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Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults (2016)

Chapter: Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24628.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24628.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24628.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24628.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24628.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24628.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24628.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24628.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24628.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24628.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24628.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24628.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24628.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24628.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24628.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24628.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24628.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24628.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24628.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24628.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24628.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24628.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24628.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24628.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24628.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24628.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24628.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24628.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24628.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24628.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24628.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24628.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24628.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24628.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24628.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24628.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24628.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24628.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24628.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Survey Questionnaire and Results ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24628.
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66 APPENDIX B Survey Questionnaire and Results Queson 1: Does your transit agency currently use taxis to serve passengers with disabilies and older adults? Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count Yes 87% 39 No; we do not currently use taxis and have not in the past. 2% 1 Not anymore; we did in the past but disconnued use of taxis. Please explain why you no longer use taxis: 11% 5 Total Responses 100% 45 Total Respondents 100% 45 Reasons provided for not using taxis anymore: The City's ___ program provided a $3 subsidy for any cab ride and a $10 subsidy for those using a wheelchair. In 2014, the program (which had been in effect since 1982) provided a total of 73,904 trips at a cost of $369,000. However, during the procurement process for the contract period starng in 2015, the current contractor for the service, which was the only qualified taxi company in the city, submi“ed an incomplete bid. It was reported that the taxi company wanted higher subsidies for the taxi trips. Further negoaons failed to reach an agreement so the subsidized taxi service has been disconnued. The taxi company was not successful/competitive in our last RFP process. Cabs were unwilling to comply with drug and alcohol tesng rules and insurance standards Contractual issues pertaining to most aspects of the service, turn-over and training of drivers, customer complaints It was not as economical as we had originally hoped it would be. We studied three years of data and determined that it would be more cost effecve to bring all trips, including the non-ADA ones back to our main contractor. In addion to cost, there were other factors that led us to not renew the contract. Scheduling Process: ___ accepts trip mes as requested, with no negoaon of trip mes. Auding/Verifiable Data: __ does not provide trip manifests to verify service delivery (pickup me, drop off me, trip producvity, service hours, service miles, trip denials, etc.) other than the customer trip origin and desnaon. Vehicle Reliability: __ provides their own vehicles; there is currently no control in the age of the vehicles used to fulfill the current contract. ___’s average fleet age is currently 9.4 years. Cameras on Bus: __does not have cameras on its vehicles. Vehicle Branding __ does not have agency branded signs on its vehicles.

67 Queson 2: How are taxis used by your agency to serve passengers with disabilies and older adults? Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count We use taxis ONLY to provide required, next-day ADA paratransit, which serves ADA eligible/cerfied riders exclusively. 18% 7 We use taxis ONLY to provide required, next-day ADA paratransit, which serves ADA eligible/cerfied riders and other individuals with disabilities and/or older adults not ADA eligible/cerfied. 15% 6 We use taxis ONLY for a same-day taxi service that is beyond the requirements of the ADA, which serves ADA eligible/cerfied riders exclusively. 10% 4 We use taxis ONLY for a same-day taxi service that is beyond the requirements of the ADA, which serves ADA eligible/cerfied riders and others who are not ADA eligible/cerfied, such as older adults and other people with disabilies. 18% 7 We use taxis for BOTH required, next-day ADA paratransit AND a same-day taxi service that is beyond the requirements of the ADA. 38% 15 Total Responses 100% 39 Total Respondents 100% 39 Queson 3: We use taxis in some other way to serve people with disabilities and older adults: Explanaons of How Transit Agencies Use Taxis in Some Other Way to Service People with Disabilies and Older Adults Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count No 50% 14 Yes 50% 14 Total Responses 100% 28 Total Respondents 80% 28 If Yes, please explain:

68 We provide ADA paratransit as well as supplemental (non-ADA) service for seniors and people with disabilities. We also offer an addional subsidized taxi program which is for seniors and people with disabilies in participang cies. We use taxi service to manage peak periods, sending them standard paratransit routes, as well as will-call service We have two programs - one for seniors and people with disabilies and one for the general public. While they both use the community’s one taxi company and operate similarly, they are kept separate due to their funding programs. Two programs: Taxi Reimbursement Program-First mode of alt. transportaon offered to customers delayed due to __ service problems and possible capacity constraints. Here, the transit agency authorized customer to take a taxi/livery service to get to desnaon. Customer pay fare + tolls and no more than 15% p and gets valid receipt. The required documentaon is submiŒed to the transit agency along with the authorizaon # for reimbursement. Yellow Taxi Program: Subscripon service customers use pre-paid debit cards to pay for their transit agency-authorized subscripon trips via yellow taxis. Customer may pay the current ___ fare to the yellow taxi driver. Our clients use the taxi when they have last minute appointments that could not be called in or prefer one and one client rao. Taxi voucher programs under the transit agency’s Senior Mobility Program (city operated, funded by the transit agency) Medicaid Medical and non-Medical, Veteran’s services Our current Taxi Voucher Program serves seniors 60 years and older and persons of disability, once the applicant is approved they are issued a debit type smart card. The approved applicant with then add up to $75.00 per month this is matched by a 50/50 grant through the Transit Agency. These taxicab trips must begin, remain and end in the service area. Up to the maximum seating allow by the vehicle manufacturer can ride with the taxi voucher card holder, but must be picked up and drop off at the same locaon. We are entering into our next phase to include the ADA Para Transit for our passengers. The transit agency contracts with taxis for Non-ADA services in suburban areas. We have a non-ADA subsidized taxi service available to registered paratransit customers, but it is kept strictly separate from ADA paratransit. We use Taxi for a same day service which serves riders and that are not ADA eligible/cerfied, such as older adults and other people with disabilities. Taxis are used to provide transportaon for low-income workers, when the bus is not operang. We partner with our County to provide service to rural passengers with disabilies and seniors through the taxi provider. We use taxis also for some small programs that serve non ADA eligible persons with disabilities and seniors, one Paratransit Plus serves people who are not ADA eligible but who have difficulty using fixed route and they use the taxi serve $60 of value per month as a safety net. We also have a small Taxi shopping service which provides $60 per month for seniors and PWD only for shopping trips. We use taxis to provide transportaon to individuals with disabilities beyond our regular service area Foster Care transportaon and may soon use for limited Special Ed transportaon

69 Queson 4: Is there another organizaon(s) in the community that provides a subsidized taxi program for people with disabilities and older adults: Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count No 40% 14 Yes 60% 21 Total Responses 100% 35 Total Respondents 90% 35 Queson 5: How are taxis used for your ADA paratransit service? (check all that apply) Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count On a dedicated basis (taxi vehicles serve only our passengers during the contracted me periods) by contracng directly with a taxi company(ies). 26% 7 On a dedicated basis (taxi vehicles serve only our passengers during the contracted me periods) through our prime contractor (e.g., call center contractor, broker, prime transportaon contractor, etc.) who subcontracts with a taxi company(ies). 11% 3 On a non-dedicated basis (taxi vehicles are not restricted to serving only our passengers) by contracng directly with a taxi company(ies). 63% 17 On a non-dedicated basis (taxi vehicles are not restricted to serving only our passengers) through our prime contractor (e.g., call center contractor, broker, prime transportaon service contractor, etc.) who subcontracts with a taxi company(ies). 26% 7 Total Responses (mulple responses allowed - percentage exceeds 100%) - 34 Total Respondents 69% 27

