WORKSHOP ON IT, AUTOMATION, AND THE U.S. WORKFORCE
National Academy of Sciences
October 22, 2015
Welcome and Introduction
Erik Brynjolfsson, Schussel Family Professor, the Sloan School, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tom M. Mitchell, E. Fredkin University Professor, Carnegie Mellon University
Current and Emerging Technological Capabilities
Moderator: Eric Horvitz, Technical Fellow and Managing Director, Microsoft Research
Gill Pratt, Executive Technical Director, Toyota
Peter Lee, Corporate Vice President, Microsoft Research
Andrew Ng, Chief Scientist, Baidu Research (remotely)
IT and Automation in the Workplace
Moderator: Ruth Milkman, Professor of Sociology, City University of New York Graduate Center
Diane Bailey, Associate Professor, University of Texas, Austin
David Rolf, International Vice President, Service Employees International Union
Judy Wajcman, Professor of Sociology, London School of Economics
Sree Ramaswamy, Senior Fellow, McKinsey Global Institute
New Modalities of Work
Moderator: Stephen R. Barley, Richard W. Weiland Professor of Management, Stanford University
Byron Auguste, Managing Director, Opportunity@Work
Sara Horowitz, Founder and Executive Director, Freelancer’s Union
Stephane Kasriel, CEO, Upwork
Tess Posner, Managing Director, Samaschool
|12:50 p.m.||Working Lunch|
Education, Workforce Development, and Equal Opportunity
Moderator: Barrett Caldwell, Professor of Industrial Engineering, Purdue University
Heidi Shierholz, Chief Economist, U.S. Department of Labor
Tom Kalil, Deputy Director for Policy, White House Office of Science and Technology Policy
David Autor, Associate Department Head, Department of Economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Yscaira Jimenez, CEO, LaborX
Data Sources and Needs
Moderator: John Haltiwanger, Professor of Economics, University of Maryland, College Park
Erica Groshen, Commissioner, Bureau of Labor Statistics
Yoav Shoham, Professor (emeritus), Stanford University; Principal Scientist, Google
Dan Restuccia, Chief Analytics Officer, Burning Glass
Discussion of Societal Challenges and Research Pathways
Moderated by Committee Co-Chairs
BYRON AUGUSTE is the managing director of Opportunity@Work, a civic enterprise based at New America in Washington, D.C., which aims to rewire the U.S. labor market in ways that enable more Americans to achieve upward mobility in the job market and workplace. Prior to co-founding Opportunity@Work, Mr. Auguste served for 2 years in the White House as Deputy Assistant to the President for Economic Policy and Deputy Director of the National Economic Council. Until 2013, Mr. Auguste was a senior partner at McKinsey & Company in Washington, D.C., and Los Angeles, where he was elected principal in 1999 and director in 2005. His professional experience prior to McKinsey was as an economist at LMC International, Oxford University, and the African Development Bank. Mr. Auguste has been active in a number of not-for-profit organizations, serving as board chairman of the Hope Street Group and as a member of the boards of trustees of the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation and Yale University. He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the Pacific Council on International Policy. Mr. Auguste earned a B.A. in economics and political science from Yale University and a M. Phil. and D.Phil. in economics from Oxford University.
DAVID AUTOR is a professor and associate head of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Department of Economics and a faculty research associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research. His research analyzes the labor market impacts of technological change and globalization, earnings inequality, and disability insurance and labor supply. Dr. Autor is an elected fellow of the Econometrics Society, the Society of Labor Economists, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He received a National Science Foundation (NSF) CAREER award, an Alfred P. Sloan Foundation fellowship, the Sherwin Rosen Prize for outstanding contributions in the field of labor economics, and MIT’s James A. and Ruth Levitan Award for excellence in teaching. Dr. Autor earned a B.A. in psychology from Tufts University and a Ph.D. in public policy from Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government in 1999. Prior to graduate study, he spent 3 years directing computer skills education for economically disadvantaged children and adults in San Francisco and South Africa.
