National Academies Press: OpenBook

Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity (2017)

Chapter: Appendix B: Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24624.
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Appendix B

Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity

Chapter 8 summarizes the current state of indicators and interactive tools available to communities. This appendix contains two resources relevant to that discussion. Table B-1 contains publicly accessible indicators related to health equity. This includes measures of demographics, the social determinants of health, and four aspects of the conceptual model for this report: (1) making health equity a shared vision and value, (2) building community capacity to shape outcomes, (3) fostering multisector collaboration, and (4) creating healthier more equitable communities in which members and families live, learn, work, and play. Table B-2 describes interactive tools that communities can use to examine health equity indicators by geographic region as the foundation for community-based solutions and to monitor progress over time.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24624.
×

TABLE B-1 Examples of Indicators Relevant to Health Equity in Publicly Available Data Sources

HP2020a CoHb AHRc CHRd CHSIe NEAf VHOIg DDKh AARPi
Demographics
Age
Race
Ethnicity
Immigrant status
Social Determinants of Health
Education
Early childhood education
Education levels and job requirements
Grade school achievement
High school graduation
High school graduation 4 years after starting 9th grade
Public school enrollment and racial/ethnic composition
School poverty
Years of schooling of adults
Employment
Annual unemployment rate
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24624.
×
HP2020a CoHb AHRc CHRd CHSIe NEAf VHOIg DDKh AARPi
Social Determinants of Health
Eligibility for Family Medical Leave Act
Job quality
Jobs per worker
Underemployment rate
Working poor
Health Systems and Services
Access to care
Access to mental health services
Access to stable health insurance
Cost barrier to care
Hospice use
Primary care physicians
Primary care provider rate
Preventable hospitalizations
Preventable hospitalizations: Older adults
Public health funding
Unmet care need
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24624.
×
HP2020a CoHb AHRc CHRd CHSIe NEAf VHOIg DDKh AARPi
Social Determinants of Health
Housing
Home ownership
Housing affordability
Income spent on housing and transportation (i.e., Affordability Index)
Renters
Income and Wealth
Children in poverty
Gross domestic product (GDP) gains with racial equity
Income disparity/inequality
Income disparity ratio
Income gains with racial equity
Income growth
Job and GDP growth
Job and wage growth
Median household income
Median wage
Minimum wage
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24624.
×
HP2020a CoHb AHRc CHRd CHSIe NEAf VHOIg DDKh AARPi
Social Determinants of Health
Per capita personal income
Poverty
Wages $15/hour
Physical Environment
Access to healthy food
Access to jobs via auto
Access to jobs via transit
Access to libraries
Access to parks
Air pollution
Children exposed to secondhand smoke
Housing accessibility
Housing burden
Housing costs
Housing options
Housing stress
Liquor-store density
Living near highways
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24624.
×
HP2020a CoHb AHRc CHRd CHSIe NEAf VHOIg DDKh AARPi
Social Determinants of Health
Neighborhood: Activity density
Neighborhood: Mixed use
Neighborhood: Poverty
Neighborhood: Vacancy rate
Population churning/turnover
Population density
Population growth rates
Walkability
Public Safety
Crime rate
Homicides
Violent crime
Youth safety
Social Environment
Disconnected youth
Home language
Inadequate social support
Linguistic isolation
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24624.
×
HP2020a CoHb AHRc CHRd CHSIe NEAf VHOIg DDKh AARPi
Social Determinants of Health
Residential segregation
Single-parent households
Transportation
Car/vehicle access
Commute time
Safe and convenient options
Making Health Equity a Shared Vision and Value
Community diversity/Diversity index
Distances between communities with different racial or ethnic profiles
Public school racial/ethnic composition