70 Queson 6: How do the taxis operate as part of your ADA paratransit service? (check all that apply) Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count Operate all the service 29% 8 Operate all the service in specific zones or parts of the service area 4% 1 Operate all the service on certain days and/or mes of the day 11% 3 Serve trips throughout the service day that do not fit well on the dedicated vehicles 64% 18 Provide certain trip purposes, e.g., trips to a parcular agency, for ADA eligibility interviews, etc. 11% 3 Other; please explain: 25% 7 Total Responses (mulple responses allowed) - 40 Total Respondents 72% 28 Other Explanaon: We contract with a taxi company who performs reservaons and scheduling and who operates up to 75% of all trips, brokering the remaining 25% to subcontractors, who include both accessible van and other taxi companies. The specific trips which are subcontracted are at the discreon of the contractor. We have used taxis to reduce/delay need to purchase dedicated vehicles with our primary paratransit contractor. Operate all of the ambulatory ADA paratransit service. Serve trips at locaons which lack safe bus access Taxis are used in addion to bus paratransit services by riders We contract with a taxi company who performs reservaons and scheduling and who operates up to 75% of all trips, brokering the remaining 25% to subcontractors, who include both accessible van and other taxi companies. The specific trips which are subcontracted. Medicaid Medical and non-Medical, Veteran’s services We have used taxis to reduce/delay need to purchase dedicated vehicles with our primary paratransit contractor. The transit agency provides most (about 98%) paratransit service directly

71 Queson 7: How are the taxis assigned trips? (check all that apply) Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count Trips are pre-scheduled as individual taxi trips and conveyed to the taxi company(ies) before the day-of-service for taxi dispatch 68% 17 Trips are pre-scheduled onto a manifest to be provided to individual taxicabs dedicated for part of the day, i.e., taxi company(ies) is given driver manifests 36% 9 Trips are assigned on the day-of-service on a real-me basis to serve trips that the pre-scheduled service cannot meet, e.g., a pre-scheduled driver/vehicle is running late or breaks down 52% 13 Total Responses (mulple responses allowed - percentage exceeds 100%) - 39 Total Respondents 64% 25 Queson 8: Which enty does a rider call/contact to make reservaons for trips that are then provided by the taxis? Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count The transit agency directly 31% 8 Call center contractor or broker 31% 8 Prime transportaon service contractor 19% 5 Multiple transportaon service contractors 4% 1 The taxi company(ies) 15% 4 Total Responses - 26 Total Respondents 67% 26

72 Queson 9: Which enty schedules the taxi trip? (check all that apply) Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count The transit agency directly 32% 9 Call center contractor or broker 36% 10 Prime transportaon service contractor 18% 5 Multiple transportaon service contractors 4% 1 The taxi company(ies) 29% 8 Total Responses (mulple responses allowed - percentage exceeds 100%) - 33 Total Respondents 72% 28 Queson 10: What is the fare for an ADA paratransit trip? Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count A flat fare 43% 12 Double the fixed-route fare, which may vary by peak/off-peak, etc. 14% 4 It’s more complicated; please explain: 43% 12 Total Responses 100% 28 Total Respondents 72% 28 Explanaon: ADA fares are $4 (twice the regular fixed-route fare) in most parts of our service area. Some communies have set lower fares within their jurisdicons and for their residents. Non-ADA fares begin at $4 for up to 5 miles with incremental increases from there. All fares are the same price, dependent upon the taxi company’s rates. Clients purchase ckets from the contractor and each booklet amounts to $51.00, the taxi runs the meter and the client pays with the ckets. The ckets are in $1 dollar or $5 dollar ckets. Flat fare ($3.00) for ADA trips, $4.00 for same-day trips. Double fixed route fare and parally subsidized by local sales tax - Fixed route fare $2.00, $4.00 - $.40 = $3.60.

73 If paying cash it’s same as fixed route fare ($1), monthly/quarter passes are $13/$35, 75+ years free. Flat fare for contracted service $3.00 for User Side Subsidy Program in __ $5.00. 0-20 miles $2.75, 20+ miles $3.50 Meter rate as paid by the general public If you mean what does the customer pay, $1.75 per one way ‰cket or $46.50 for monthly pass. If you mean how is the driver paid for the fare, we pay a fixed rate based on a banded ‰er of mileages (e.g., 0.01–2.09 is one rate, 2.1–4.09 is another, and so on). 3 fee levels based on trip length ($3.15, $3.90, $5.25) Less than twice the bus fare We have a 3-Zone fare system based on geographic boundaries. Queson 10A: If you selected flat fare, how much is the flat fare? Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count Total Responses 100% 12 Total Respondents 43% 12 Fares: $3 $2.50 $2.50 $3.75 $2 $3.50 $3.00/$5.00 $3.40 $3 $4.00 a trip ADA is $2, ašer-hours is $5 $1.00 - $10.00

74 Queson 11: How do riders pay the fare for the ADA paratransit trip provided by taxi? (check all that apply) Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count Cash 79% 22 Paper cket, voucher, scrip 64% 18 Prepaid account without a swipe/smart card 7% 2 Swipe/smart card 18% 5 Other; please explain: 29% 8 Total Responses (mulple responses allowed - percentage exceeds 100%) - 55 Total Respondents 72% 28 Other Explanaon: Debit/credit with a voucher Drivers will accept credit card. Some riders are designated to ride free-fare on the manifest. Hard copy OR cell phone mobile app for a one-ride cket or monthly pass. if using pass just show driver, going to a back-office, pre-paid account system this year Mail in fare to Administrave offices Pre-paid Coupon The Agency pays Transit token Queson 12: Is the taxi company(ies) paid for a passenger no-show? Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count Yes, a standard payment. 36% 10 Yes, payment varies by ambulatory or non- ambulatory/wheelchair tripper cket, voucher, scrip 4% 1 Total Responses 100% 28 Total Respondents 72% 28 No 46% 13 Other, please specify: 14% 4

75 Other Explanaon: $1 Local, $10 outlying area; contracted amount yes, the taxi rate No in the city, Yes in suburban area If the no-show is on a manifested hourly rate, taxi is paid for the me. If on single ride, their vehicle, they are not paid a fee by the district. Queson 12A: How much is the standard payment for no-shows? Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count Total Responses 100% 10 Total Respondents 36% 10 Payment: $5 $10.00 $37.40 $5.00 $5 $5.00 or $10.00 Equal to the cost of a 2.1–4.09 banded mile payment, currently $17.40. $10.00 $10.00 Unknown by me. Contractor negoates rate directly with taxi companies. Queson 12B: How much is paid for ambulatory and non-ambulatory/wheelchair trip no-shows? Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count Total Respondents 3% 1 Ambulatory Amount Paid: $5 Non-Ambulatory Amount Paid $5

76 Queson 13: How is the taxi company(ies) paid for dedicated and non-dedicated service? Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count Dedicated Service Per Hour 18% 3 Per Mile/Meter 47% 8 Per Trip 29% 5 Other, please specify: 6% 1 Total Responses 100% 17 Total Respondents 44% 17 Non-Dedicated Per Hour 4% 1 Per Mile/Meter 54% 13 Per Trip 21% 5 Other, please specify: 21% 5 Total Responses 100% 24 Total Respondents 62% 24 Other Explanaon: Fixed monthly fee, per-trip boarding fees for wheelchairs and sedans and mileage fees Payment is by trip, with standard entry fee & mileage, some‡mes other charges Agency reimburses contractor per trip, contractor reimburses taxi company on per mile

77 Queson 14: Are there extra payments/incenves for each passenger trip provided? Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count Yes; an extra payment is provided for each trip 86% 25 Yes; an extra payment is provided based on ambulatory and non-ambulatory/wheelchair trips. 7% 2 No extra payments/incenves are provided. 3% 1 3% 1 Total Responses 100% 29 Total Respondents 74% 29 Queson 14A: What is the extra payment/incenve for each passenger trip provided? Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count Total Respondents 3% 1 Extra Payment/Incenve per Trip: $0.50

