING, PHASE 2

JOHN KASSAKIAN, NAE,1 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Chair

EVELYN HU, NAS2/NAE, Harvard University, Vice Chair

IAIN BLACK, Lumileds

NANCY E. CLANTON, Clanton & Associates

WENDY DAVIS, University of Sydney

MICHAEL ETTENBERG, NAE, Dolce Technologies

PEKKA HAKKARAINEN, Lutron Electronics

NADARAJAH NARENDRAN, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

MAXINE SAVITZ, NAE, Honeywell, Inc. (retired)

MICHAEL G. SPENCER, Cornell University

CHING TANG, NAE, University of Rochester

Staff

MARTIN OFFUTT, Study Director

JAMES ZUCCHETTO, Director, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems

DANA CAINES, Financial Manager

LaNITA JONES, Administrative Coordinator

ELIZABETH EULLER, Program Assistant

__________________

1 National Academy of Engineering.

2 National Academy of Sciences.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Assessment of Solid-State Lighting, Phase Two. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24619.
×

BOARD ON ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS

JARED COHON, NAE,1 Carnegie Mellon University, Chair

DAVID ALLEN, University of Texas, Austin

W. TERRY BOSTON, NAE, PJM Interconnection, LLC

WILLIAM BRINKMAN, NAS,2 Princeton University

EMILY A. CARTER, NAS/NAE, Princeton University

BARBARA KATES-GARNICK, Tufts University

JOANN MILLIKEN, Independent Consultant, Alexandria, Virginia

MARGO OGE, Office of Transportation and Air Quality, Environmental Protection Agency

JACKALYNE PFANNENSTIEL, Independent Consultant, Piedmont, California

MICHAEL RAMAGE, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company (retired)

DOROTHY ROBYN, Consultant, Washington, D.C.

GARY ROGERS, Roush Industries

KELLY SIMS-GALLAGHER, The Fletcher School, Tufts University

MARK THIEMENS, NAS, University of California, San Diego

JOHN WALL, NAE, Cummins Engine Company (retired)

ROBERT WEISENMILLER, California Energy Commission

Staff

K. JOHN HOLMES, Acting Director/Scholar

JAMES ZUCCHETTO, Senior Scientist

DANA CAINES, Financial Associate

LINDA CASOLA, Senior Program Assistant (until September 2016)

LaNITA JONES, Administrative Coordinator

JANKI PATEL, Program Assistant

MARTIN OFFUTT, Senior Program Officer

BEN WENDER, Associate Program Officer

E. JONATHAN YANGER, Research Associate (until April 2017)

__________________

1 NAE, National Academy of Engineering.

2 NAS, National Academy of Sciences.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Assessment of Solid-State Lighting, Phase Two. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24619.
×

Preface

The penetration of solid-state lighting (SSL) has increased dramatically since the publication of the National Research Council1 (NRC) report Assessment of Advanced Solid-State Lighting in 2013.2 The Committee on Assessment of Solid-State Lighting, Phase 2 has been surprised by this rapid adoption and the accompanying diversity of applications of SSL, which has been driven largely by the dramatic decline in the retail price of lamps and luminaires, and recognition of the unique qualities of the light emitting diode (LED) light source. Improvements in lamp performance, the introduction of innovative applications, improved compatibility of lamps with controls, and the integration of LED lamps in systems have all contributed to this rapid acceptance. Examples of exploiting the special characteristics of SSL are the introduction to steerable headlamps in cars, the use of spectral control to prevent lighting-induced damage to artwork, and more efficient and controllable street lighting. Accompanying this growth in the SSL market has been the rapid decline of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) from retailer shelves.

The penetration in the United States of LED lamps and luminaires has increased by approximately 35 percent since 2013 (although LEDs represent only 6.4 percent of the installed lighting base [i.e., the number of units]), and the cost per lumen has dropped dramatically. The relative ease with which companies can enter the SSL market has created challenges for established lighting manufacturers, and some have been unable to make a financially successful transition from legacy products to SSL. Those that have succeeded have left the lamp business and entered the systems business, which is perhaps the most dramatic development in SSL deployment. Some of these systems displace conventional light sources with LED sources having superior spectral and control characteristics. Others exploit the color controllability of the LED to create new applications. An example of the former is the use of LED lighting in horticulture, where the low energy requirement and spectral tuning ability combine to create a growing market. The ability to modulate LED output at high frequencies has led to the developing area of “Li-Fi” (light fidelity) systems—the dual use of LEDs for both lighting and local area communications. The recent attention to the human and ecological response to light of different wavelengths has created interest in using the color tuning ability of LEDs to mitigate or enhance these

___________________

1 Effective July 1, 2015, the institution is called the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. References in this report to the National Research Council are used in an historical context identifying programs prior to July 1.

