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15S e S S i o n 1 : m a n a g i n g t h e r i S k that private transport providers add further complexity to the situation. â¢ Participants suggested that most of the focus cur- rently is on responding to an extreme weather event, rather than planning for resilience. Spending more time on prevention and actions before an event occurs was noted as important by some participants. â¢ Aligning stakeholders and actions at the local, regional, state, and national levels was identified as a challenge by participants. The role of different groups in the United States and Europe was discussed. â¢ Another challenge voiced by participants was updating design and other standards to reflect climate change. Using stress tests to identify the vulnerability of different system elements, as well as the hot spots for different types of weather events, was an issue that was brought up. Research â¢ One research topic discussed was identifying an overarching agency to collect data and maintain a data- base with current projects and research related to trans- port and climate change. Participants noted that a lot of work has been done on the topic, and ensuring that information is available in one location would be benefi- cial (an example of this approach is available at http:// climate-adap.eea.europa.eu/). â¢ A second related research project participants considered was including projects on all modes and on other supporting elements, such as electricity and gaso- line, in the central database. A few participants noted that the focus of the information clearinghouse would be beneficial if it were broader than just transport infra- structure. â¢ A third research topic discussed was translating available climate science data into usable information for transport planning and operations. Participants dis- cussed the wealth of climate data and suggested that research could channel that data into information that could be used by transport agencies at the local, regional, state, and national levels. â¢ Developing, applying, and evaluating stress tests and other methodologies to determine the vulnerabil- ity of transport infrastructure and services was a fourth research area discussed in this breakout group. Discus- sion in this area focused on current EU projects that could serve as examples, including Novel Indicators for Identifying Critical Infrastructure at Risk from Natural Disasters (INRARISK); Risk Analysis of Infrastructure Networks in Response to Extreme Events (RAIN); Har- monised Approach to Stress Tests for Critical Infrastruc- tures Against Natural Disasters (STREST); and On the Impact of Extreme Weather on Critical Infrastructures (INTACT). breaKout grouP b Alan McKinnon Challenges â¢ Participants in this breakout group discussed the importance of measuring risk, but it was also suggested that new approaches were needed. Vulnerability map- ping and identifying hot spots were two key items partic- ipants suggested be included in analyzing and managing risk. â¢ One participant described the role of the insur- ance sector, which imposes commercial discipline on risk assessments and the measurement of losses. Partici- pants discussed whether the spreading of property risks obscures climate-related impacts. â¢ Some participants discussed the challenges associ- ated with assessing the resilience of transport operations and the difficulties of conducting stress tests of operating systems. It was suggested that an EUâU.S. initiative on this topic would be beneficial. â¢ The potential need to plan for mass redistribution of populations was also identified as a challenge. â¢ Participants discussed the differences among coun- tries in committing resources for adaptation to and prep- arations for climate change and extreme weather events. A few participants noted that the Netherlands appears to place a higher priority on committing resources than other countries. â¢ Many of the breakout group participants sug- gested that sensitizing stakeholders, especially politi- cians, to the seriousness of climate change and extreme weather events was a challenge. Some participants noted that motivating politicians was difficult given the short electoral cycle. Communicating the long-term trends of changing climate conditions and changing the mindsets of policy makers from short-term improvements to per- manent redesigns were also noted as challenges. â¢ A related challenge was understanding the inter- dependencies and interactions among the interests of different stakeholder groups. For example, the current business practices of just-in-time delivery and other approaches concentrate traffic though hubs, which increases exposure to transport disruptions. In addi- tion, a number of participants suggested that climate change may not be a priority for all modes and trans- port sectors. â¢ Participants described challenges associated with the current spatial planning process. Some participants