78 Queson 14B: What are the extra payments/incenves for each ambulatory and non-ambulatory/wheelchair trip? Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count Ambulatory Total Respondents 5% 2 Extra Payments/Incenves: $0 For Door-to-Door service, another $5.00 per trip (WC & Amb) Non-ambulatory/Wheelchair Total Respondents 5% 2 Extra Payments/Incenves: $3 to the cab driver $5 Queson 15: What types of riders are served by your same-day taxi service that is beyond the requirements of the ADA? (check all that apply) Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count Passengers who are cer€fied as ADA eligible 56% 20 Passengers who have disabili€es and seniors but they do not have to be ADA paratransit cer€fied 36% 13 Passengers who have disabili€es, seniors and other transporta€on- disadvantaged (e.g., low income individuals) but they do not have to be ADA paratransit cer€fied) 17% 6 General public 17% 6 Others; please explain 22% 8 Total Responses (mulple responses allowed - percentage exceeds 100%) - 53 Total Respondents 92% 36

79 Queson 16: Which enty does a rider call/contact to make trip reservaons for the same-day taxi service? Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count The taxi company(ies) 69% 18 The transit agency directly 8% 2 Call center contractor or broker 15% 4 Prime transportaon service contractor 4% 1 Multiple transportaon service contractors 4% 1 Total Responses 100% 26 Total Respondents 67% 26 Queson 17: Which enty schedules the taxi trip? Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count The taxi company(ies) 88% 21 The transit agency directly 0% 0 Call center contractor or broker 8% 2 Prime transportaon service contractor 4% 1 Multiple transportaon service contractors 0% 0 Total Responses 100% 24 Total Respondents 62% 24

80 Queson 18: What is the fare for the same-day taxi service, e.g., rider pays $X then any cost over $Y on the meter? Please explain: Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count Total Respondents 64% 25 Fares: Varies by community. Customers in some communies pay a flat fare with a distance-based component. Fare for customer is $3.00 per one way trip whether scheduled in advance or same day. Seniors and people with disabilies receive ckets, which have the recipient's name, but no value. When they take a taxi trip, they pay $1.75 and give the cket to the taxi driver. General public riders purchase a cket for $3.00 each, which they use to pay for their taxi trips. Tickets for both programs are limited by available funding. Rates are based on the taxi companies’ fare per mile & base meter rate. A voucher pays 80% of a trip up [to] $10. The max a voucher will pay is $10. The parcipant pays the remaining balance (20% of the fare or the fare minus $10) General Program fare = $3.00 Transit agency pays up to $20 for the trip and customer pays overage. Dialysis Center Program fare = $2.00 Transit agency pays up to $20 for the trip and customer pays overage It’s a reimbursement based program. Passengers pay the full taxi fare up front and then get reimbursed 85% of the fare up to $20 maximum reimbursement per one way ride. The taxi operator runs the meter for the duraon of the trip and the client pays with ckets. The booklet contains $51.00 worth of rides. So if the meter is $7.35, the client will give $7.00 worth [of] … ckets and real change or $8.00 coupons. The Taxi does not give change so we encourage the clients to have change if they do not want to give an addional 1 dollar coupon. $4.00 The regular transit agency fare of $3.60 is charged and then the trip is subsidized up to $10.00 on the meter, the customer pays anything over $10.00 on the meter. Passenger pays first $2.00, transit agency pays the next $12. Passenger pays the difference beyond $14.00 on the meter. Regardless of fare, transit agency pays a flat rate of $12.00 per trip. We have a flat fare, $2 per way ($4 round trip) The rider typically does not pay a fare, unless it is an ADA trip that is scheduled through the call center. Under the current model the passenger pays the fare on the meter with the swipe card, the passenger discount is when the customer loads money on the card, For every dollar added the passenger match is a dollar up to $75.00 per month for a maximum total of $150.00 per month and a three month card maximum of $450.00. Fares are all metered with an inial drop fee of $3.00 and $3.12 per mile. Same as day advance. $3.00 in suburban service area (contracted service) User Side Subsidy ) in city, fare is $5.00 Rider pays first $3.50 and then anything over $14.60 on the meter. Fare is the taxi meter rate established by County regulaon. The program subsidizes the taxi cost on a sliding fee scale (50–90%) based on parcipants’ income.

81 Base fare + mileage via zones. Average fare $7.25 one way. Seniors pay $1, $3 or $5 per trip depending on income. Disabled pay $1.00 per trip regardless of income. City provides 12 monthly trips and pays the up to $13.00 per trip. The rider can use their Paratransit Card for the first $12 (subsidy), and the rider will pay for any cost over the $12 Base $2 fare (during bus hours), plus $1 convenience fee base $5 fare (outside of bus hours), plus $1 convenience fee For every $5.50 paid, a rider receives $30 worth of taxi service to use, paid at the meter rate. Each ADA eligible rider has a monthly allotment for taxi service depending on their trip needs. The rider pays a $4.00 flat fare for same day service within the service area. No change - sŒll meter fare Seniors and ADA cerŒfied customers purchase up to $80.00 in cab fare at a 60% discount. Dialysis paŒents and people going to work pay 1/4 of the cost of cab fare up to $15.00 per trip. Seniors going to their nearest senior center pay $1.00 per trip (for low income people the $1.00 fee is waived). Queson 19: How do riders pay the fare for the same-day taxi service? (check all that apply) Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count Cash 53% 19 Paper Œcket/voucher/scrip 42% 15 Swipe/smart card 19% 7 Rider’s personal credit/debit card 17% 6 Other; please explain 17% 6 Total Responses (mulple responses allowed - percentage exceeds 100%) - 53 Total Respondents 92% 36 Other Explanaon: Taxi drivers will accept credit card. Some riders are designated on the manifest or on their file as free fare. Specifically, a prepaid swipe card or cash. No cost unless ADA, then cash or Œcket. Riders pay the balance of a trip ašer the $13.00 the city pays is deducted. We are introducing a swipe card program in June, 2015. Dialysis and work programs use vouchers; other programs use a swipe card

82 Queson 20: How is the taxi company(ies) paid for their services? Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count Per mile/meter 48% 12 Per trip 32% 8 Other; please explain 20% 5 Total Responses 100% 25 Total Respondents 64% 25 Other Explanaon: Fixed monthly fee, boarding fee, mileage fee Sedan company is reimbursed based upon a mileage charge comparable to taxi meter rate At the beginning of each month the previous month taxi voucher fares are invoiced by the Taxi Administrator, by Franchise, then senior program and ADA program Meter/Mile plus surcharges Queson 21: Are there extra payments to the taxi company(ies) for an ambulatory and/or non- ambulatory/wheelchair trip? Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count Yes 73% 19 No 27% 7 Total Responses 100% 26 Total Respondents 67% 26

83 Queson 21A: What are the extra payments/incenves for each ambulatory and non-ambulatory/wheelchair trip? Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count Total Respondents 18% 7 Ambulatory Extra Payment/Incen ves: $10 extra for a wheelchair accessible vehicle One entry fee (flag drop) per person (not PCAs) $2.50 $7.25 average one-way $8.75/trip (this is the full contractor rate, not an extra payment) $0 Non-Ambulatory Extra Payment/Incen ves: Haven’t used recently, but contract sets specific higher entry fee and mileage rate Standard fare plus $25.00 if w/c vehicle is dispatched $16.50/trip (this is the full contractor rate, not an extra payment) For ramped taxi services drivers get incen‹ves which are paid to the company but go directly to the drivers. $10 per trip. $3 $5 Queson 22: What funding is used to provide the taxi-based service besides rider fares? (check all that apply) Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count Federal transit funds 50% 18 State transit funds 53% 19 Local funds 83% 30 Human service agency(ies) funds 22% 8 Total Responses (mulple responses allowed - percentage exceeds 100%) - 75 Total Respondents 92% 36