DIANE E. BAILEY is an associate professor in the School of Information at the University of Texas, Austin, where she studies technology and work in information and technical occupations. Her current research interests include engineering product design, remote occupational socialization, big data in health care, and ICT4D (Information and Communications
Technologies for Development). With an expertise in organizational ethnography, Dr. Bailey conducts primarily large-scale empirical studies, often involving multiple occupations, countries, and researchers. She publishes her research in organization studies, engineering, information studies, and communications journals. She is a co-author, with Paul Leonardi, of Technology Choices, Why Occupations Differ in Their Embrace of New Technology. Dr. Bailey has won teaching awards at University of Texas, Austin, Stanford University, and the University of Southern California. Her research has won best paper awards, a dissertation award, and an NSF CAREER award. She is founding director of the Information Institute, the professional development resource of the School of Information. She holds a Ph.D. in industrial engineering and operations research from the University of California, Berkeley.
ERICA L. GROSHEN became the 14th Commissioner of Labor Statistics in 2013. Prior to joining the Board on Labor Statistics (BLS), Dr. Groshen was a vice president in the Research and Statistics Group at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Her research has focused on labor markets over the business cycle, regional economics, wage rigidity and dispersion, the male-female wage differential, and the role of employers in labor market outcomes. She also served on advisory boards for BLS and the U.S. Census Bureau. Before joining the Federal Reserve Bank of New York in 1994, Dr. Groshen was a visiting assistant professor of economics at Barnard College at Columbia University and an economist at the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. She was a visiting economist at the Bank for International Settlements in Basel, Switzerland (1999-2000). Dr. Groshen earned a Ph.D. in economics from Harvard University and a bachelor’s degree in economics and mathematics from the University of Wisconsin, Madison.
SARA HOROWITZ is the Freelances Union’s founder and executive director. She has been helping the new workforce build solutions together for nearly two decades. A MacArthur Foundation “Genius” fellow and deputy chair of the Federal Reserve of New York, Ms. Horowitz is a leading voice for the emerging economy. Today, 53 million Americans are independent workers—about one-third of the entire workforce. With a membership of more than 250,000 nationwide, Freelancers Union is building a new form of unionism through creative, cooperative, market-based solutions to today’s social challenges.
YSCAIRA JIMENEZ is CEO of LaborX and founder and CEO of Plexx. A Dominican immigrant from the Bronx, Ms. Jimenez is inspired by the poverty issues of people in her community and feels compelled to use
education and employment to break the cycle of poverty. She started a tutoring business in high school helping kids in her neighborhood who were struggling in school. She also founded La Pregunta Arts Cafe, an arts cafe in Harlem, and worked for three New York education start-ups (Rocket Learning, Learn-It Systems, and Platform Learning) in business development, operation, and corporate trainer roles, bringing tutoring to more than 10,000 low-income students across the United States. She earned a B.A. in arts, English, and Latin American studies from Columbia University and an M.B.A. in entrepreneurship and innovation from MIT. She speaks Spanish, Portuguese, and conversational Italian.
