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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Cryptographic Agility and Interoperability: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24636.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS500 Fifth Street, NWWashington, DC 20001

This project was supported by the National Science Foundation under award number CNS-14194917 and the National Institute of Standards and Technology under award number 60NANB16D311. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for this project.

Digital Object Identifier: 10.17226/24636

Copyright 2017 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Cryptographic Agility and Interoperability: Proceedings of a Workshop. Forum on Cyber Resilience Workshop Series. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi:10.17226/24636.

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Reports document the evidence-based consensus of an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and committee deliberations. Reports are peer reviewed and are approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.

Proceedings chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other convening event. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not necessarily endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.

For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit nationalacademies.org/whatwedo.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Cryptographic Agility and Interoperability: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24636.
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FORUM ON
Cyber
Resilience

WORKSHOP SERIES

Cryptographic Agility
and Interoperability

Proceedings of a Workshop

Anne Frances Johnson and Lynette I. Millett, Rapporteurs

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Cryptographic Agility and Interoperability: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24636.
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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president.

The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president.

The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine.

Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Cryptographic Agility and Interoperability: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24636.
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CYBER RESILIENCE WORKSHOP SERIES COMMITTEE

FRED B. SCHNEIDER, NAE,1 Cornell University, Chair

ANITA ALLEN, NAM,2 University of Pennsylvania

ERIC GROSSE, Google, Inc.

BUTLER W. LAMPSON, NAS3/NAE, Microsoft Corporation

SUSAN LANDAU, Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Staff

LYNETTE I. MILLETT, Director, Forum on Cyber Resilience

EMILY GRUMBLING, Program Officer

SHENAE BRADLEY, Administrative Assistant

FORUM ON CYBER RESILIENCE

FRED B. SCHNEIDER, NAE, Cornell University, Chair

ANITA ALLEN, NAM, University of Pennsylvania

BOB BLAKLEY, CitiGroup, Inc.

FRED H. CATE, Indiana University

DAVID D. CLARK, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

RICHARD J. DANZIG, Center for a New American Security

ERIC GROSSE, Google, Inc.

DAVID A. HOFFMAN, Intel Corporation

PAUL C. KOCHER, NAE, Cryptography Research Division, Rambus, Inc.

TADAYOSHI KOHNO, University of Washington

BUTLER W. LAMPSON, NAS/NAE, Microsoft Corporation

SUSAN LANDAU, Worcester Polytechnic Institute

STEVEN B. LIPNER, Independent Consultant

DEIRDRE K. MULLIGAN, University of California, Berkeley

TONY W. SAGER, Center for Internet Security

WILLIAM H. SANDERS, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

STEFAN SAVAGE, University of California, San Diego

PETER SWIRE, Georgia Institute of Technology

DAVID C. VLADECK, Georgetown University

MARY ELLEN ZURKO, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Ex Officio

DONNA F. DODSON, National Institute for Standards and Technology

JAMES KUROSE, National Science Foundation

WILLIAM B. MARTIN, National Security Agency

Staff

LYNETTE I. MILLETT, Director

EMILY GRUMBLING, Program Officer

KATIRIA ORTIZ, Research Associate

SHENAE BRADLEY, Administrative Assistant

For more information about the forum, see its website at http://www.cyber-forum.org, or e-mail the forum at cyberforum@nas.edu.

___________________

1 National Academy of Engineering.

2 National Academy of Medicine.

3 National Academy of Sciences.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Cryptographic Agility and Interoperability: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24636.
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COMPUTER SCIENCE AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS BOARD

FARNAM JAHANIAN, Carnegie Mellon University, Chair

LUIZ ANDRE BARROSO, Google, Inc.

STEVEN M. BELLOVIN, NAE, Columbia University

ROBERT F. BRAMMER, Brammer Technology, LLC

EDWARD FRANK, Cloud Parity, Inc.

LAURA HAAS, NAE, IBM Corporation

MARK HOROWITZ, NAE, Stanford University

ERIC HORVITZ, NAE, Microsoft Research

VIJAY KUMAR, NAE, University of Pennsylvania

BETH MYNATT, Georgia Institute of Technology

CRAIG PARTRIDGE, Raytheon BBN Technologies

DANIELA RUS, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

FRED B. SCHNEIDER, NAE, Cornell University

MARGO SELTZER, Harvard University

JOHN STANKOVIC, University of Virginia

MOSHE VARDI, NAS/NAE, Rice University

KATHERINE YELICK, University of California, Berkeley

Staff

JON EISENBERG, Director

LYNETTE I. MILLETT, Associate Director

VIRGINIA BACON TALATI, Program Officer

SHENAE BRADLEY, Administrative Assistant

JANEL DEAR, Senior Program Assistant

EMILY GRUMBLING, Program Officer

RENEE HAWKINS, Financial and Administrative Manager

KATIRIA ORTIZ, Research Associate

For more information on CSTB, see its website at http://www.cstb.org, write to CSTB, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001, call (202) 334-2605, or e-mail the CSTB at cstb@nas.edu.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Cryptographic Agility and Interoperability: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24636.
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Preface

The Forum on Cyber Resilience—a roundtable established in 2015 by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine—facilitates and enhances the exchange of ideas among scientists, practitioners, and policy makers who are concerned with urgent and important issues related to the resilience of the nation’s computing and communications systems, including the Internet, other critical infrastructures, and commercial systems. Forum activities help to inform and engage a broad range of stakeholders around technology and policy issues related to cyber resilience, cybersecurity, privacy, and associated emerging issues. A key role for the forum is to uncover and explore topics that can help advance the national conversation.