84 Queson 23: There is interest in how transit agencies verify and audit taxi trips they subsidize. Would you briefly explain how your agency audits taxi trips? Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count Total Respondents 79% 31 Explanaon: Contractor provides monthly reports and invoices along with raw data, which we can use to verify accuracy of the data. An employee of the transit agency reviews cost of individual trips charged to the agency, in parcular when they are over $40. He compares direct mileage of trip on Google transit and the performed mileage. When it’s a group trip (pick-pick-drop-drop) it is handled by charging mileage and fare from first pick to last drop. It’s not perfect but out of 10 or 20 quesoned trip charges each month, we might find one with inadequate explanaon and reduce payment accordingly. Very tedious process. We make sure the vouchers were used during the correct range (vouchers expire at the end of each calendar month), that all the informaon is filled in—address, passenger signature, total meter fare, passenger fare, mileage, Driver ID number, Cab ID number, date, company, and the Trip ID (acts as a receipt). If there are any quesons we contact the company or participant for more informaon. We have an internal system built to flag vouchers that have duplicate serial numbers and to sort the type of voucher—currently four voucher programs, soon to be five. Passengers need to submit a receipt that is filled out and signed by the driver and also fill out a reimbursement request form. Via robust established trip verificaon (based on leading industry so”ware) and internal reconciliaon protocols. Known origins-to-desnaons of subscripon service customers and so”ware applicaon formula for distance and appropriate fare. All trips are audited through software in real me. The taxi operators bring their manifest along with ckets collected to the contractor. The contractor verifies the client’s names against the client’s lisng in the office and then verifies that the dollar amount on the manifest matches the number of ckets being submi—ed for reimbursement. Taxi company provides all ADA service and non-ADA service with a combinaon of dedicated vehicles and taxicabs. Company dispatches all trips. Taxi driver’s trip sheet is reviewed by the company at end of shift, and driver is only paid for trips dispatched and where driver has properly completed driver log. Transit agency reviews service delivery including driver logs. All of our taxi trips (except Same Day trips) are in Trapeze scheduling so”ware The transit agency audits monthly billings at the individual trip invoice level. It’s a fairly small volume so do-able. Taxi drivers must fill out an invoice for each individual or grouped ride with all trip details. These invoices are submi—ed with the monthly bill and are matched to trip records in the transit agency’s dispatch system. The prime contractor does auding. The taxi company provides informaon in an Excel spreadsheet and transit agency staff review it for errors and inconsistencies.

85 A percentage of passengers are telephoned each day verifying the previous day’s trip. We compare the daily completed trip sheet (from our trip provider) to a company that provides data from the card swiping. The card is always swiped for data regardless if the customer has prepaid or has chosen to pay cash. We audit a percentage of rides by asking the taxi company to produce driver manifests that match the trip informaon the call center sent to them and the informaon they invoiced Via a portal that tracks all trip pick up and drop off points, we also ulize a unique passenger report that looks at how many passengers use the program at least once per that month being invoiced. If a client is outside of the load window or has exhausted the amount allowed for the month, the passenger is transfer to the taxi administrator for a review prior to any emergency fund credits can be loaded. Contracted taxi services are networked with our scheduling system. Trips are performed in our system. The User Side Subsidy Program is managed by a Swipe Card with automated audit funcons. In addion, audit queries are used to verify trip informaon prior to payment. All trips are dispatched electronically to MDTs which capture pick up and drop off mes and locaons which is GPS verified. Taxi company provides GPS data All customer bookings are recorded in the scheduling soˆware. We have a program that matches the bookings on taxis with the billing received from the taxi company. Trips that don't match are returned to the taxi company unpaid, and the bill is paid minus the disputed trips. The company may provide verificaon of the disputed trips, and submit them as rebills on the subsequent bill. If they cannot verify and rebill, the unmatched trips remain unpaid. All trips must go through the taxi companies’ dispatch; all trips must begin with a swipe of the program participants’ automated swipe card, which acvates the GPS coordinates and also documents the origin of the trip; at the desnaon the card is swiped again to complete the purchase and document the desnaon. The electronic swipe card system allows us to receive and document each trip real me in our database. When invoices are submi‹ed by the Taxi companies the audit process includes both system and manual screening to idenfy trips which may not be valid. The system checks for trips with high fares with low mileages, missing the inial swipe and GPS coordinates, trips with excessive p amounts, total fare amounts which do not correspond with card records, missing data or incomplete data columns, driver # vs. parcipants card # (to avoid trip concentraon or personal drivers), etc. Invoice/manifest reviews Taxi provider manifest per trip with vouchers redeemed a‹ached. Internal audit of vouchers versus manifest. Vouchers are numbered and logged by program user. Overflow taxi service is non-dedicated and trips are dispatched by the taxi company from the pool of daily work (based on the negoated pickup me). A report of these trips is sent to the taxi company the night before and any add-ons/changes occurring aˆer that me go out by phone/email. The taxi company has access to our Trapeze scheduling soˆware and they complete mile, hour, rider, and fare data entry therein, while also providing a scanned copy of the driver’s paper log and an AVL data dump. We use automated reports to idenfy errors (for correcon) in trip data entry and automated reports to validate no show assessments (to customers) and missed trip assessments (to the taxi company). In addion, we perform field audits of driver performance, on me compliance, and AVL sampling. We review monthly the vouchers for errors or anything looking suspect. Proof of trips, miles and invoices are submi‹ed to the Agency.

86 We review every invoice and compare it to the ride scheduling so ware. We review each ride and length of distance travelled. The taxi provides documentaon that supports the invoices. Contractor collects fare and pays transit agency (not deducted from rate) -Trip records are verified against invoiced rides The Paratransit Budget has mulple sources approx. 2/3 is local sources, so taxi services can all be provided with local funds. We use the data from the debit card program to audit trips, that provides automated data for each trip, including date, me, driver, customer, cost of trip, mileage etc. We can look at the data for anomalies to look into in more detail. Matching pairs driver and customer, trips where cost and mileage don’t coincide, customer trips where few trips go to customers residence etc. We also do monthly calls to customers to determine OTP and an annual survey to also measure customer sasfacon. We audit the driver trips for all trips. For the regular service we verify the trips referred with the trips sent. Call Center audits the taxi bills—matching against the rides booked. Queson 24: Does the taxi company(ies) that your agency uses have accessible vehicles? Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count Yes 61% 23 Only some of the mulple taxi companies that we use operate accessible vehicles 32% 12 No 8% 3 Total Responses 100% 38 Total Respondents 97% 38 Queson 25: Has your transit agency assisted the taxi company(ies) obtain accessible vehicles, e.g., leased accessible vehicles to the taxi company(ies)? Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count No 70% 26 Yes; please explain: 30% 11 Total Responses 100% 37 Total Respondents 95% 37 Explanaon: We encouraged Yellow Cab to apply for New Freedom funds to purchase 8 accessible minivans four years ago. We retained ownership of the vehicles and required 5–6 of the vehicles to be dedicated to Paratransit and the rest were to help expand general community capacity of accessible taxis. City has acquired accessible mini-vans and one accessible small bus which the taxi company uses to provide the subsidized trips.

