Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
37 Potential Portfolio for EUâU.S. Research on Transportation Resilience Katherine F. Turnbull, Texas A&M Transportation Institute, College Station, Texas, USA Symposium rapporteur Katherine Turnbull summa-rized the keynote presentations, panels, and break-out group reports. She also attended the breakout groups, gaining a better understanding of the challenges and research topics discussed by participants. A number of common cross-cutting challenges and research topics emerged from the symposium. The rapporteur developed a potential portfolio for EUâU.S. research on transportation resilience and adap- tation to climate change and extreme weather events. The potential research topics are grouped by the fol- lowing subject areas: climate science data for transport uses; adapting materials and designs; climate change and transport planning; risk assessments, stress tests, and benefitâcost analyses (BCAs); technologies, innovations, and impacts; and communication and outreach strategies and methods for diverse stakeholders. These research topics may be considered by the European Commission, the U.S. Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT), the cooperative research programs managed by the Trans- portation Research Board (TRB), and other groups. The potential research projects are also appropriate for twin- ning. Opportunities for ongoing trans-Atlantic informa- tion sharing and coordination activities are highlighted after the six research subject areas. Climate sCienCe data for transPort uses The need for research translating climate science data into useful information for transportation planning, design, and operations was discussed in the breakout groups for all three of the scenarios. Symposium partici- pants cited the following research topics as being poten- tially useful as a means of facilitating the use of climate science data by the transport sectors: â¢ Identify climate science data relevant to transport planning, design, and operations and translate those data into usable information. This research would focus on making available climate science data more user friendly for the transport sectors. It would develop guides and examples for the use of climate science data for different transport planning, design, and operation applications. â¢ Develop a robust ongoing dialogue among climate scientists and transport engineers, planners, operators, and policy makers to facilitate information sharing. Ensuring that climate scientists understand transport issues at the local, regional, state, national, and global levels would be part of this research. adaPting materials and designs The need to examine the long-term impacts of climate change and extreme weather events on transport infra- structure materials and designs was discussed through- out the symposium. The following research projects were considered by individual participants on this topic: â¢ Identify the potential impacts of climate change on the transport infrastructure. An initial research project would examine the possible impacts of climate change, including higher temperatures, on a range of transport
38 t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r e s i l i e n c e infrastructure, materials, and equipment. Vulnerable assets would be identified for more detailed examination in additional research. â¢ Develop pavement and materials for higher tem- peratures and humidity. Research would develop speci- fications and standards for pavements and materials to withstand higher temperatures and higher humidity lev- els. The research would involve working with the appro- priate specification- and standard-setting organizations. â¢ Develop design and operational criteria for modal infrastructure to respond to changing climates. Multiple research projects could examine the needs of different modes and develop new design and operational criteria as needed to respond to climate change, using data that climate change models can reasonably provide. â¢ Assess the impacts of climate change on infra- structure supporting transport operations, including the power grid, water supplies, and food sourcing. Climate Change and transPort Planning The following possible research topics were discussed during the symposium as possible ways to better inte- grate climate change and extreme weather events into transport planning, including near-term and long-range plans and addressing the needs of different population groups: â¢ Document and share current practices on incorpo- rating climate change into transportation planning. â¢ Develop methods to integrate climate change and weather uncertainty into near-term and long-range transport plans. â¢ Develop dynamic adaptation planning methods and undertake pilot applications. â¢ Develop and apply more robust climate change scenarios, including examining the potential impacts on the transport system and identifying possible responses. â¢ Examine possible black swan climate change sce- narios (rare catastrophic events), the possible impacts on the transport system, and responses to these types of events. â¢ Examine the impacts of changing land use patterns on the transport system during extreme weather events, as well as methods to better coordinate more resilient development patterns. â¢ Enhance the scale and level of detail of travel demand modeling tools and simulation models to account for extreme weather events. â¢ Assess changes in human behavior during extreme weather events, including travel choices, modes, and trip-chaining. Assess the impacts of these changes on the transport system. â¢ Examine cross-modal