ERIK BRYNJOLFSSON, Co-Chair, is the Schussel Family Professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Sloan School of Management and the director of the MIT Initiative on the Digital Economy, research associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), and chairman of the MIT Sloan Management Review. His research examines the effects of information technologies on business strategy, productivity and performance, Internet commerce, pricing models, and intangible assets. At MIT, he teaches courses on the economics of information. Dr. Brynjolfsson was among the first researchers to measure the productivity contributions of information technology (IT) and the complementary role of organizational capital and other intangibles. His research also provided the first quantification of the value of online product variety, often known as the “long tail,” and developed pricing and bundling models for information goods. His recent work examines the social networks revealed by digital information flows, such as e-mail traffic, and their relationships to information worker productivity. Dr. Brynjolfsson’s research has appeared in leading economics, management, and science journals. It has been recognized with 10 best paper awards and five patents. He is the author or co-editor of several books, including The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies; Wired for Innovation: How IT is Reshaping the Economy; and Understanding the Digital Economy; and editor of the Social Science Research Network’s Information System Network.
He has served on the editorial boards of numerous academic journals as well as Time magazine’s Board of Economists and the Academic Advisory Council of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston. He served on the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine committee that produced the 1998 report Fostering Research on the Economic and Social Impacts of Information Technology. Dr. Brynjolfsson holds bachelor’s and master’s degrees from Harvard University in applied mathematics and decision sciences and a Ph.D. from MIT in managerial economics.
TOM M. MITCHELL, Co-Chair, is the E. Fredkin University Professor in the School of Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) and chair of the Machine Learning Department at CMU. His research interests are generally in machine learning, artificial intelligence, and cognitive neuroscience. His recent research has focused both on machine learning approaches to extracting structured information from unstructured text and on studying the neural representation of language in the human brain using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Dr. Mitchell is a past president of the American Association of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI), past chair of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Section on Information, Computing, and Communication, and author of the textbook Machine Learning. From 1999 to 2000, he served as chief scientist and vice president for WhizBang Labs, a company that employed machine learning to extract information from the Web. Dr. Mitchell has served on the Computer Science and Telecommunication Board of the National Academies and on the committee that produced the report Information Technology for Counterterrorism: Immediate Actions and Future Possibilities. He has been a member of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) since 2010. He is also a fellow of the AAAS and a fellow of the AAAI. Dr. Mitchell received his Ph.D. in electrical engineering with a computer science minor from Stanford University.
DARON ACEMOGLU is the Elizabeth and James Killian Professor of Economics in the Department of Economics at MIT. He is also affiliated with NBER, the Center for Economic Performance, the Center for Economic Policy Research, and Microsoft Research Center. Dr. Acemoglu is a leader in both theoretical and empirical research in political economics, macroeconomics, and growth, focusing especially on human capital and the roles and evolution of institutions. His work covers a wide range of areas within economics, including political economy, economic development and growth, human capital theory, growth theory, innovation, search theory, network economics, and learning. He is a fellow of the Society of Labor Economists, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Econometric Society, the European Economic Association, and a member
of the National Academy of Sciences. Dr. Acemoglu received his Ph.D. in economics from the London School of Economics in 1992.
STEPHEN R. BARLEY is the Christian A. Felipe Professor of Technology Management at the College of Engineering at the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB). Prior to coming to UCSB, Dr. Barley served for 10 years on the faculty of the School of Industrial and Labor Relations at Cornell University. He then moved to Stanford University where he was the Richard Weiland Professor of Management Science and Engineering, the associate chair of the Department of Management Science and Engineering (2011-2015), and was the co-founder and co-director of the Center for Work, Technology and Organization at Stanford’s School of Engineering (1994-2015). He was editor of the Administrative Science Quarterly (1993-1997) and the founding editor of the Stanford Social Innovation Review (2002-2004). Dr. Barley serves on the editorial boards of the Academy of Management Discovery, the Academy of Management Annals, the Research in the Sociology of Organizations (book series), Information and Organization, Engineering Studies, and the Journal of Organizational Ethnography. He has been the recipient the Academy of Management’s New Concept Award and was named Distinguished Scholar by the Academy of Management’s Organization and Management Theory Division (2006), Organization Communication and Information Systems Division (2010), and Critical Management Studies Division (2010). He has been a fellow at Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences and is a fellow of the Academy of Management. In 2006, the Academy of Management Journal named Dr. Barley as the author of the largest number of interesting articles in the field of management studies. He was a member of the board of senior scholars of the National Center for the Educational Quality of the Workforce and co-chaired National Academies’ committee on the changing occupational structure in the United States. He holds an AB. in English from the College of William and Mary, an M.Ed. from Ohio State University, and a Ph.D. in organization studies from MIT.