87 We lease our vehicles to the taxi company New Freedom funding for the first 4 accessible taxis in the county. We provide the taxi company with six of our paratransit vehicles. Those six vehicles are idencal to the rest of the fleet. We did when the program started, but last 10+ years they have provided their own accessible vehicles. We lease five accessible minivans to the taxi companies for $250.00 per month Queson 26: What enty regulates the taxis that your agency uses? (check all that apply) Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count We regulate the taxi industry. 16% 6 The city/ies where we operate regulates taxis. 54% 20 The county/ies where we operate regulates taxis. 22% 8 The state regulates taxis (e.g., a state public ulity or service commission) 30% 11 Other; please idenfy: 19% 7 Total Responses (mulple responses allowed - percentage exceeds 100%) - 52 Total Respondents 95% 37 Other Explanaon: We have a City/County “Metro” Government. We only use sedan companies to provide service. The city used to regulate. Now it is unregulated and most operators (including our contractor) are now technically operang limousine service. Some cies regulate, some do not. Transit authority regulates paratransit in the county instead of the PUC. We/the transportaon authority is the city and county enty which regulates taxis for the city/county. Requirements are very few in an unregulated industry. The City regulates only the cabs that serve the airport. Yes, we own 9 of the 11 accessible taxis current operang in ______. Purchased accessible vehicles through a New Freedom grant. Taxi company supplied all vehicles for many years. Lately, transit agency has decided to purchase the vehicles, 6 of 15 so far, with the remaining 9 vehicles to be supplied by transit agency by 2016.

88 Queson 27: Does the taxi regulatory enty that regulates the taxis you use require taxi companies to have accessible vehicles? Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count Yes 24% 9 No 51% 19 Not Sure 14% 5 Other; please explain: 11% 4 Total Responses 100% 37 Total Respondents 95% 37 Other Explanaon: We only use sedan companies Some, but not all ci­es require Yes in the City. No in suburban area. 100 of the taxi permits/medallions are issued for accessible vehicles Queson 27A: If yes, please explain what the regulaons require (e.g., a certain percent of accessible vehicles for taxi companies of a certain size) or, if easier, please give us the website and we will check the regulaons. Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count Total Respondents 24% 9 Explanaon: I don't know the requirement. Metro Louisville Ground Transporta­on Ordinances 115.240 through 115.270 would be a place to start. Under our franchise agreement and SSG board approved ordinance each franchise must operate and maintain two wheelchair accessible taxicabs at all ­mes that meet ADA requirements and standards. City of Chicago Business Affairs and Consumer Protec­on www.cityofchicago.org/bacp 2% of total fleet, h™p://ladot.lacity.org/WhatWeDo/TaxicabsAmbulancesPipelines/Taxicabs/index.html 20% per 16.40.300 h™p://www.portlandonline.com/auditor/?c=28593#cid_254396 The County’s regula­on mandates that a certain percentage of taxi companies fleet must be accessible vehicles

89 At least one accessible vehicle per company or 1% of total fleet I am not sure if the cies require the taxi companies here to have x amount of accessible vehicles, the taxi companies here have been supplying supplemental paratransit service for so long, that they have always invested in their own accessible vehicles. hp://www.amlegal.com/nxt/gateway.dll/California/transportaon/divisionii/arcle1100regulaonofmotorvehiclesforh?f=te mplates$fn=default.htm$3.0$vid=amlegal:sanfrancisco_ca. We are ancipang more changes in the Ramped Taxi regulaons but this is where they stand today. Helps though, in the applicaon for addional taxi permits to offer accessible cabs. Very popular with the County Board. Queson 28: Do you think the taxi regulaons are adequate to regulate the taxi industry in your jurisdicon(s)? Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count Yes 46% 16 No 34% 12 Haven't really thought about it 20% 7 Total Responses 100% 35 Total Respondents 90% 35 Comments: I think the taxi industry is coping with driver availability issues and struggles with the balance of consumer expectaons of quality drivers and private contractor business model. This disconnect becomes more apparent when more training and communicaon skills may be needed to serve special populaons, like people with disabilities, on a regular basis. We only use sedan companies. This is a fairly small community and the regulaons seem adequate. The community isn’t really large enough to support several medium or larger taxi companies. We contract with the largest, & there are a handful of small taxi operators. I think there are serious liability issues with the Uber-type taxi service model that has emerged in many larger cies. But so far it’s not a real issue here... We are currently working toward the possibility of having the regulaons updated in order to mandate that a percentage of new taxicabs be accessible. It has been brought to our Board of Directors on several occasions that we have some of the strictest enforced taxi regulaons anywhere. The City has comprehensive regulaons and are supporve of ADA services. The transit agency has a good working relaons with___. In the suburban areas the regulaons vary by municipalies. The transit agency contracts with taxi companies in the suburbs requiring agency policy and FTA compliance.

90 Regulaons previously supported a monopolisc arrangement and prevented entry into the market by any operator not affiliated with a very small handful of companies primarily owned by one organizaon. This has changed very recently, so it is early to tell if the changes are beneficial to persons with disabilies The city regulaons have been in flux. Some of the controversies are: Permit caps, and only five or six permied companies Driver complaints about pay and working condions Permit classificaons, i.e. shules and two different cab classificaons—regular taxis and specially aended (reservaons only) Uber and similar companies Too lax. Need more oversight and vehicle inspecons. Requiring a minimum percentage of accessible vehicles (ramping up to that percentage as new vehicles are purchased) would be of great benefit. We pay a slightly higher rate (due to administrave costs) than a standard taxi fare and have more (contractually) stringent requirements for parcipang drivers/vehicles than city regulaons do, so most aspects of taxi regulaon are outside of our concern. PUC insurance limits too low, lack of standards for drivers, no requirements for accessibility There are a few “bandits” (illegal cabs) operang in this county, but I would say that the legal taxi companies are adequately regulated. I think we will become more aware of the actual regulaons as the taxi companies become more paratransit oriented (sub-contracted) because their general public customer base is being eroded by Uber and Ly’, etc...and that is bringing aenon to regulaons right now. We focus on oversight for the contracts we have entered into. The taxi company provides trips for other enes, as well as their private service. We focus on our services, but not the enre service provide by the taxi company. Since the taxi company provides human service transportaon through the state, there are some state and broker oversight that takes place. But impacts of not being able to also regulate the TNCs is having an impact on Taxi services. It is helpful to be the regulator and to be able to emphasize service to seniors and disabled as part of the taxi training for all new taxi drivers. Many cies are unaware of their exisng ordinances and seldom do any enforcement. The addion of TNCs to the market will become an added challenge. Most cies are unaware of any impact. County Board asked staff to review regulaons. One irritant is the bar in the Metro area from picking up in local jurisdicons that the cab is not licensed in. Forces inefficiencies. Queson 29: Do the taxi vehicles have in-vehicle equipment and technology that provides data on your agency’s subsidized trips for monitoring and auding purposes? Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count Yes 62% 23 No 38% 14 Total Responses 100% 37 Total Respondents 95% 37

91 Queson 29A: If Yes, what are the funcons of the technology? (check all that apply) Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count Riders use a swipe/smart card that serves as an ID card. 35% 9 Riders’ swipe/smart card provides payment (some or all) for the trip. 31% 8 The card/technology idenfies the specific trip origin and desnaon locaons. 46% 12 The card/technology provides date and me stamps of pick-ups and drop-offs. 50% 13 Technology allows real-time tracking of vehicle locaon, e.g., with AVL. 62% 16 Other; please explain: 38% 10 Total Responses (mulple responses allowed) - 68 Total Respondents 67% 26 Other Explanaon: Currently there is no connecon between our Trapeze PASS paratransit trip scheduling so˜ware and the vehicle. Data is entered by hand after the day of service. However, Yellow Cab is currently engaged in a project to integrate an upgrade in their dispatch/vehicle system to “Pathfinder” with Trapeze. The metable for will call trips is late May and hopefully all trips in the months therea˜er. Prime contractor based technology that facilitates vehicle tracking and meter readings. We are about to award a contract for technology to do most of the items above. Note that the technology in the taxi is not compable with the transit agency so˜ware We do not use technology in our partner vehicles at this me MDTs Taxi company has DDS mobile data terminals The taxi company’s mobile data terminal system is not hooked up to ours. The taxi company enters our trip informaon into their own real-me dispatch so˜ware. Completed trip information (miles, hours, riders, fares) is received back through manual data entry into our scheduling so˜ware. The incoming contractor will be installing swipe card technology to track origins and desnaons and other rider data (Rider ID card) Helps them generate reams of paper for the regulator and hack inspector to review, and generates the bills listing every transit agency ride provided, with names, addresses, distance and me.