THOMAS KALIL is the deputy director for policy for the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and senior advisor for science, technology and innovation for the National Economic Council. From 2001 to 2008, Mr. Kalil was special assistant to the chancellor for science and technology at University of California, Berkeley. He was responsible for developing major new multi-disciplinary research and education initiatives at the intersection of information technology (IT), nanotechnology, microsystems, and biology. He also conceived and launched a program called “Big Ideas @ Berkeley,” which provides support for multidisciplinary teams of Berkeley students that are interested in addressing economic and societal challenges such as clean energy, safe drinking water, and poverty alleviation. In 2007 and 2008, Mr. Kalil was the chair of the Global Health Working Group for the Clinton Global Initiative, where he developed new public and private sector initiatives in areas such as maternal and child health, under-nutrition, and vaccines. He was also a senior fellow with the Center for American Progress (CAP), where he co-authored A National Innovation Agenda, one of the four pillars of CAP’s “Economic Plan for Plan for the Next Administration.” He was also a member of the scientific advisory board of Nanomix and has served on three committees of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine, including the Committee to Facilitate Interdisciplinary Research. Previously, Mr. Kalil served as the Deputy Assistant to President Clinton for Technology and Economic Policy and as Deputy Director of the White House National Economic Council (NEC). He was the NEC’s point person on a wide range of technology and telecommunications issues, such as the liberalization of Cold War export controls, the allocation of spectrum for new wireless services, and investments in upgrading the U.S. high-tech workforce. He led a number of White House technology initiatives, such as the National Nanotechnology Initiative, the Next Generation Internet, bridging the digital divide, e-learning, increasing funding for long-term information technology research, making IT more accessible to people with disabilities,
and addressing the growing imbalance between support for biomedical research and for the physical sciences and engineering. He was also appointed by President Clinton to serve on the G-8 Digital Opportunity Task Force. Prior to joining the White House, Mr. Kalil was a trade specialist at Dewey Ballantine, where he represented the Semiconductor Industry Association on U.S.-Japan trade issues and technology policy. He also served as the principal staffer to Gordon Moore in his capacity as chair of the Semiconductor Industry Association Technology Committee. Mr. Kalil received a B.A. in political science and international economics from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, and completed graduate work at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. He is the author of articles and op-eds on science and technology policy, the use of prizes as a tool for stimulating innovation, nanotechnology, nuclear strategy, newborn health, vaccines, the impact of mobile communications in developing countries, U.S.-Japan trade negotiations, U.S.-Japan cooperation in science and technology, the National Information Infrastructure, distributed learning, and electronic commerce.
STEPHANE KASRIEL is the CEO of Upwork, driving the company’s vision of connecting businesses with talent. In today’s competitive job market where most face the challenging war for talent, Mr. Kasriel has mastered how to find, attract, and retain highly skilled talent. At Upwork (formerly Elance-oDesk), he built and led a distributed team of more than 300 engineers located around the world as senior vice president of engineering before ascending to be CEO of the company. His e-book Hire Fast & Build Things details how to think bigger and find the best technical talent to power your business—but his expertise goes beyond just engineering. He has applied his knowledge to nearly every industry—from customer service to design to law—experience that earned him his current role leading the company in its quest to reimagine work. Mr. Kasriel holds an M.B.A. from INSEAD, a master’s in computer science from Stanford University, and a B.S. from Ecole Polytechnique in France.
PETER LEE, corporate vice president, Microsoft Research, is responsible for Microsoft Research New Experiences and Technologies (MSR NExT), an organization of world-class researchers, engineers, and designers devoted to creating potentially disruptive technologies for Microsoft and the world. While NExT will continue to advance the field of computing research and produce work with significant scholarly impact, its priority is developing technologies that benefit Microsoft and the world more broadly. In this role, Dr. Lee oversees Microsoft Research Asia, Microsoft Research Technologies, FUSE Labs, and Microsoft Research Special Projects, along with several incubation project teams. Prior to joining
Microsoft, he held key positions in both government and academia, most recently at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), where he founded and directed a major technology office that supported research in computing and related areas in the social and physical sciences. Prior to DARPA, Dr. Lee served as head of Carnegie Mellon University’s nationally top-ranked computer science department. He also served as the university’s vice provost for research. Dr. Lee has shown executive-level leadership in world-class research organizations spanning academia, government, and industry. He is a fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery and serves the research community at the national level, including policy contributions to the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology and membership on the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board of the National Academies and the Advisory Council of the Computer and Information Science and Engineering Directorate of the National Science Foundation. He was the former chair of the Computing Research Association and has testified before both the U.S. House Science and Technology Committee and the U.S. Senate Commerce Committee. Dr. Lee holds a Ph.D. in computer and communication sciences from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, and bachelor’s degrees in mathematics and computer sciences, also from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
ANDREW NG is an associate professor of computer science at Stanford University; chief scientist of Baidu; and chairman and co-founder of Coursera. In 2011, he led the development of Stanford University’s main MOOC (Massive Open Online Courses) platform and also taught an online machine-learning class to more than 100,000 students, leading to the founding of Coursera. Dr. Ng’s goal is to give everyone in the world access to a great education, for free. Today, Coursera partners with some of the top universities in the world to offer high-quality online courses and is the largest MOOC platform in the world. Dr. Ng also works on machine learning with an emphasis on deep learning. He founded and led the “Google Brain” project, which developed massive-scale deep learning algorithms. This resulted in the famous “Google cat” result, in which a massive neural network with 1 billion parameters learned from unlabeled YouTube videos to detect cats. More recently, he has continued to work on deep learning and its applications to computer vision and speech, including such applications as autonomous driving. Dr. Ng received an undergraduate degree in computer science from Carnegie Mellon University, a master’s degree from MIT, and a Ph.D. from University of California, Berkeley.