BARRETT S. CALDWELL is a professor in the School of Industrial Engineering and holds a courtesy appointment in the School of Aeronautics and Astronautics at Purdue University. His research applies human factors and industrial engineering principles to team performance in complex task environments. Dr. Caldwell’s group is concerned with analysis, design, and improvement of how humans work with, and share knowledge through, information and communication technology systems on Earth and in space. His early research examined the potential social and technological effects of Internet multimedia communications, even before the release of the Mosaic browser in 1993. Dr. Caldwell’s discovery of the
importance of information delay with increasing bandwidth has been meaningful since the growth of Internet file sharing, which demonstrated that delay remains a concern to ensuring satisfactory quality of service. He is a fellow of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. Dr. Caldwell received his Ph.D. in social psychology in 1990 from the University of California, Davis.
MELISSA CEFKIN is a principal scientist and design anthropologist at the Nissan Research Center, Silicon Valley, where she focuses on the development of autonomous vehicles from a social and cultural standpoint. Before joining Nissan, she served as manager of the Discovery Practices group in IBM’s Accelerated Discovery Lab. At IBM, she focused on reconfigurations of work and labor related to new ways of conceptualizing, designing, and executing work using open, crowd, and big data-driven practices. Dr. Cefkin previously served as director of user experience and member of the Advanced Research group at Sapient Corporation. She was also a senior research scientist at the Institute for Research on Learning. She is the editor of Ethnography and the Corporate Encounter: Reflections on Research in and of Corporations (2009) and served as the president of the board of the Ethnographic Praxis in Industry Conference. Dr. Cefkin is a Fulbright award grantee. She received her Ph.D. in anthropology from Rice University in 1993.
HENRIK I. CHRISTENSEN is the KUKA Chair of Robotics at the College of Computing of the Georgia Institute of Technology. He is also the executive director of the Institute for Robotics and Intelligent Machines. Dr. Christensen does research on systems integration, human-robot interaction, mapping, and robot vision. The research is performed within the Cognitive Robotics Laboratory. He has published more than 300 contributions across artificial intelligence, robotics, and vision. His research has a strong emphasis on “real problems with real solutions.” A problem needs a theoretical model, implementation, evaluation, and translation to the real world. He is actively engaged in the setup and coordination of robotics research in the United States (and worldwide). Dr. Christensen received the Engelberger Award in 2011, the highest honor awarded by the robotics industry. He was also awarded the Boeing Supplier of the Year in 2012, with three other colleagues at Georgia Tech. Dr. Christensen is a fellow of AAAS and the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). He received an honorary doctorate in engineering from Aalborg University in 2014. He collaborates with institutions and industries across three continents. His research has been featured in major media such as CNN, The New York Times, and BBC. He serves as a consultant to compa-
nies and government agencies across the world. Dr. Christensen received his Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Aalborg University in 1990.
JOHN C. HALTIWANGER is a distinguished university professor in the Department of Economics at the University of Maryland, College Park. He is also the first recipient of the Dudley and Louisa Dillard Professorship, in 2013. After serving on the faculty of the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and Johns Hopkins University, Dr. Haltiwanger joined the faculty at University of Maryland in 1987. In the late 1990s, he served as chief economist of the U.S. Census Bureau. He is a research associate of NBER, a senior research fellow at the Center for Economic Studies at the U.S. Census Bureau, and a fellow of the Society of Labor Economics. Dr. Haltiwanger has played a major role in developing and studying U.S. longitudinal firm-level data. Using these data, he has developed new statistical measures and analyzed the determinants of firm-level job creation, job destruction, and economic performance. He has explored the implications of these firm dynamics for aggregate U.S. productivity growth and for the U.S. labor market. The statistical and measurement methods Dr. Haltiwanger has helped develop to measure and study firm dynamics have been increasingly used by many statistical agencies around the world. His own research increasingly uses the data and measures on firm dynamics from a substantial number of advanced, emerging and transition economies. His work with the statistical agencies has been recently recognized in his being awarded the Julius Shiskin Award for economic statistics in 2013 and the Roger Herriott Award for innovation in federal statistics in 2014. He has published more than 100 academic articles and numerous books, including Job Creation and Destruction (with Steven Davis and Scott Schuh). Dr. Haltiwanger received his Ph.D. in economics from Johns Hopkins University in 1981.