Racial generation gap
Increasing Community Capacity to Shape Outcomes
Sense of community
Social support
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24624.
×
HP2020a CoHb AHRc CHRd CHSIe NEAf VHOIg DDKh AARPi
Increasing Community Capacity to Shape Outcomes
Volunteer engagement
Voter participation
Fostering Multi-Sector Collaboration
Business support for workplace health promotion and culture of health
Climate adaptation and mitigation
Community relations and policing
Health in all policies
Local health department collaboration
Opportunities to improve health for youth at schools
Youth exposure to advertising for health and unhealthy food and beverage products
Healthier More Equitable Communities in Which Members and Families Live, Learn, Work, and Play
Caregiving
Caregiving burden
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24624.
×
HP2020a CoHb AHRc CHRd CHSIe NEAf VHOIg DDKh AARPi
Healthier More Equitable Communities in Which Members and Families Live, Learn, Work, and Play
Consumer/Patient Satisfaction
Consumer experience
Patient–clinician communication satisfaction
Costs
Annual end-of-life care expenditures
Family health care cost
Potentially preventable hospitalization rates
Social spending relative to health expenditure
Health Status: Self-rated
Poor physical health days
Self-rated overall health status
Unhealthy days
Well-being rating
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24624.
×
HP2020a CoHb AHRc CHRd CHSIe NEAf VHOIg DDKh AARPi
Healthier More Equitable Communities in Which Members and Families Live, Learn, Work, and Play
Injury and Violence
Fatal injuries
Motor vehicle crash deaths
Occupational fatalities
Unintentional injury (including motor vehicle)
Maternal, Infant, and Child Health
Adolescent health issues
Adverse child experiences (ACEs)
Birth rate
Infant mortality
Low birth weight
Teen birth rates
Total preterm live births
Mental Health
Depression: Adolescents
Depression: Older adults
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24624.
×
HP2020a CoHb AHRc CHRd CHSIe NEAf VHOIg DDKh AARPi
Healthier More Equitable Communities in Which Members and Families Live, Learn, Work, and Play
Poor mental health days
Suicides
Morbidity
Alzheimer’s diseases/dementia
Asthma
Cancer
Diabetes
Diabetes: Adult
Disability associated with chronic conditions
Heart attack
Heart disease
High blood pressure
High cholesterol
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24624.
×
HP2020a CoHb AHRc CHRd CHSIe NEAf VHOIg DDKh AARPi
Healthier More Equitable Communities in Which Members and Families Live, Learn, Work, and Play
Infectious disease
Stroke
Mortality
Deaths: All causes
Deaths: Alzheimer’s disease
Deaths: Cancer
Deaths: Cardiovascular disease
Deaths: Chronic kidney disease
Deaths: Chronic lower respiratory disease
Deaths: Coronary heart disease
Deaths: Diabetes
Deaths: Premature
Deaths: Stroke
Life expectancy
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24624.
×
HP2020a CoHb AHRc CHRd CHSIe NEAf VHOIg DDKh AARPi
Healthier More Equitable Communities in Which Members and Families Live, Learn, Work, and Play
Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity
Adult obesity
Body mass index
Child and adolescent obesity
Fruit consumption
Physical activity
Physical inactivity
Vegetable consumption
Oral Health
Annual dental visit
Dental care
Teeth extractions
Reproductive and Sexual Health
Adult female routine Pap test
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24624.
×
HP2020a CoHb AHRc CHRd CHSIe NEAf VHOIg DDKh AARPi
Healthier More Equitable Communities in Which Members and Families Live, Learn, Work, and Play
Chlamydia screening
Gonorrhea
HIV
Knowledge of serostatus among HIV-positive persons
Sexually active females ages 15 to 44 years who received reproductive health services in the past 12 months
Syphilis
Sleep
Insufficient sleep
Substance Abuse
Addiction death rate
Adolescents using alcohol or any illicit drugs during the past 30 days
Binge drinking
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24624.
×
HP2020a CoHb AHRc CHRd CHSIe NEAf VHOIg DDKh AARPi
Healthier More Equitable Communities in Which Members and Families Live, Learn, Work, and Play
Chronic drinking
Drug deaths
Excessive drinking
Tobacco Use
Adolescent smoking
Adult smoking

