National Academies Press: OpenBook
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24658.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24658.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24658.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24658.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24658.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24658.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24658.
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2017 N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 844 Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments Christopher Lamm Katharine Kirk Brian Stewart Cambridge SyStematiCS, inC. New York, NY John Fregonese Alex Joyce FregoneSe aSSoCiateS, inC. Portland, OR Subscriber Categories Freight Transportation • Motor Carriers • Planning and Forecasting Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration

NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing highway administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation results in increasingly complex problems of wide inter- est to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 ini- tiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniques—the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of Transportation. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was requested by AASHTO to administer the research program because of TRB’s recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. TRB is uniquely suited for this purpose for many reasons: TRB maintains an extensive com- mittee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; TRB possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, univer- sities, and industry; TRB’s relationship to the Academies is an insurance of objectivity; and TRB maintains a full-time staff of specialists in high- way transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified by chief administrators and other staff of the highway and transporta- tion departments and by committees of AASHTO. Topics of the highest merit are selected by the AASHTO Standing Committee on Research (SCOR), and each year SCOR’s recommendations are proposed to the AASHTO Board of Directors and the Academies. Research projects to address these topics are defined by NCHRP, and qualified research agencies are selected from submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the Acad- emies and TRB. The needs for highway research are many, and NCHRP can make significant contributions to solving highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement, rather than to substitute for or duplicate, other highway research programs. Published research reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 844 Project 08-96 ISSN 2572-3766 (Print) ISSN 2572-3774 (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-44630-3 Library of Congress Control Number 2017936383 © 2017 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. The source of the cover art was the Center for Applied Transect Studies. The cover art has been enhanced by Cambridge Systematics.

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Christopher Lamm, Senior Associate at Cambridge Systematics, served as the principal investigator of NCHRP Project 08-96. He, Katharine Kirk, and Brian Stewart (all of Cambridge Systematics) served as the primary authors of this Guide. John Fregonese and Alex Joyce of Fregonese Associates served as contributing authors and helped to lead the case studies and focus groups. Heather Bissell and Nadine Appenbrink of Fregonese Associates assisted in preparing and executing the case study site visits and focus groups. Paul Silberman of Sabra, Wang & Associates, and Mark Sieber and Matthias Hofer of Ernst Basler + Partner prepared in-depth literature reviews and stakeholder interviews, identified best practices and strategies, and assisted in identifying and selecting case study locations. Special thanks are due to the professionals who contributed to the case study focus group discussions and who participated in the Peer Exchange in Irvine, CA, in February 2016. These discussions helped the research team to identify and characterize critical issues, best practices, and the strategies included in the Guide. CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 844 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs William C. Rogers, Senior Program Officer Charlotte Thomas, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Hilary Freer, Senior Editor NCHRP PROJECT 08-96 PANEL Field of Transportation Planning—Area of Forecasting Mark Meitzen, Christensen Associates, Madison, WI (Chair) Eulois Cleckley, Houston-Galveston Area Council, Houston, TX Debra Dunn, Synergy Resources Group, Portland, OR Victoria S. Farr, Port Authority of New York & New Jersey, New York, NY Peter C. Martin, CDM Smith, San Francisco, CA Joel R. McCarroll, Oregon DOT, Bend, OR Roger M. Millar, Jr., Washington State DOT, Olympia, WA Karin Morris, Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission, Philadelphia, PA Mike R. Schofield, City of Austin Transportation Department, Austin, TX Tiffany Julien, FHWA Liaison Abby Swain, U.S. EPA Liaison Scott Babcock, TRB Liaison

NCHRP Research Report 844 provides policymakers with tangible proactive and reactive practices—policy, planning, design, and operations—to integrate goods and services move- ment by commercial vehicles in smart growth environments. The Guide describes practices (1) that effectively and efficiently consider the coexistence of goods and services movement in smart growth environments at both the design and implementation stages and (2) to retro- actively improve existing conditions. It will be particularly helpful to stakeholders as they work together to create environments that achieve the multiple benefits of smart growth while accommodating freight movement to support critical economic activity. Smart growth and its compact, transit-oriented, and walkable land uses and streetscapes have been proposed as an alternative to urban sprawl. Transportation planning organizations are looking to influence future land-use patterns to create livable, sustainable communities by reducing such factors as vehicle miles traveled and congestion, and, therefore, greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution. As more communities are being designed for mixed use, higher density land uses, and other common tenets of smart growth, delivery of goods and services are often inadequately addressed or completely overlooked. Going beyond zoning and addressing the needs of shippers, receivers, and trucking companies in the design, development, and implementation of infrastructure projects is critical for both commerce and sustainability principles to coexist. In NCHRP Project 08-96, Cambridge Systematics was asked to (1) review smart growth principles and applications; (2) describe how goods and services movement by commercial vehicles is considered; (3) describe and analyze the constraints on and opportunities for such movement in smart growth environments; (4) discuss the potential for improved coordina- tion among stakeholders in smart growth environments; (5) develop a typology of smart growth environments and illustrate how each relates to goods and services movement by commercial vehicles; and (6) identify the various stakeholders and develop and implement a stakeholder outreach plan to obtain their perspectives on the integration of smart growth environments with goods and services movement by commercial vehicles. F O R E W O R D By William C. Rogers Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