ERIC HORVITZ is a technical fellow and director at the Microsoft Research Lab at Redmond, Washington. He has pursued principles and applications of machine intelligence, with a focus on the use of probability and decision theory in systems that learn and reason. Dr. Horvitz has made contributions in automated diagnosis and decision support, models of bounded rationality, machine learning, human-computer collaboration, and human computation and crowdsourcing. His research and collaborations have led to fielded systems in health care, transportation, human-computer interaction, robotics, operating systems, networking, and aerospace. Dr. Horvitz has been awarded the Feigenbaum Prize and the AAAI-Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) Allen Newell Award for contributions to artificial intelligence and human-computer interaction. He has been elected fellow of the AAAI, the ACM, the American
Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the NAE, and he has been inducted into the CHI Academy.
RUTH M. MILKMAN is a distinguished professor of sociology at the City University of New York (CUNY) Graduate Center and at the Joseph F. Murphy Institute for Worker Education and Labor Studies, where she also serves as research director. She is a sociologist of labor and labor movements who has written on a variety of topics involving work and organized labor in the United States, past and present. Her early research focused on the impact of economic crisis and war on women workers in the 1930s and 1940s. She then went on to study the restructuring of the U.S. automobile industry and its impact on workers and their unions in the 1980s and 1990s; in that period she also conducted research on the labor practices of Japanese-owned factories in California. More recently Dr. Milkman has written extensively about low-wage immigrant workers in the United States, analyzing their employment conditions as well as the dynamics of immigrant labor organizing. She helped lead a multicity team that produced a widely publicized 2009 study documenting the prevalence of wage theft and violations of other workplace laws in Los Angeles, Chicago, and New York. She also recently co-authored a study of California’s paid family leave program, focusing on its impact on employers and workers. After 21 years as a sociology professor at UCLA, where she directed the Institute for Research on Labor and Employment from 2001 to 2008, she returned to New York City in 2010. Dr. Milkman received her Ph.D. in sociology from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1981.
EDUARDO SALAS is a professor and the Allyn R. and Gladys M. Cline Chair in Psychology at Rice University. Previously, he was a trustee chair and the Pegasus Professor of Psychology at the University of Central Florida where he also held an appointment as program director for the Human Systems Integration Research Department at the Institute for Simulation and Training (IST). Before joining IST, he was a senior research psychologist and head of the Training Technology Development Branch of Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division for 15 years. During this period, Dr. Salas served as a principal investigator for numerous research and development programs that focused on teamwork, team training, simulation-based training, decision making under stress, safety culture, and performance assessment. He has co-authored more than 450 journal articles and book chapters and has co-edited 27 books. His expertise includes assisting organizations in how to foster teamwork, design and implement team training strategies, facilitate training effectiveness, manage decision making under stress, develop performance measurement tools, and create a safety culture. Dr. Salas is a past president of
the Society for Industrial/Organizational Psychology and the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, a fellow of the American Psychological Association and a recipient of the Meritorious Civil Service Award from the Department of the Navy. He is also the recipient of the 2012 Society for Human Resource Management Losey Lifetime Achievement Award and the 2012 Joseph E. McGrath Award for Lifetime Achievement.
NICOLE SMITH is a research professor and senior economist at the Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce where she leads the center’s econometric and methodological work. Dr. Smith has developed a framework for restructuring long-term occupational and educational projections. This framework forms the underlying methodology for Help Wanted, a report that projects education demand for occupations in the U.S. economy through 2020. She is part of a team of economists working on a project to map, forecast, and monitor human capital development and career pathways. Dr. Smith was born in Trinidad and Tobago and graduated with honors in economics and mathematics from the University of the West Indies (U.W.I.), St. Augustine campus. She was the recipient of the Sir Arthur Lewis Memorial Prize for outstanding research at the master’s level at the U.W.I. and is co-recipient of the 2007 Arrow Prize for Junior Economists for educational mobility research. Prior to joining the center, Dr. Smith was a faculty member in economics at Gettysburg College in Pennsylvania, and the University of the West Indies, St. Augustine campus. Dr. Smith taught classical and modern econometrics, introductory and advanced level courses in microeconomics, macroeconomics, statistics, mathematics for economists, and Latin American economic development. Her previous macroeconomic research focused on the political economy of exchange rates and exchange rate volatility in the Commonwealth Caribbean, the motivation for her M.S. thesis and a joint-publication at the Inter-American Development Bank. Her current research investigates the role of education and socioeconomic factors in intergenerational mobility. She is a co-author of The Inheritance of Educational Inequality: International Comparisons and Fifty-Year Trends (2007). She received her Ph.D. in economics from American University.