a Healthy People 2020, https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/leading-health-indicators/2020-lhi-topics (accessed December 22, 2016).

b Culture of Health Metrics, http://hero-health.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/HERO-Final-Report-Developing-Culture-of-Health-MetricsThat-Really-Matter-to-Companies-and-Communities.pdf (accessed December 22, 2016).

c America’s Health Rankings, http://www.americashealthrankings.org (accessed December 22, 2016).

d County Health Rankings, http://www.countyhealthrankings.org/our-approach (accessed December 22, 2016).

e Community Health Status Indicators, http://wwwn.cdc.gov/CommunityHealth/info/AboutProject (accessed December 22, 2016).

f National Equity Atlas, http://nationalequityatlas.org (accessed December 22, 2016).

g Virginia Health Opportunity Index, https://www.vdh.virginia.gov/OMHHE/policyanalysis/virginiahoi.htm (accessed December 22, 2016).

h Diversity Data Kids Data Set, http://www.diversitydatakids.org (accessed December 22, 2016).

i AARP Livability Index, https://livabilityindex.aarp.org/categories/neighborhood (accessed December 22, 2016).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24624.
×

TABLE B-2 Interactive Tools for Examining Health Equity Indicators by Geographical Region

Name/How to Access Components
AARP Livability Index https://livabilityindex.aarp.org/categories/neighborhood (accessed December 22, 2016). City, zip code, address Housing (affordability and access), Neighborhood (access to life, work, and play), Transportation (safe and convenient options); Environment (clean air and water); Health (prevention, access, quality); Engagement (civil and social involvement); Opportunity (inclusion and possibilities)
Children’s Health and Education Mapping Tool http://www.sbh4all.org/resources/mapping-tool (accessed December 22, 2016). Health Insurance and Coverage (under 18 percent on Medicaid or CHIP, under 18 percent uninsured), Health (teen birth rate, percent adult obesity, percent food insecure, chlamydia rate), Education (percent adults over 25 without high school diploma), Demographic and Socioeconomic Indicators (percent free lunch, percent kids in poverty, percent kids in single-parent households, percent households with severe housing problems, violent crime rate)
School and School-Based Health Center (SBHC) Characteristics (Title I eligibility, lowest grade offered, highest grade offered, total school enrollment, free and reduced lunch eligibility; SBHC location, sponsor, staffing models [primary care only, primary care and mental health, primary care and mental health plus], hours of operation, populations served)
Community Health Status Indicators http://wwwn.cdc.gov/CommunityHealth/info/AboutProject (accessed December 22, 2016). County level Physical (access to parks, annual average particulate matter concentration, housing stress, limited access to healthy food, living near highways), Social Factors (children in single-parent households, high housing costs, inadequate social support, on-time high school graduation, poverty, unemployment, violent crime), Health Behaviors (adult binge drinking, adult female routine pap tests, adult physical inactivity, adult smoking, teen births), Health Care Access and Quality (cost barrier to care, older adult preventable hospitalizations, primary care provider access, uninsured), Morbidity (adult diabetes, adult obesity, adult overall health status, Alzheimer’s disease/dementia, cancer, gonorrhea, HIV, older adult asthma, older adult depression, preterm births, syphilis), Mortality (Alzheimer’s disease deaths, cancer deaths, chronic kidney disease deaths, chronic lower respiratory disease deaths, coronary heart disease deaths, diabetes deaths, female life expectancy, male life expectancy, motor vehicle deaths, stroke deaths, unintentional injury, including motor vehicle)
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24624.
×
Name/How to Access Components
Diversity Data Kids dataset http://www.diversitydatakids.org (accessed December 22, 2016). Rankings and child opportunities by race and ethnicity by states, counties, large cities, large school districts including Population Demographics and Diversity (population and racial/ethnic composition), Household Composition and Family Structure (home language and linguistic isolation); Early Childhood Care and Education (Head Start); Education (public school enrollment and racial/ethnic composition, student achievement [Grade 4 reading, Grade 8 reading, Grade 4 math, Grade 8 math, graduation rates]); Health (infant mortality, natality, adolescent health issues); Parental Employment (employment and labor force participation, employment characteristics, job quality, eligibility for Family Medical Leave Act [FMLA]); Policy (Head Start, FMLA); Income and Poverty (minimum wage, child poverty, parental poverty)
EJSCREEN: Environmental Justice Screening and Mapping Tool https://www.epa.gov/ejscreen (accessed December 22, 2016). Environmental Indexes (National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment [NATA] Air Toxics Cancer Risk, NATA Respiratory Hazard Index, NATA Diesel Particulate Matter, particulate matter 2.5, ozone, traffic proximity and volume; lead paint, proximity to risk management plan sites, proximity to treatment, storage, and disposal facilities, proximity to National Priorities List sites, proximity to major direct water dischargers; Demographic Indexes (Demographic Index [average of percent low-income and percent minority] and Supplemental Demographic Index [average of percent low-income, percent minority, percent less than high school education, percent linguistic isolation, percent under 5, percent over 64])
Food Access Research Atlas http://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/food-access-research-atlas.aspx (accessed December 22, 2016). General Census Tract Characteristics (population, low-income tract, urban/rural status, housing units), Low-Access and Distance Measures (1 and 10 mile access), Low-Income and Low-Access (0.5, 1, 10, 20, or more mile access), Vehicle Availability (no vehicle and 0.5, 1, 10, 20, or more mile access), Group Quarters (census tract with 67 percent or more living in group quarters), Low Access by Population Subgroups (measures above by seniors and children)