92 Queson 29B: If Yes, is this the same in-vehicle equipment and technology in the vehicles of your agency’s ADA paratransit dedicated fleet of vans/smaller buses? Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count Yes 21% 6 No 79% 23 Total Responses 100% 29 Total Respondents 74% 29 Queson 30: If your agency has implemented an electronic fare system, what advice would you give another transit agency that was considering transioning from a paper system to an electronic fare system? Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count 7 Explanaon: One of our challenges has been the varied type of equipment among taxi companies. System communica€on, cashiering, system updates posed some issues, e.g., a taxi company may update their servers and cut communica€on without no€ce. Processes and established procedures are important when migra€ng to an electronic system. Do it! You won't regret it. It’s worth the hassle especially for the monitoring capability and the ability to assure that the amount paid is the meter amount. It’s easier for all involved companies, drivers, and customers aŠer the ini€al burn in startup period. Ensure that all participa€ng taxicab vendors u€lize compa€ble program/systems as is developed and supported by the Program; including appropriate technology, hardware and soŠware equipment, such as Mobile Data Computers (MDCs), taxicab meters, card-swipe equipment, Global Posi€oning System (GPS) device, and manual card printers (or smart printers) to successfully provide ongoing system processing capabili€es. Some taxi companies that par€cipate with our program have these capabili€es but our program does not use them. Other ci€es and the regional system use this technology. So, the infrastructure for this technology does exist locally but the cost to join such a program is much higher than what our program currently costs to operate. Time consuming to make the transi€on but worth the effort. We offer mobile €cketing for smartphone users. Through separate customer surveys, we have learned that there are significantly fewer smartphone users among our paratransit customer base than our fixed-route customer base. If considering adop€on of smart technologies, it is advisable to poll your customer base to determine what smart technologies might best suit their needs, interests, and the tech they have access to. Addi€onally, choose customer enrollment/unenrollment (opt in/opt out) methods that require limited or no manual data entry/tracking/valida€on by office staff. Last, if sharing systems between paratransit and other modes, be sure paratransit has its own segregated reports (membership counts, usage, revenue, etc.) as it’ll come in handy for various forms of review and analysis. Allow adequate €me, 6 to 12 months, for educa€ng customers, cab drivers and training staff. Test the technology with cab company providers and field test the program with customers. No€fy customers of the change in wri€ng and offer them the chance to talk with a staff person on the phone. Make presenta€ons to appropriate facili€es.

93 Queson 31: What are the advantages of using taxis for required, next-day ADA paratransit service? Major Advantage Minor Advantage Not Very Important Improve overall cost-efficiency 22 6 3 Serve “overflow” trips on pre-scheduled basis during peak periods and other mes 22 6 2 Serve “overflow” trips on day-of-service/real-me scheduling basis during peak periods and other mes 22 3 4 Provide service during low-demand periods 8 13 7 Provide service in outlying parts of service area 17 6 7 Improve producvity of dedicated fleet 12 11 6 Expand service without buying vehicles 20 6 4 Reduce/eliminate trip denials 18 4 7 Provide a service that riders like 13 12 6 Total Respondents 79% 31 Queson 32: What are the advantages of using taxis for same-day taxi service beyond requirements of the ADA? Major Advantage Minor Advantage Not Very Important Help meet demand for ADA paratransit trips 20 5 4 Serve ADA-eligible riders outside the 3/4 mi. corridors of fixed routes 9 4 12 Provide a same-day trip op†on for ADA eligible riders 16 6 6 Serve seniors and those with disabili†es not eligible/cer†fied for ADA paratransit 16 2 10 Serve seniors, those with disabili†es, those with lower incomes, and others who are not eligible/cer†fied for ADA paratransit 14 4 9 Total Respondents 74% 29

94 Queson 33: What are the challenges of using taxis? Major Challenge Minor Challenge Not an Issue Efforts needed for oversight and monitoring 20 11 3 Taxi company(ies) has difficulty with reporng requirements 12 13 8 Overall service quality 7 18 8 Service reliability (e.g., late trips, missed trips) 8 13 13 Driver quality (e.g., driver assistance, adequate English language skills) 7 19 7 Inadequate driver training 9 13 12 Difficulty/inability to meet insurance requirements 3 6 24 Difficulty/inability to meet FTA drug & alcohol testing requirements 3 9 22 Lack of accessible taxi vehicles 18 6 11 Inadequate taxi regulaons governing taxi industry 6 9 17 Complicaons with/resistance from the transit union 1 5 26 Impact on taxi industry with compeon from Transportaon Network Companies (TNCs), e.g., Uber, Ly• 8 6 17 Other 10 0 2 Total Respondents 85% 33

95 Queson 34: If your agency’s taxi-based services have been impacted because your jurisdicon’s taxi industry must now compete with Transportaon Network Companies (TNCs), e.g., Uber, Lyƒ, would you briefly explain the impacts? (For example, fewer taxi drivers, late trips, missed trips, etc.) Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count Total Respondents 67% 26 Explanaon: At least one company has gone out of business but others have adapted by providing rideshare-like services. None of the impacts have made much of a difference to our program. Parcipants in our program cannot schedule trips through the rideshare-like service currently offered. Not an issue While sll a minor problem in ___ County, some taxi drivers are moving to TNCs or provide dual services. This is not good for the taxi industry as a whole and TNCs currently do not provide any accessibility opons in our area. If taxi services as we know them today disappear, who will serve the elderly and disabled? Notwithstanding these concerns, there is sll a lot of room for improvement in the taxi industry including adopng some of the conveniences, and vehicle and grooming standards typically offered by TNCs. Compeon with higher fare trips. N/A Not clear yet. Haven’t been impacted. The taxi company has some concerns about geˆng and keeping good drivers. N/A We have not seen any impacts in our area. Uber is currently being fined each day for operang in our city without a public passenger license. Our concern is that Uber will take so much taxi business that the taxis will have to decrease their fleets leaving the call center without a much needed transportaon resource for customers served by multiple funding sources. No impact in providing services to date No noceable impact on service. It has been reported that the taxi companies are seeing a @30% loss in service to TNCs. N/A At this me, Uber has agreed to temporarily suspend operaons for 90 days to allow the City me to work out the regulatory issues. Per the agreement, they will begin operang on April 9th, 2015. So it is too soon to tell in our City. No impact so far. No change in service but taxi contractor has commented that it is geˆng harder to keep drivers from jumping to Uber. N/A N/A At this point only minor impact has been observed.