2 National Research Council, 2013, Assessment of Advanced Solid-State Lighting, Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Assessment of Solid-State Lighting, Phase Two. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24619.
×

effects, as appropriate—for example, by promoting the production of melatonin in those with seasonal affective disorder (SAD).

The manufacture of LED devices and conventional A-lamps has largely migrated offshore, although some device manufacturing remains in the United States for high-performance LEDs. The design and manufacture of LED luminaires, however, remain within the United States and could be a substantial growth industry. The opportunity for creative and innovative luminaire and lighting designs made possible by LED (and the organic light emitting diode [OLED]) light sources has been aggressively engaged by both luminaire manufacturers and lighting designers.

Early application of existing controls with LED lighting presented compatibility issues manifested as flicker, interference, and other unsatisfactory behavior. These issues have been largely overcome by control manufacturers but still require some diligence on the part of the consumer and professional designer in selecting controls and lamps.

The efficiency and cost of OLED lighting have both improved since the 2013 report, but cost as well as manufacturing challenges remain. There is, however, the promise of leveraging the extensive OLED display infrastructure, primarily in Korea, to the benefit of OLED lighting. Also on the horizon is the continuing development of solid-state laser-based light sources, which use a blue laser to excite the phosphor. They are already being incorporated in high-end automotive headlamps.

The reports on advanced solid-state lighting by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine were undertaken at the request of Congress in the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007. The first report addressed the impact of the new standards for lighting efficiency that were included in EISA, barriers and opportunities of large-scale deployment of SSL, and technology development and applications. In the present report, the committee has focused on three key areas: commercialization (noting the rapid deployment of SSL since the 2013 report), technology development (updating the findings of the 2013 report), and manufacturing. In the process, the committee has taken the opportunity to update material in this report that was presented in the earlier study. Funding has been provided by the U.S. Department of Energy via the lighting program directed by James Brodrick, Ph.D.

John G. Kassakian, Chair
Committee on Assessment of Solid-State Lighting, Phase 2

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Assessment of Solid-State Lighting, Phase Two. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24619.
×

Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

William Brinkman, NAS,1 Princeton University,

George Craford, NAE,2 Lumileds,

Steven DenBaars, NAE, University of California, Santa Barbara,

Elsa Garmire, NAE, Dartmouth College,

Rachel Goldman, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor,

Noah Horowitz, Natural Resources Defense Council,

Raj Jayaraman, Philips Lighting Electronics North America,

Julia Phillips, NAE, Sandia National Laboratories, and

Alison Silverstein, Independent Consultant.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by William F. Banholzer, University of Wisconsin, Madison, who was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

__________________

1 National Academy of Sciences.

2 National Academy of Engineering.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Assessment of Solid-State Lighting, Phase Two. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24619.
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The standard incandescent light bulb, which still works mainly as Thomas Edison invented it, converts more than 90% of the consumed electricity into heat. Given the availability of newer lighting technologies that convert a greater percentage of electricity into useful light, there is potential to decrease the amount of energy used for lighting in both commercial and residential applications. Although technologies such as compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) have emerged in the past few decades and will help achieve the goal of increased energy efficiency, solid-state lighting (SSL) stands to play a large role in dramatically decreasing U.S. energy consumption for lighting.

Since the publication of the 2013 National Research Council report Assessment of Advanced Solid-State Lighting, the penetration of SSL has increased dramatically, with a resulting savings in energy and costs that were foreshadowed by that study. What was not anticipated then is the dramatic dislocation and restructuring of the SSL marketplace, as cost reductions for light-emitting diode (LED) components reduced profitability for LED manufacturers. At the same time, there has been the emergence of new applications for SSL, which have the potential to create new markets and commercial opportunities for the SSL industry.

Assessment of Solid-State Lighting, Phase Two discusses these aspects of change—highlighting the progress of commercialization and acceptance of SSL and reviewing the technical advances and challenges in achieving higher efficacy for LEDs and organic light-emitting diodes. This report will also discuss the recent trends in SSL manufacturing and opportunities for new applications and describe the role played by the Department of Energy (DOE) Lighting Program in the development of SSL.

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