substitutability during extreme weather events. â¢ Examine the needs of vulnerable population groups during extreme weather events and identify approaches to address their transport, mobility, and other needs. â¢ Assess the broader socioeconomic impacts of cli- mate change and transport, including environmental jus- tice and equity issues. â¢ Review and document organizational learning research for applications that can be used with transport agencies and climate change adaptation. â¢ Examine the use of big data to assist in all aspects of planning for extreme weather events, minimizing dis- ruptions during actual events, and recovering. risK assessments, stress tests, and benefitâCost analyses The following possible research topics were suggested by participants to enhance methodologies for conduct- ing risk assessments, stress tests, and BCAs: â¢ Document and share current practices on assess- ing the risks to different modes from extreme weather events. â¢ Develop standard measures of resilience and risk assessment tools. â¢ Examine approaches to link risk assessment, vul- nerability, and asset management, including the use of risk-based asset management. â¢ Develop, test, and apply scenario-based adaptive policies, dynamic asset-management techniques, and pathways to resilience. â¢ Develop, apply, and evaluate stress tests to deter- mine the vulnerability of transport infrastructure and services. â¢ Examine the level of readiness needed for different adaptation strategies and extreme weather events. â¢ Examine the interaction between mitigation and adaptation strategies and assess if some strategies are mutually reinforcing or are in conflict. â¢ Develop BCA methodologies that account for life- cycle costs and the costs of disruption to the transport system. â¢ Assess the cost-effectiveness of different transport adaptation measures. teChnologies, innovations, and imPaCts The following possible research topics were considered by some participants to be related to new technologies and innovative approaches to monitor and respond to
39p o t e n t i a l p o r t f o l i o f o r e U â U . S . r e S e a r c h extreme weather events, as well as evolving transport technologies: â¢ Assess new technologies to assist in planning for, managing, and recovering from extreme weather events. Possible technologies include unmanned aerial vehicles, sensors, cameras, and smart phones. â¢ Assess the potential impacts of extreme weather events on connected, automated, autonomous, and low- carbon (e.g., electric) vehicles and related technologies. â¢ Assess the impacts of extreme weather events on these new technologies and identify methods to mitigate negative impacts. â¢ Develop innovative transport adaptation strategies and conduct pilot tests. CommuniCation strategies and methods for outreaCh to diverse staKeholders Several participants believed the following research topics could enhance communication and outreach to diverse stakeholders before, during, and after extreme weather events: â¢ Assess current messages and methods for commu- nicating with policy makers, other stakeholders, and the public. â¢ Develop messages to better communicate the potential risks associated with climate change and dif- ferent types of extreme weather events and the need for investments in the transport sector. â¢ Examine the use of social media, smartphones, and other related methods to communicate with the public, especially during extreme weather events. â¢ Develop educational and outreach materials and methods for communicating the impact of climate change and extreme weather events on the transport system. â¢ Develop case studies of publicâprivate partnerships and multiagency coordination in planning for, respond- ing to, and recovering from extreme weather events. â¢ Develop support tools to facilitate multiagency and multilevel coordination and cooperation. information sharing and ongoing Coordination Several opportunities for ongoing trans-Atlantic information sharing, coordination, and collaboration were suggested by individual participants during the symposium: â¢ Distribute the symposium proceedings to diverse stakeholders at the global, national, state, regional, and local levels. â¢ Provide summaries of the symposium to partici- pants and agency staff at conferences and other appropri- ate venues, including those sponsored by the European Commission, U.S. DOT, and TRB. A PowerPoint pre- sentation highlighting the symposium is available for use by all interested parties. â¢ Produce a TR News article on the symposium and follow-up articles on related research and activities as appropriate. â¢ Convene symposium participants at the 2017 TRB annual meeting for an information-sharing meeting. â¢ Develop a general session on the key topics addressed at the symposium for the 2017 TRB annual meeting and promote sessions at future annual meetings and specialty conferences and workshops. â¢ Pursue possible conferences, workshops, and meet- ings sponsored or cosponsored by the U.S. DOT, the European Commission, TRB, and other organizations and groups. â¢ Continue the involvement of the TRB Executive Committee task force, sections, and committees in devel- oping research needs statements; coordinating research and outreach activities; and organizing annual meeting sessions, conferences, and workshops. â¢ Pursue twinning research projects and facilitate trans-Atlantic research and sharing of results. Encour- age ongoing EUâU.S. dialogue and information sharing through a variety of mechanisms. â¢ Develop best practice case studies of adaptation efforts from throughout the world and share at confer- ences and meetings.