96 We are so small, we have not seen major impacts on our service. The local taxi company has kept us apprised of the fact that they are experiencing an impact, but most of our manifests are performed by the owner of the company, and dedicated employees. There have been impacts to the taxi industry by the introducon of the TNCs. It’s a changing environment so it’s sll hard to know what all the impacts will be. The one that has been felt the strongest has been a shortage of taxi drivers because would be drivers are going to TNCs instead. This has had a parcular impact on the Accessible Taxis because driving one of those cabs already has more challenges than a regular sedan, such as higher fuel costs, greater maintenance costs, more me to secure wheelchair users, potenally more deadhead me to reach customers etc. Incenves are necessary to draw drivers to the service and even with incenves we are still experiencing challenges. We are in a suburban low density area and the limited taxi market has seen little impact from TNCs as yet. We are concerned about future issues as their presence grows. TNCs have aracted drivers from the taxi companies. Consequently, fewer taxi drivers are available for the sedans. Our taxi vendor has other incenves to keep accessible minivan drivers behind the wheel. This results in late pickups and complaints—almost enrely from ambulatory riders. To date we have not seen an impact. However it could work to our advantage by freeing more cabs for our programs, unless a lot of cab drivers go to the TNCs I’m not aware of this new TNC opon having a significant impact in our community yet. Queson 35: What key advice or “lessons learned” would you give to another public transit agency considering the use of taxis for older adults and people with disabilies? Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count Total Respondents 79% 31 Lessons Learned: Don’t do it for the enre service, write a very good contract and specify technology. 1. Understand their model and culture. It is very different; and address the pinch points early. It has to start with upper management who sees potential of serving this populaon (in and outside of your contract). You probably can't lead this horse to water. 2. Address the data and reporng issues up front if there will be a high volume of trips—NTD will make you crazy, if not. 3. You have to give them enough business (carrot) to justify their investment in technology, driver training, etc. It’s a balancing act—if you don’t take the risk and give them the work you probably won’t be considered an important customer and that makes more ‘requirements’ harder. Go for it, if you have the funding. We began program with a higher subsidy amount and found that it encouraged fraud. We reduced the subsidy and have beer controls to prevent fraud. Ensure focused training and retraining on Customer Bill of Rights/Customer Service/Sensivity Training for paratransit customers, Migate language barriers. Taxi drivers are very different from transit coach/bus operators and few view driving a taxi as a career. While no one likes rules and conformity, taxi drivers tend to loath them. We have encountered various problems with poor service and dishonest pracces by a few drivers up to and including driving while intoxicated. Adopters will need effecve monitoring pracces and sff penales for violaons including suspension of taxi permits.

97 Limit expectations; ADA paratransit is to be comparable to fixed-route service not an exclusive car service; could be a cost generator instead of a cost savings iniave, inducing more discreonary trips. Using taxis has allowed us to have addional opons at the lowest possible cost. The most important elements in our experience are selecng a company with a request for proposal (i.e., not a bid with award going to the lowest cost), selecng a company interested in long-term growth as opposed to a quick profit, and working to understand their business. Clearly define expectations and requirements. Hold the bar high and expect the same driver training, and quality as any other contractor. Have very structured oversight and monitoring acvies built into the service model. Our transit agency is lucky to have a long relaonship with a good taxi company that makes a big difference. Being clear about how to use taxis is important for dispatchers. Our agency gets real value by using them when it would take one of our own drivers out of posion for more producve service. Having taxis available for “safety valve” situaons really helps us solve problems every week. We have developed an “allowance” system to avoid over use of taxis when our own drivers can be used producvely. Be very selecve in which taxi company you use. Be very clear to riders about how the taxi service works. Be very careful to monitor the service. Our same day taxi service began almost 20 years ago at a per mile reimbursement rate. I would strongly advise against this approach and sck to a per trip reimbursement rate. Furthermore, consideraon should be given to offering mulple reimbursement rates dependent upon whether services are offered by sedans or accessible vehicles. A higher rate for an accessible vehicle may movate more drivers to purchase accessible vehicles. Start small and with a company willing to make changes in how they do business. Have annual reviews with taxi companies and independent taxicab drivers, we have found this is best met during our required franchise meeng for the taxi companies, and annual driver permit renewal for the taxicab driver. Stay away from a paper voucher program as it will substanally impact office personnel producvity, cause addions account errors, and increase the possibility of fraud. Advice: 1. Decide how you are going to use taxi (service design may be different if you operate in mulple counes or varying communies) 2. Conduct an RFQ (Get commitment from owner or partner of taxi company) 3. Clearly idenfy FTA requirements. (Project Acon Easter Seals provided helpful material and videos) 4. Survey technologies used for swipe card, if any, cashier, gateways etc. 5. Communicaon and connued communicaon between all involved parties is essenal Have same levels of training requirements for both dedicated and non-dedicated drivers. Agency must be able to have same level of oversight and auding for dedicated and non-dedicated services. Have stringent eligibility criteria in place if the service is limited to ADA eligible applicants. Make sure the taxi agency is fairly compensang drivers so as to avoid discriminatory behavior toward ADA clients. Cab service represents 10–12% of our ADA paratransit ridership, and benefits us greatly by providing addional capacity when and where we need it. That said, quality issues are significant and require constant focus and follow-up with the cab company. And we have had a struggle ge¡ng good data from the cab company. Ideally, it would be good to use several cab companies so that there is compeon for trips, but at this me we have only one contract with a large company. Some successes have been—cab company finally providing complete mileage data so to allow accurate reporng to NTD, cab company management a¤ending advisory commi¤ee meengs to answer quesons and listen to feedback, cab company not billing for trips when there have been serious mistakes made by operators. Our transit agency has sophiscated on-me performance and complaint tracking (including cab operator name) to address trends, cab company is bringing more accessible vehicles on line. We built a program to allow cab company to import trip data directly from our scheduling system for before-day trips. However, quality is not what it should be and our efforts are ongoing.

98 Establish rigid eligibility criteria for par cipa on; audit a significant percentage of the trips; establish an electronic swipe card system instead of vouchers to help with GPS tracking and invoice reconcilia on; monitor performance of the taxi companies, including their billing procedures. Taxis are a cost-effec ve mode of transporta on for ADA paratransit, but for the service to run properly there must be a great working rela onship between the transit agency and the taxi company management. Be prepared to dedicate a lot of me (time management) dealing with issues developed by both the taxi firms and the individuals using the service. However, for our agency it is more cost-effec ve to outsource the transporta on program than to operate it in-house. It’s me consuming and monitoring is critical. Very important to establish rela onship with taxi providers. Agency must monitor the taxi companies, and provide feedback, and on-going training in the areas of customer service. The taxi companies must be educated in the areas of handling, and dealing with seniors and those with disabilities. Audit the taxi company regularly, and meet with the person in charge when issues arise. Includ e taxis operators in your company’s training and familiarize the dispatchers with your dispatchers and procedures. Follow up on customer reports, good or bad. Taxi companies without prior experience with paratransit service are going to have ini al difficulty. Their business and data collec on centers around profit and basic logis cs. They will need to be educated on the various regula ons, service needs, and data collec on required for federally funded paratransit. It’s worth the trouble. First build rela onships with taxi companies so that they can see your services as a market they could fulfill and you can be‹er understand how the services you need may fit within their framework. Also work with regulators to make sure that the regula ons encourage this type of service. Customer acceptance doesn’t seem to be an issue, taxi is oŽen seen as a luxury by customers and it ’s almost also less costly for the transit agency. Need to assure that there are some ways to curtail demand so having an ADA op on for services beyond a certain amount is helpful. Important to have methods to verify trips. Electronic tracking with GPS etc. is very helpful. With a robust taxi industry a user side subsidy program can be a very cost effec ve user friendly way to provide trips to ADA eligible customers. We’re more than willing to share our experience. Analyze your cab market carefully in terms of number of viable companies. Number companies with government contrac ng experience, market entry requirements. If you are contempla ng a user side system, analyze the level of competition and sophis ca on. Are there bandit cab issues etc. Our taxi vendor was proac ve decades ago on accessible vehicles and on training/sensi zing drivers to the needs of seniors and people with disabili es. Ge•ng the emotional as well as written commitment of the vendor is a base requirement. Other requirements: A taxi billing system that is auditable—available on a database for review. Incen ves to reduce the daily rental cost for drivers of accessible taxis as well as maintenance costs. Familiarity of the taxi mechanics with minivan transmissions (especially Dodge) and accessibility equipment. Dedicated training and ve•ng program for drivers, including criminal/traffic background checks and FTA-compliant drug and alcohol tes ng. Clear and concise printed and on-line paratransit program rules, bilingual as needed, available to drivers and customers. Clear and concise contract Scope of Services—especially regarding billing, record-keeping, and repor ng is also vital. In a system of mul ple vendors with a mixed fleet, dispatch of accessible vehicles should be centralized to improve on- me performance. Look at more than the bo‹om line. While using taxis is cost-effec ve, there are tradeoffs. Unlike a transit system with trained and carefully selected drivers, anyone can drive a cab so service may be less consistent. The transit agency is compe ng with everyone else in the market place so at mes when there are special events in the community cab service for transit customers may be compromised.