1 Chapter 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Background 2 1.2 Purpose of the Guide 3 1.3 Development of the Guide 3 1.4 Using the Guide 5 Chapter 2 Planning for Smart Growth 5 2.1 What Is Smart Growth? 5 2.1.1 Description and Definition 8 2.1.2 Goods and Services Transportation in Urban Environments 11 2.1.3 Smart Growth Classifications 20 2.2 Stakeholders, Relationships, and Opportunities for Coordination 21 2.2.1 Municipal Departments or Agencies 22 2.2.2 Regional and State Transportation and Planning Agencies 22 2.2.3 Federal Agencies 24 2.2.4 Private Developers and Financiers 24 2.2.5 Shippers, Carriers, and Logistics Companies 25 2.2.6 Community Groups 26 2.3 Best Practices and Conflicts 31 2.4 Goal-Setting and Mutual Benefits 33 Chapter 3 Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth Environments 33 3.1 Needs Identification 36 3.2 Identifying Strategies 39 3.2.1 Phase 1. Setting the Stage 44 3.2.2 Phase 2. Creating Places and Streets 52 3.2.3 Phase 3. Operating with Minimal Impacts 60 3.2.4 Phase 4. Ongoing Monitoring 66 Chapter 4 Case Studies 66 4.1 Brady Arts District: Industrial Areas Transitioning to Housing and Entertainment Districts 66 4.1.1 Context and History 68 4.1.2 Application of Smart Growth Principles 71 4.1.3 Goods/Services Conditions and Results 73 4.1.4 Strategies and Critical Success Factors 75 4.2 Ballard: Working Waterfronts Transitioning to Mixed-Use and/or Recreation 76 4.2.1 Context and History 78 4.2.2 Application of Smart Growth Principles 80 4.2.3 Goods/Services Conditions and Results 81 4.2.4 Strategies and Critical Success Factors C O N T E N T S

84 4.3 Over-the-Rhine (OTR): Older Commercial and Neighborhood Areas Being Revitalized 85 4.3.1 Context and History 85 4.3.2 Application of Smart Growth Principles 87 4.3.3 Goods/Services Conditions and Results 89 4.3.4 Strategies and Critical Success Factors 91 4.4 Glens Falls: Retrofitting Aging Commercial Corridors 91 4.4.1 Context and History 95 4.4.2 Application of Smart Growth Principles 96 4.4.3 Goods/Services Conditions and Results 97 4.4.4 Strategies and Critical Success Factors 99 4.5 Daybreak: Greenfield New Communities 99 4.5.1 Context and History 99 4.5.2 Application of Smart Growth Principles 100 4.5.3 Goods/Services Conditions and Results 105 4.5.4 Strategies and Critical Success Factors 106 4.6 Belmar District: Large-Scale Reconstruction 106 4.6.1 Context and History 107 4.6.2 Application of Smart Growth Principles 109 4.6.3 Goods/Services Conditions and Results 110 4.6.4 Strategies and Critical Success Factors 112 References 117 Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Initialisms

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TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Research Report 844: Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments describes policy, planning, design, and operations practices considering the coexistence of moving goods and services in smart growth environments at both the design and implementation stages as well as retroactively improving existing conditions. This report will help readers understand common issues and conflicts pertaining to smart growth, how those issues and conflicts manifest themselves in different environments, and the types of strategies and actions stakeholders can take to better integrate goods and services movement by commercial vehicles in smart growth environments.

The report also presents the results of six case studies, each of which addresses one of the following Smart Growth classifications: industrial areas transitioning to housing and entertainment districts, working waterfronts transitioning to mixed-use and/or recreation, older commercial and neighborhood areas being revitalized, retrofitting aging commercial corridors, greenfield new communities, and large-scale reconstruction.

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