TESS POSNER is the managing director of SamaUSA. Ms. Posner built and launched the first SamaUSA program in 2013. She oversees current
programs and SamaUSA departments, funding, and advisory partnerships and leads geographic and programmatic expansion efforts. Prior to Sama, she was assistant director of employment and education at First Place for Youth, where she led their education and employment programs in four bay area counties. Before First Place, she managed education and literacy programs in underserved public schools in New York City. Her passion and expertise lies in creating employment and education programs that focus on empowerment and tangible outcomes for participants. Ms. Posner holds a master’s degree in social enterprise administration from the Columbia University School of Social Work.
GILL PRATT joined Toyota in September 2015, after serving for 5 years as a program manager at DARPA. At Toyota, Dr. Pratt is directing new research in the field of collaborative autonomy. At DARPA, he worked in the Defense Sciences and Tactical Technologies offices managing research programs in robotics and neuromorphic systems (computers whose architecture is inspired by the brain). His robotics work included the DARPA Robotics challenge, where teams from around the world competed to develop and test robots for disaster response. The challenge spurred several countries and many commercial companies to increase their investment in the field. Besides conceiving of and running DARPA research programs, Dr. Pratt facilitated the negotiation and signing of a landmark collaboration agreement in disaster robotics between Japan and the United States. From 2000 to 2010, he was a founding professor and associate dean of faculty affairs and research at the Franklin W. Olin College of Engineering. Prior to working at Olin, he was an associate professor of electrical engineering and computer science (EECS) at MIT, where he directed the MIT Leg Laboratory. He earned his Ph.D., S.M., and B.S. degrees in EECS from MIT.
SREE RAMASWAMY is a senior fellow at the McKinsey Global Institute (MGI), McKinsey’s business and economics research arm. He leads research on the activities of corporations and their contribution to productivity, growth, and competitiveness. Mr. Ramaswamy also leads MGI’s work on the future of global manufacturing and the impact of changes in demand costs, technologies, and policies on various industries. In this capacity, he has worked on issues related to advanced industries, investment and trade, and the trend of next-shoring in manufacturing. Other recent work includes an in-depth look at game-changing opportunities for the U.S. economy—in energy, advanced industries, and infrastructure—and studies on labor and talent challenges in the United States and other advanced economies. Previously as a McKinsey consultant for 3 years, Mr. Ramaswamy worked on topics related to regional and city economic
development, public sector efficiency, and business strategy for private-sector clients in aerospace, energy, and high-tech industries. Prior to joining McKinsey, he spent 10 years in the U.S. telecom and aerospace sector. He worked on systems research and design for advanced telecommunication networks and holds three patents in the field. Mr. Ramaswamy also worked on international regulation and policy issues related to satellite communications. He has an M.B.A. from Columbia Business School, where he received a board of overseers fellowship. He also has an M.S. in telecommunications from the University of Pittsburgh and a bachelor’s degree in computer engineering from the University of Poona in India.