99 Queson 36: Have you conducted any surveys or other feedback mechanisms to understand your passengers’ perspectives on the taxi-based services? Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count Yes 42% 14 No 58% 19 Total Responses 100% 33 Total Respondents 85% 33 Queson 37: How would you characterize your service area? Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count Rural/small town—Less than 50,000 popula on 5% 2 Urban—50,000 to 200,000 population 33% 13 Large urban—200,000 to 1 million population 36% 14 Metro region—More than 1 million popula on 26% 10 Total Responses 100% 39 Total Respondents 100% 39 Queson 38: Annual data for most recent full fiscal year. Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count Taxis Used for Dedicated, Next-Day, Required ADA Paratransit Service: Total Active Vehicles 1 - 10 1 11 - 25 2 26 - 50 0

100 51 - 100 2 101 - 200 1 201 - 400 1 Over 400 1 Annual Passenger Trips 1 - 5,000 1 5,001 - 10,000 1 10,001 - 20,000 1 20,001 - 40,000 1 40,001 - 80,000 0 80,001 - 160,000 3 Over 160,000 2 Annual Operang Cost Up to $50,000 1 $50,001 - $100,000 0 $100,001 - $200,000 0 $200,001 - $400,000 1 $400,001 - $800,000 1 $800,001 - $1,600,000 1 $1,600,001 - $3,000,000 2 $3,000,001 - $6,000,000 0 Over $6,000,000 3 Number of Taxi Companies Parcipang 1 4 2 - 5 2 6 - 10 2 Total Respondents 9

101 Taxis Used for Non-Dedicated, Next-Day, Required ADA Paratransit Service: Total Active Vehicles N/A 1 1 - 10 4 11 - 25 4 26 - 50 4 51 - 100 0 101 - 200 1 201 - 400 1 Over 400 2 Annual Passenger Trips 1 - 5,000 4 5,001 - 10,000 1 10,001 - 20,000 1 20,001 - 40,000 2 40,001 - 80,000 5 80,001 - 160,000 2 Over 160,000 2 Annual Operang Cost Up to $50,000 2 $50,001 - $100,000 2 $100,001 - $200,000 0 $200,001 - $400,000 2 $400,001 - $800,000 2 $800,001 - $1,600,000 2 $1,600,001 - $3,000,000 2 $3,000,001 - $6,000,000 2 Over $6,000,000 1

102 Number of Taxi Companies Par cipa ng 1 13 2 - 5 1 6 - 10 3 11 - 20 1 Over 20 1 Total Respondents 17 Taxis Used for Same-Day Taxi Service Beyond ADA Requirements: Annual Passenger Trips 1 - 5,000 5 5,001 - 10,000 0 10,001 - 20,000 2 20,001 - 40,000 2 40,001 - 80,000 3 80,001 - 160,000 3 Over 160,000 2 Annual Opera ng Cost Up to $50,000 3 $50,001 - $100,000 2 $100,001 - $200,000 1 $200,001 - $400,000 1 $400,001 - $800,000 1 $800,001 - $1,600,000 4 $1,600,001 - $3,000,000 1 $3,000,001 - $6,000,000 0 Over $6,000,000 1

103 Queson 39: Would you be willing to talk with one of the research team members about your survey responses or possibly serve as a case study? Response Opons ResponsePercent Response Count Yes 56% 19 Maybe 35% 12 No 9% 3 Total Responses 100% 34 Total Respondents 87% 34 Queson 40. Any Addional Comments Deeply considering going to an electronic fare collecon and service tracking program within the next 12–18 months. If managed correctly, with fair, but strong, contract language, non-dedicated taxi can be a valuable method of handling ADA overflow service. Real-time automation and data collecon should be employed wherever possible. Direct costs AND administrave costs should be considered together when determining effecveness of this mode. The annual data is all esmated. We contract with a taxi company and the same taxi company’s subsidiary. The taxi company provides service to ambulatory riders (sedans & minivans) and the subsidiary provides service to non- ambulatory riders (minivans & vans). Especially in Urban communies taxis are a resource that Transit Agencies should look into partnering with. It’s a long-term proposion but can result in more cost-effecve and customer friendly service. There are challenges and it can take years to develop but can be worth the effort. On the taxi data our service is same day, not next day. An ADA eligible customer calls the cab company just prior to their trip to reserve a cab and then they pay with their subsidized debit card which collects all the details of the trip. Parcipang 1 8 2 - 5 5 6 - 10 2 11 - 20 1 Over 20 1 Total Respondents 17 Number of Taxi Companies

Abbreviations and acronyms used without definitions in TRB publications: A4A Airlines for America AAAE American Association of Airport Executives AASHO American Association of State Highway Officials AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials ACI–NA Airports Council International–North America ACRP Airport Cooperative Research Program ADA Americans with Disabilities Act APTA American Public Transportation Association ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials ATA American Trucking Associations CTAA Community Transportation Association of America CTBSSP Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program DHS Department of Homeland Security DOE Department of Energy EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAA Federal Aviation Administration FAST Fixing America’s Surface Transportation Act (2015) FHWA Federal Highway Administration FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration FRA Federal Railroad Administration FTA Federal Transit Administration HMCRP Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ISTEA Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 ITE Institute of Transportation Engineers MAP-21 Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (2012) NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAO National Association of State Aviation Officials NCFRP National Cooperative Freight Research Program NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NTSB National Transportation Safety Board PHMSA Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration RITA Research and Innovative Technology Administration SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SAFETEA-LU Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (2005) TCRP Transit Cooperative Research Program TDC Transit Development Corporation TEA-21 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (1998) TRB Transportation Research Board TSA Transportation Security Administration U.S.DOT United States Department of Transportation

NO N-PRO FIT O RG . U.S. PO STAG E PA ID CO LUM BIA, M D PER M IT NO . 88 TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 5 0 0 F ifth S tre e t, N W W a s h in g to n , D C 2 0 0 0 1 A D D R ESS SER VICE R EQ UESTED Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People w ith Disabilities and Older Adults TCRP Synthesis 119 TRB ISBN 978-0-309-27211-7 9 7 8 0 3 0 9 2 7 2 1 1 7 9 0 0 0 0

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TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 119: Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults explores and summarizes how taxis may be used by public transportation agencies to provide disabled or older adults with greater mobility and access to their destinations. The report also identifies potential advantages and challenges that public transportation agencies may face when using taxis.

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