During our early discussions exploring technical aspects of cyber resilience, the question of how to deploy systems whose cryptographic elements would be resistant to eventual quantum computers arose. Further discussion made clear that because we are all highly dependent on widely deployed cryptosystems, there is a complex, rich set of issues, beyond the potential impact of quantum computers, that affects how resilient our information and communications systems are (or could be) with regard to the cryptographic components used to ensure data secrecy, integrity, and authenticity. Cryptographic agility encompasses not just what can be done about the prospects of quantum computing breaking widely deployed public-key cryptography, but also how to address newly-discovered flaws in long-deployed cryptographic components such as Secure Sockets Layer/

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Cryptographic Agility and Interoperability: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24636.
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Transport Layer Security (SSL/TLS)1 (the technology that secures links between web servers and browsers), as well as challenges related to nation-state preferences for homegrown cryptographic suites in commodity operating systems. Cryptographic agility thus not only poses difficult technical challenges, but also has economic and foreign policy implications.

To explore these issues further, the forum decided to host a workshop. A planning group has been appointed to oversee the forum’s workshop series. This workshop, held on May 9, 2016, in Washington, D.C., featured invited speakers from government, the private sector, and academia. This workshop proceedings summarizes the presentations made by invited speakers and remarks made by workshop participants, as well as the ensuing discussions. In keeping with the workshop’s exploratory purpose and the National Academies’ guidelines, this proceedings does not contain findings or recommendations, nor does it necessarily reflect consensus views of the workshop participants or planning committee. The planning committee’s role was limited to organizing the workshop, and the workshop proceedings has been prepared by the workshop rapporteurs and forum staff as a factual summary of what occurred at the workshop.

The introduction provides an overview of the workshop and reproduces background material provided to all participants. Chapters 1 through 5 summarize speaker presentations. Note that although the chapter headings reflect the titles given to these sessions at the workshop, most speakers covered many aspects of the topic. Chapter 6 describes the content of the final plenary discussion, highlighting some of the broader themes that emerged throughout the workshop. The workshop agenda and participants list are provided in Appendix A. Short biosketches of the planning committee and speakers appear in Appendixes B and C, respectively.

We hope that the workshop and this proceedings will encourage the exchange of ideas and fresh thinking about the critical cryptographic technologies that underpin much of our economy and critical infrastructure.

My sincere thanks to the planning committee, forum members, and staff who planned and organized the workshop as well as the invited speakers for their thoughtful remarks and enthusiastic participation in the discussions that ensued. Writing support was provided by Anne Frances Johnson and Kathleen Pierce, Creative Science Writing. We also extend our appreciation to the National Science Foundation, the National Security Agency, the Special Cyber Operations Research and Engineering Working Group, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology for their support and encouragement of forum activities.

Fred B. Schneider, Chair
Forum on Cyber Resilience

___________________

1 SSL and TLS are two names for the same family of security protocols. SSLv2 and SSLv3 were developed by Netscape and the name of the protocol was changed to TLSv1 when it was standardized by (and change control moved to) the Internet Engineering Task Force.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Cryptographic Agility and Interoperability: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24636.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Cryptographic Agility and Interoperability: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24636.
×

ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF REVIEWERS

This workshop proceedings has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure it meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the project’s charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings:

Paul Kocher, Cryptography Research Division, Rambus, Inc., NAE,1

Brian LaMacchia, Microsoft Corporation,

John Manferdelli, Google, Inc., and

JR Rao, IBM Corporation.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the views presented at the workshop, nor did they see the final draft of the proceedings before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Samuel H. Fuller, Analog Devices, Inc., NAE, who was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this proceedings rests entirely with the authors and the institution.

___________________

1 National Academy of Engineering.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Cryptographic Agility and Interoperability: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24636.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Cryptographic Agility and Interoperability: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24636.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Cryptographic Agility and Interoperability: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24636.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Cryptographic Agility and Interoperability: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24636.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Cryptographic Agility and Interoperability: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24636.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Cryptographic Agility and Interoperability: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24636.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Cryptographic Agility and Interoperability: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24636.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Cryptographic Agility and Interoperability: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24636.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Cryptographic Agility and Interoperability: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24636.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Cryptographic Agility and Interoperability: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24636.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Cryptographic Agility and Interoperability: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24636.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Cryptographic Agility and Interoperability: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24636.
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In May 2016, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine hosted a workshop on Cryptographic Agility and Interoperability. Speakers at the workshop discussed the history and practice of cryptography, its current challenges, and its future possibilities. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

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