Health Equity Index Connecticut Community-Specific Scores on Seven Social Determinants of Health (civic involvement, community safety, economic security, education, employment, environmental quality, housing) and 13 Health Outcomes (accidents/violence, cancer, cardiovascular, childhood illness, diabetes, health care access, infectious disease, life expectancy, liver disease, mental health, perinatal care, renal disease, respiratory illness)
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24624.
×
Name/How to Access Components
JustSouth Index http://www.loyno.edu/jsri/news/inauguraljustsouth-index-2016 (accessed December 22, 2016) Demographics, nine social justice indicators in three categories: Poverty (average income per household, health insurance coverage for the poor white-minority, housing affordability white-minority), Racial Disparity (public school segregation, wage equity, employment equity); Immigrant Exclusion (immigrant youth outcomes, immigrant English proficiency, health insurance coverage for immigrants)
National Equity Atlas http://nationalequityatlas.org (accessed December 22, 2016). Demographics (detailed race/ethnicity, people of color, race/ethnicity, population growth rates, contribution to growth: immigrants, contribution to growth: people of color, racial generation gap, diversity index, median age); Economic Vitality (poverty, working poor, unemployment, wages: median, wages: $15/hour, income growth, job and wage growth, job and gross domestic product growth, income inequality: Gini, income inequality: 95/20 ratio, homeownership); Readiness (school poverty, air pollution: exposure index, air pollution: unequal burden, education levels and job requirements, disconnected youth, overweight and obese, asthma, diabetes); Connectedness (neighborhood poverty, housing burden, car access, commute time); Economic Benefits (GDP gains with racial equity, income gains with racial equity)
Opportunity Index http://opportunityindex.org/#4.00/40.00/-97.00 (accessed December 22, 2016). Jobs and Local Economy (jobs, wages, poverty, inequality, access to banking, affordable housing, Internet access); Education (preschool enrollment, high school graduating, postsecondary completion); and Community Health and Civic Life (group membership, volunteerism, youth economic and academic inclusion, community safety, access to health care, access to healthy food)
The Housing and Transportation (H+T®) Affordability Index http://www.htaindex.org (accessed December 22, 2016). Provides a comprehensive view of affordability that includes both the cost of housing and the cost of transportation at the neighborhood level for more than 200,000 neighborhoods. Neighborhood Characteristics (gross density, regional household intensity, fraction of single-family detached housing, block density, Employment Access Index, Employment Mix Index, Transit Connectivity Index, transit access shed, transit access shed jobs, average available transit trips per week; Household Characteristics (median household income, average commuters per household, average household size), Transit (auto ownership, auto usage, public transit usage)
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24624.
×
Name/How to Access Components
Virginia Health Opportunity Index https://www.vdh.virginia.gov/OMHHE/policyanalysis/virginiahoi.htm (December 22, 2016). Index consists of 13 indicators organized into 4 profiles: Community Environmental (air quality, population churning, population density, walkability); Consumer Opportunity (affordability, education, food accessibility, material deprivation); Economic Opportunity (employment accessibility, income inequality, job participation); Wellness Disparity (access to care, segregation [community diversity and distances between communities with different racial or ethnic profiles])
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24624.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24624.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24624.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24624.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24624.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24624.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24624.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24624.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24624.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24624.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24624.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24624.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24624.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24624.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24624.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24624.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24624.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24624.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24624.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Community-Level Indicators and Interactive Tools for Health Equity." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24624.
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In the United States, some populations suffer from far greater disparities in health than others. Those disparities are caused not only by fundamental differences in health status across segments of the population, but also because of inequities in factors that impact health status, so-called determinants of health.

Only part of an individual’s health status depends on his or her behavior and choice; community-wide problems like poverty, unemployment, poor education, inadequate housing, poor public transportation, interpersonal violence, and decaying neighborhoods also contribute to health inequities, as well as the historic and ongoing interplay of structures, policies, and norms that shape lives. When these factors are not optimal in a community, it does not mean they are intractable: such inequities can be mitigated by social policies that can shape health in powerful ways.

Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity seeks to delineate the causes of and the solutions to health inequities in the United States. This report focuses on what communities can do to promote health equity, what actions are needed by the many and varied stakeholders that are part of communities or support them, as well as the root causes and structural barriers that need to be overcome.

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