DAN RESTUCCIA is Burning Glass’ chief analytics officer, leading Burning Glass’s knowledge architecture and research divisions. Prior to becoming chief analytics officer, he served as Burning Glass’ director of applied research. Mr. Restuccia joined Burning Glass following a decade in education reform, driving innovations that improve college and career success for young people. While at Jobs for the Future, a national education reform and advocacy organization, he developed partnerships between high schools and colleges to improve college matriculations and graduation rates for low-income and at risk students. Mr. Restuccia has also served as a middle and high school math teacher. He holds a B.A. in applied mathematics and urban studies from Brown University. His work has been published in numerous education and community development publications.
DAVID ROLF has been called “the most successful union organizer of the last 15 years.” He is the architect of the historic fights to win a $15 living wage in SeaTac, Washington, in 2013 and a citywide $15 minimum wage in Seattle in 2014. Mr. Rolf is the president of Service Employees International Union (SEIU) 775, the fastest growing union in the Northwest, representing 44,000 home care and nursing home workers. He serves as an international vice president of the SEIU in Washington, D.C. Mr. Rolf has helped to organize more than 100,000 workers into unions during his career. The American Prospect said that “no American unionist has organized as many workers, or won them raises as substantial, as Rolf.” Known nationally as an innovative labor leader, Mr. Rolf has founded organizations including the Fair Work Center in Seattle, which enforces labor laws such as the $15 minimum wage, and Working Washington, which supports economic justice activism. In 2014, he founded the California-based Workers Lab, an “accelerator” for new labor initiatives. The Workers Lab invests in projects that will create the next generation’s labor movement, building economic power for working people at a large scale while developing self-sufficient organizational revenue models. Mr.
Rolf is also the founder and chair of the SEIU Benefits Group, which provides health benefits to tens of thousands of home care aides in the Northwest and runs the largest long-term care sector workforce development institution in the country.
HEIDI SHIERHOLZ is chief economist to U.S. Secretary of Labor Thomas E. Perez. She held previous positions at the Economic Policy Institute in Washington, D.C., and the University of Toronto in Toronto, Ontario. She has done research in the areas of wage inequality, employment and unemployment policy, long-term unemployment, labor force participation, the minimum wage, young workers, and immigration. She received an M.A. and Ph.D. in economics from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, an M.S. in statistics from Iowa State University, and a B.A. in mathematics from Grinnell College.
YOAV SHOHAM is a professor of computer science at Stanford University, where he has been since receiving his Ph.D. in computer science from Yale University in 1987 and after spending an abbreviated postdoctoral position at the Weizmann Institute of Science. He has worked in various areas of artificial intelligence, including temporal reasoning, nonmonotonic logics and theories of commonsense. Dr. Shoham’s interest in recent years has been multiagent systems and in particular, the interaction between computer science and game theory. He is a fellow of the American Association of Artificial Intelligence and a charter member of the Game Theory Society. Dr. Shoham is an author of four books, an editor of one, and an author of numerous articles. He is also a founder of several successful e-commerce software companies.
JUDY WAJCMAN is the Anthony Giddens Professor of Sociology at the London School of Economics. She is also a research associate of the Oxford Internet Institute. She was previously a professor of sociology in the Research School of Social Sciences at the Australian National University. She has been president of the Society for the Social Studies of Science and was the 2013 recipient of the William F. Ogburn Career Achievement Award of the Communication, Information Technologies, and Media Sociology section of the American Sociological Association. Her books include the following: The Politics of Working Life, TechnoFeminism, Managing Like a Man: Women and Men in Corporate Management, Feminism Confronts Technology, and The Social Shaping of Technology. Her work has been translated into French, German, Greek, Korean, Japanese, Portuguese, and Spanish. Her latest book is Pressed for Time: The Acceleration of Life in Digital Capitalism (2015).