Committee on Assessment of Solid-State Lighting, Phase 2
Board on Energy and Environmental Systems
Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences
A Report of
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This activity was supported by Grant No. EE-0007045 from the U.S. Department of Energy. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.
Cover: The elm path on the National Mall is shown illuminated by light fixtures originally installed in 1936 and which were specified by Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., as 21 foot tall, 300-pound, fluted bronze base and cast iron light fixtures. The retrofit kits were provided by OSRAM Sylvania and installed by PEPCO, a DC-area utility. The public domain image was photographed by Quentin Kruger in January 2012.
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Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Assessment of Solid-State Lighting, Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/24619.
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COMMITTEE ON ASSESSMENT OF SOLID-STATE LIGHTING, PHASE 2
JOHN KASSAKIAN, NAE,1 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Chair
EVELYN HU, NAS2/NAE, Harvard University, Vice Chair
IAIN BLACK, Lumileds
NANCY E. CLANTON, Clanton & Associates
WENDY DAVIS, University of Sydney
MICHAEL ETTENBERG, NAE, Dolce Technologies
PEKKA HAKKARAINEN, Lutron Electronics
NADARAJAH NARENDRAN, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
MAXINE SAVITZ, NAE, Honeywell, Inc. (retired)
MICHAEL G. SPENCER, Cornell University
CHING TANG, NAE, University of Rochester
MARTIN OFFUTT, Study Director
JAMES ZUCCHETTO, Director, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems
DANA CAINES, Financial Manager
LaNITA JONES, Administrative Coordinator
ELIZABETH EULLER, Program Assistant
1 National Academy of Engineering.
2 National Academy of Sciences.
BOARD ON ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS
JARED COHON, NAE,1 Carnegie Mellon University, Chair
DAVID ALLEN, University of Texas, Austin
W. TERRY BOSTON, NAE, PJM Interconnection, LLC
WILLIAM BRINKMAN, NAS,2 Princeton University
EMILY A. CARTER, NAS/NAE, Princeton University
BARBARA KATES-GARNICK, Tufts University
JOANN MILLIKEN, Independent Consultant, Alexandria, Virginia
MARGO OGE, Office of Transportation and Air Quality, Environmental Protection Agency
JACKALYNE PFANNENSTIEL, Independent Consultant, Piedmont, California
MICHAEL RAMAGE, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company (retired)
DOROTHY ROBYN, Consultant, Washington, D.C.
GARY ROGERS, Roush Industries
KELLY SIMS-GALLAGHER, The Fletcher School, Tufts University
MARK THIEMENS, NAS, University of California, San Diego
JOHN WALL, NAE, Cummins Engine Company (retired)
ROBERT WEISENMILLER, California Energy Commission
K. JOHN HOLMES, Acting Director/Scholar
JAMES ZUCCHETTO, Senior Scientist
DANA CAINES, Financial Associate
LINDA CASOLA, Senior Program Assistant (until September 2016)
LaNITA JONES, Administrative Coordinator
JANKI PATEL, Program Assistant
MARTIN OFFUTT, Senior Program Officer
BEN WENDER, Associate Program Officer
E. JONATHAN YANGER, Research Associate (until April 2017)
1 NAE, National Academy of Engineering.
2 NAS, National Academy of Sciences.
The penetration of solid-state lighting (SSL) has increased dramatically since the publication of the National Research Council1 (NRC) report Assessment of Advanced Solid-State Lighting in 2013.2 The Committee on Assessment of Solid-State Lighting, Phase 2 has been surprised by this rapid adoption and the accompanying diversity of applications of SSL, which has been driven largely by the dramatic decline in the retail price of lamps and luminaires, and recognition of the unique qualities of the light emitting diode (LED) light source. Improvements in lamp performance, the introduction of innovative applications, improved compatibility of lamps with controls, and the integration of LED lamps in systems have all contributed to this rapid acceptance. Examples of exploiting the special characteristics of SSL are the introduction to steerable headlamps in cars, the use of spectral control to prevent lighting-induced damage to artwork, and more efficient and controllable street lighting. Accompanying this growth in the SSL market has been the rapid decline of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) from retailer shelves.
