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14 t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r e s i l i e n c e the LanguedocâRoussillon region faces large economic and social consequences if adaptation measures are not undertaken to mitigate coastal erosion and inundation hazards. The costs of potential damage due to erosion and permanent inundation were much larger than those due to temporary inundation, indicating that the cost of current coastal risks is negligible in comparison to the expected costs by 2100. Petkovic described the estimated impacts of 1 meter in sea level rise on the transportation system along the entire coast of France. The impact was estimated to be approximately 22,380 kilometers (13,906 miles) of the linear transport infrastructure, including 2.9% of motor- ways, 1.7% of national roads, and 6.3% of the railway network. For the LanguedocâRoussillon region, the esti- mate was approximately 2,500 kilometers (4,553 miles) of linear transport infrastructure. Petkovic discussed the difficulties encountered in the study associated with estimating the costs of the impacts on the transport system. Due to limited data, only the costs associated with the major national infrastructure networks in mainland France managed by the state were analyzed. She noted that although this roadway system represents only 1.2% of the total French road network, it carries 25% of the total traffic. The study estimated that a sea level rise of 1 meter would result in costs for national roads in mainland France of up to â¬2 billion ($2.3 billion), not including the costs associated with the loss of use. Petkovic reported that adaptation measures have been implemented for many years along the French coast. These measures include beach nourishments, the place- ment of coastal defense structures, and the relocation of coastal roads and other exposed assets. She provided the following link for more information on the study (avail- able in French only): http://www.languedoc-roussillon .developpement-durable.gouv.fr/contenu-du-projet- programme-de-l-operation-a2537.html. Petkovic noted that the French Ministry has been working on a range of questions related to climate change. She reviewed the following questions, included in a recent report from Paul VergÃ¨s, President of ONERC, or Observatoire national sur les effets du rÃ©chauffement climatique (National Observatory on the Effects of Global Warming), in the report to the Minis- try and Parliament: â¢ Should we really be extending our infrastructure into maritime areas at a time when sea levels are rising rapidly and coastal flooding is already a fact of life for many coastlines? â¢ Do we need to build new sea defenses? â¢ Should we withdraw from coastal areas and scale back our socioeconomic exploitation of these zones? â¢ Do we need to relocate property? Petkovic reviewed the following questions for discus- sion by participants in the breakout groups. â¢ How do we assess our vulnerability to sea level rise? What do we need to know? â¢ How can we design assets and systems for better resilience to sea level rise and storm surge? â¢ How can we identify interdependencies now to avoid disruptions later? â¢ How can different modal transport agencies col- laborate and coordinate their responses? â¢ How do we perform a long-term gradual transition to a less vulnerable infrastructure? â¢ What are the main transport challenges? â¢ How can the management of these challenges be improved? â¢ What are the implications for research? breaKout grouP a AndrÃ© van Lammeren Challenges â¢ Participants in this breakout group discussed gen- eral issues and challenges associated with sea level rise and storm surges. One issue focused on the vulnerability of islands to these conditions. Some participants sug- gested that examining methods to protect islands from extreme weather events and to access the economic and socioeconomic impacts of sea level rise and storm surges on islands would be beneficial. â¢ Participants discussed the importance of looking beyond the United States and Europe to assess the poten- tial impacts from sea level rise. Changes at the Port of Rotterdam, for example, will likely affect vessels travel- ing to and from China and Asia. â¢ Participants discussed the need to reconsider the master planning and long-range planning approaches. A few participants suggested that a more dynamic planning process would help in responding to rapidly changing situations. â¢ One challenge is to translate climate science data into information that can be used at the state and local levels. A number of participants suggested that knowl- edge of the local situation was critical in responding to extreme weather events. â¢ Participants discussed the challenges of coordinat- ing the activities of multiple stakeholders before, dur- ing, and after extreme weather events. One participant described the complex situation in the New York metro- politan area with multiple agencies at the local, metro- politan, regional, state, and national levels. It was noted