CLAIRE J. TOMLIN is a professor of electrical engineering and computer sciences at the University of California, Berkeley, where she holds the Charles A. Desoer Chair in Engineering. Dr. Tomlin held the positions of assistant, associate, and full professor at Stanford University from 1998 to 2007, and in 2005 joined Berkeley. She received the Erlander Professorship of the Swedish Research Council in 2009, a MacArthur Fellowship in 2006, and the Eckman Award of the American Automatic Control Council
in 2003. She works in hybrid systems and control, with applications to air traffic systems, robotics, and biology. Dr. Tomlin received her Ph.D. in electrical engineering and computer science at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1998.
NATIONAL ACADEMIES STAFF
JON EISENBERG is director of the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB) of the National Academies. He has also been study director for a diverse body of work, including a series of studies exploring Internet and broadband policy and networking and communications technologies. From 1995 until 1997, he was an AAAS Science, Engineering, and Diplomacy Fellow at the U.S. Agency for International Development, where he worked on technology transfer and information and telecommunications policy issues. Dr. Eisenberg received his Ph.D. in physics from the University of Washington in 1996 and B.S. in physics with honors from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, in 1988.
EMILY GRUMBLING is a program officer with the CSTB, where she coordinates projects addressing the societal impacts of emerging information and communication technologies. She previously served as an AAAS Science and Technology Policy Fellow in the Directorate for Computer and Information Science and Engineering at the National Science Foundation (2012-2014) and as an American Chemical Society (ACS) Congressional Fellow in the U.S. House of Representatives (2011-2012). Dr. Grumbling currently serves as a volunteer associate of the ACS Committee on Environmental Improvement. She received her Ph.D. in physical chemistry in 2010 from the University of Arizona, where she was the 2008 Marvel fellow, and her B.A. with a double-major in chemistry and film/electronic media arts from Bard College in 2004.
MARGARET HILTON is a senior program officer of the Board on Science Education (BOSE) of the National Academies where she is currently directing a study on assessing intrapersonal and interpersonal competencies and a study on developing indicators for undergraduate STEM education. Her previous studies, Enhancing the Effectiveness of Team Science (2015) and Education for Life and Work: Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21st Century (2012) drew widespread interest in the scientific and education communities. In 2011 and 2012, she directed two large national summits—one on community college STEM education and one on assessment of informal and afterschool science learning. She contributed to the BOSE study Discipline-Based Education Research: Understanding
and Improving Learning in Undergraduate Science and Engineering, was a primary author of the report Learning Science through Computer Games and Simulations; and directed a study of high school science laboratories. For the National Academies’ Committee on National Statistics, she directed a study of a large database of occupational information. Prior to joining the National Academies staff, as an analyst at the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment, Ms. Hilton directed studies of workforce training, work reorganization, and international competitiveness. She earned a B.A. in geography, with high honors, from the University of Michigan, an M.A. in regional planning from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and an M.A. in education and human development from George Washington University.
SHENAE BRADLEY is an administrative assistant for the CSTB. She currently provides support for multiple projects, including Continuing Innovation in Information Technology; Information Technology, Automation, and the U.S. Workforce; and Toward 21st Century Cyber-Physical Systems Education, to name a few. Prior to this, she served as a senior project assistant with the board. Prior to coming to the National Academies, she managed a number of apartment rental communities for Edgewood Management Corporation in the Maryland/DC/Delaware metropolitan areas.
KATIRIA ORTIZ is a research associate for the CSTB. She previously served as an intern under the U.S. Department of Justice and as an undergraduate research assistant at the Cybersecurity Quantification Laboratory at the University of Maryland College Park. She received a B.S. in cell biology and molecular genetics and a B.A. in criminology and criminal justice from the University of Maryland College Park, in 2014. She recently completed her M.A. in international science and technology policy from George Washington University.