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21s e s s i o n 2 : m i n i m i z i n g d i s r u p t i o n d u r i n g e x t r e m e e v e n t s multiagency coordination would be beneficial, as well as examples including social service groups and the private sector. â¢ A related research topic discussed by participants focused on cross-modal substitution. Participants sug- gested that research examining the ability to substitute different modes for travel during extreme weather events and methods to encourage people to use alternative modes or not make trips would be beneficial. â¢ Participants discussed possible research that could explore the human aspects of responding to extreme weather events. Topics that could be examined included how people perceive risk, how people make decisions on the basis of risk, how people make travel and mode decisions, and if people trust public-sector information sources. Breakout Group B Alan McKinnon Challenges â¢ Participants discussed challenges related to recent socio- economic trends, including increases in teleworking and home shopping. It was suggested that increases in teleworking may result in less travel, but that increases in home shopping may add to the vulnerability of last-mile delivery services. â¢ Some participants discussed opportunities to use social media and other methods to communicate with the public during extreme weather events. The video devel- oped by the Dutch government on evacuation advice was noted as one example. â¢ The capacity of the cell phone network was noted as a challenge, with examples cited of problems during recent extreme weather events. â¢ More real-time information on weather, damage, and operations was cited as an ongoing challenge. â¢ Participants discussed the challenges associated with international and multistate coordination and cross-border flood management. A related challenge was who assumes control when public safety is involved. â¢ Participants described possible uses of new tech- nologies to aid in monitoring and responding to extreme weather events and how these technologies respond to changing climate conditions. â¢ The application of smart materials to minimize impacts was considered, as was sensitizing the materials community to taking this issue seriously. â¢ Challenges associated with some types of human behavior include people coming to observe or photo- graph extreme weather events and panic buying of food and supplies. â¢ Participants discussed the challenges of planning for surprises or black swans (rare extreme events) that may not have been considered. â¢ Uncertainties about liability issues, including pos- sible constraints on official behavior, were noted as chal- lenges as well. Concerns about budgetary constraints were also highlighted. â¢ A few participants discussed the fear of being blamed for action or inaction during a disaster. It was suggested that public agencies may be blamed in both cases. â¢ Participants discussed the challenges of trade-offs between restoring infrastructure quickly to existing design standards and taking longer to alter design stan- dards to meet future climate risks. Research â¢ One research topic suggested was conducting com- parative studies of plans and practices in Europe and the United States. The project could identify best practices in both continents, examine the differing degrees of open- ness, and assess the use of performance standards and performance-based planning. â¢ Research examining communication methods, including identifying applications used in other sectors, could also be important. â¢ Research on human behavior during extreme weather events, including how advice and response on one occasion influence future actions and changes in travel behavior, could be valuable. â¢ Exploring methods to use the education system to alert people to the risks associated with extreme weather events and desired responses represented another pos- sible research topic suggested by some participants. â¢ A few participants discussed the importance of capturing key data during the disruption phase, including changes in the freight flow and diversions from affected modes and routes. It was suggested that a research project identifying data needs, methods to capture and analyze the data, and techniques to present the data to technical staff and policy makers would be beneficial. Breakout Group C Sam Merrill Challenges â¢ Participants noted that one major challenge in responding to transport disruptions caused by extreme weather events is identifying and following the appropri-