The penetration in the United States of LED lamps and luminaires has increased by approximately 35 percent since 2013 (although LEDs represent only 6.4 percent of the installed lighting base [i.e., the number of units]), and the cost per lumen has dropped dramatically. The relative ease with which companies can enter the SSL market has created challenges for established lighting manufacturers, and some have been unable to make a financially successful transition from legacy products to SSL. Those that have succeeded have left the lamp business and entered the systems business, which is perhaps the most dramatic development in SSL deployment. Some of these systems displace conventional light sources with LED sources having superior spectral and control characteristics. Others exploit the color controllability of the LED to create new applications. An example of the former is the use of LED lighting in horticulture, where the low energy requirement and spectral tuning ability combine to create a growing market. The ability to modulate LED output at high frequencies has led to the developing area of “Li-Fi” (light fidelity) systems—the dual use of LEDs for both lighting and local area communications. The recent attention to the human and ecological response to light of different wavelengths has created interest in using the color tuning ability of LEDs to mitigate or enhance these
1 Effective July 1, 2015, the institution is called the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. References in this report to the National Research Council are used in an historical context identifying programs prior to July 1.
2 National Research Council, 2013, Assessment of Advanced Solid-State Lighting, Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.
effects, as appropriate—for example, by promoting the production of melatonin in those with seasonal affective disorder (SAD).
The manufacture of LED devices and conventional A-lamps has largely migrated offshore, although some device manufacturing remains in the United States for high-performance LEDs. The design and manufacture of LED luminaires, however, remain within the United States and could be a substantial growth industry. The opportunity for creative and innovative luminaire and lighting designs made possible by LED (and the organic light emitting diode [OLED]) light sources has been aggressively engaged by both luminaire manufacturers and lighting designers.
Early application of existing controls with LED lighting presented compatibility issues manifested as flicker, interference, and other unsatisfactory behavior. These issues have been largely overcome by control manufacturers but still require some diligence on the part of the consumer and professional designer in selecting controls and lamps.
The efficiency and cost of OLED lighting have both improved since the 2013 report, but cost as well as manufacturing challenges remain. There is, however, the promise of leveraging the extensive OLED display infrastructure, primarily in Korea, to the benefit of OLED lighting. Also on the horizon is the continuing development of solid-state laser-based light sources, which use a blue laser to excite the phosphor. They are already being incorporated in high-end automotive headlamps.
The reports on advanced solid-state lighting by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine were undertaken at the request of Congress in the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007. The first report addressed the impact of the new standards for lighting efficiency that were included in EISA, barriers and opportunities of large-scale deployment of SSL, and technology development and applications. In the present report, the committee has focused on three key areas: commercialization (noting the rapid deployment of SSL since the 2013 report), technology development (updating the findings of the 2013 report), and manufacturing. In the process, the committee has taken the opportunity to update material in this report that was presented in the earlier study. Funding has been provided by the U.S. Department of Energy via the lighting program directed by James Brodrick, Ph.D.
John G. Kassakian, Chair
Committee on Assessment of Solid-State Lighting, Phase 2
Acknowledgment of Reviewers
This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:
William Brinkman, NAS,1 Princeton University,
George Craford, NAE,2 Lumileds,
Steven DenBaars, NAE, University of California, Santa Barbara,
Elsa Garmire, NAE, Dartmouth College,
Rachel Goldman, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor,
Noah Horowitz, Natural Resources Defense Council,
Raj Jayaraman, Philips Lighting Electronics North America,
Julia Phillips, NAE, Sandia National Laboratories, and
Alison Silverstein, Independent Consultant.
Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by William F. Banholzer, University of Wisconsin, Madison, who was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
1 National Academy of Sciences.
2 National Academy of Engineering.
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