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Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments (2016)

Chapter: Chapter 3 -Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth Environments

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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 -Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth Environments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24658.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 -Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth Environments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24658.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 -Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth Environments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24658.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 -Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth Environments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24658.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 -Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth Environments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24658.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 -Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth Environments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24658.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 -Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth Environments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24658.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 -Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth Environments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24658.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 -Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth Environments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24658.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 -Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth Environments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24658.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 -Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth Environments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24658.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 -Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth Environments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24658.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 -Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth Environments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24658.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 -Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth Environments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24658.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 -Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth Environments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24658.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 -Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth Environments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24658.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 -Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth Environments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24658.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 -Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth Environments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24658.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 -Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth Environments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24658.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 -Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth Environments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24658.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 -Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth Environments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24658.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 -Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth Environments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24658.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 -Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth Environments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24658.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 -Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth Environments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24658.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 -Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth Environments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24658.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 -Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth Environments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24658.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 -Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth Environments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24658.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 -Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth Environments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24658.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 -Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth Environments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24658.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 -Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth Environments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24658.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 -Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth Environments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24658.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 -Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth Environments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24658.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 -Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth Environments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24658.
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33 This chapter provides a framework for planners and policymakers to assess a community’s context, identify obstacles, and determine specific strategies to pursue in order to better support goods movement in smart growth environments. Section 3.1 discusses identifying a commu- nity’s freight needs and potential hurdles to implementation. Section 3.2 presents a complete list of recommended strategies with links to each of the six smart growth classifications. 3.1 Needs Identification It is crucial to establish a thorough understanding about the community, its primary prob- lems, where it is in the smart growth development process, and potential obstacles that might arise during this development. It is not advisable to pursue specific strategies for supporting goods movement without full knowledge of the community context. Figure 3-1 can be used to help a community gain a complete understanding of its current situation. This diagram was developed to help planners and policymakers assess their smart growth environment, note the most significant issues, and understand potential obstacles that may arise. The structure of the diagram is as follows: • Establish context. Without a full review of the smart growth community and its assets, it will be difficult to identify problems with freight and goods movement. The first step is to exam- ine each aspect of the community’s context and role in the national economy. The top eight elements are as follows: – Smart growth classification. Review Section 2.1.3 to learn about each of the six smart growth classifications identified in this Guide, all of which have been affirmed by a robust literature review and interviews with national experts on freight movement and smart growth. Each smart growth classification features a list of specific issues that often arise in that specific environment. – Environment. Consider existing infrastructure in the smart growth community and how humans interact with the built environment. Is there a full network of sidewalks with safe crossings? Are roads wide or narrow, and what are the speed limits? Do people seem to enjoy walking around the community? It is also important to consider the natural environ- ment. Are there parks and open spaces that have been preserved? If yes, are they clean, safe, and well-maintained? If not, is there a need for public open space? – Transportation users. The existence of multiple transportation options is a key feature of smart growth planning. How do people tend to get around the community? What vehicles are people using? – Freight. Conduct an assessment of the perceived freight needs of the community. What are the main types of freight? How and where does that freight move? Is there freight rail C h a p t e r 3 Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth Environments

Figure 3-1. Diagram to identify and assess community context, problems, and potential obstacles (Source: Cambridge Systematics).

Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth environments 35 access in the community? Do certain corridors seem to have more truck flow than other corridors? There is also a difference between service vehicles and goods vehicles, as well as between through truck movement versus delivery needs. Most deliveries have short dwell times, whereas service vehicle may remain all day. Through trucks want to move fast while local trucks move more slowly and access flexibility is more important. – Land use. Land use is an important part of successful integration of freight activity into a smart growth community. What is the mixture of present and future land uses in the com- munity? Do any adjacent land uses appear to conflict? If so, what are they? – Zoning. It is beneficial to review the community’s zoning code to see whether desired development is permitted. Does zoning allow for current and future needs? Do there appear to be inconsistencies or gaps in the zoning ordinances? – Economy. Businesses are an important stakeholder in any goods movement plan. How are businesses doing in the community—do they appear to be struggling or thriving in different areas? In addition, determine where jobs are located. – Transportation infrastructure. This evaluation extends beyond roads and sidewalks. What is the quality of the community’s roads, bridges, tunnels, public transportation, and rail network? What improvements are needed? • Identify problems. After establishing the context of the smart growth community, the next step is to assess where problems may arise with freight movement. Types of problems to address follow: – Common conflicts. Section 2.1.3 details common issues for each of the six smart growth classifications. Review this section and consider whether any of the conflicts presented in this section apply to the community. – Data. Certain kinds of data can be useful in identifying problems with supporting freight in smart growth communities. What kind of data do planners and policymakers track? What does that data say about truck-involved crashes, congestion, businesses, and so forth? Problems may also arise from lack of data about certain aspects of transportation. Deter- mine whether there is enough data available, or if resources are lacking. – Outreach. People—in this case, residents, businesses, and the freight industry—can often be the best way to identify problems with freight movement. Public meetings, town halls, and other forms of public and stakeholder outreach are effective ways to ensuring a com- plete understanding of freight issues throughout the community. • Determine implementation phase and identify strategies. Once the main problems have been identified, determine in which phase of smart growth planning that they occur, and what types of solutions may be applied in the planning, design and construction, and operation of build- ings, businesses, and streets in the community. The four phases identified in this research are as follows: – Setting the stage. The first phase focuses on the foundational elements of smart growth planning. Identify the land uses that are compatible in the community, and buffer those that are fundamentally incompatible. – Creating places and streets. The next phase focuses on the design features and overall aesthetic of the community, which can affect how freight operates. The goal is to design and construct streets and public places to achieve smart growth principles while accom- modating necessary freight needs. – Operating with minimal impact. The third phase addresses problems that may arise dur- ing daily operation of freight movement that go beyond infrastructure design. Examples include time-of-day restrictions, type of delivery vehicle, and technology use. Minimize the negative effects of daily operations on the community as much as possible. – Ongoing monitoring. The final phase encourages planners and policymakers to monitor freight activity once the foundational and operational elements are in place. Even if prior

36 Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth environments phases are completed, issues can arise or reappear. Active monitoring helps ensure that freight practices align, adapt, and improve with national and global standards. • Consider potential obstacles. Various obstacles can arise during smart growth planning. Each community is different, with different needs, goals, and visions. Regardless of the context, it is helpful to be prepared for any impediment. In planning for goods and services movement, the most common types of obstacles are as follows: – Physical and environmental issues. Elements of a plan or design may be challenged by physical constraints and/or potential environmental impacts that are insurmountable or difficult to overcome. – Political will or harmony. Even when all other obstacles appear to be surmountable, lack of political will or lack of harmony among key stakeholder groups can derail a project. As a result, planners need to understand political context without compromising results. – Community personalities. Stakeholders often disagree with planners on certain construc- tion or land use initiatives. In the context of freight and goods movements, residents may disagree with changing the transportation network, eliminating parking spots in favor of truck loading zones, or other changes. Public meetings can help engage local residents and other stakeholders and allow them to air concerns, but ultimately it is up to the planner to do what is best for the community. – Funding availability. One of the most difficult obstacles can be funding availability. In recent decades, transportation funding has not been consistent, and it can be difficult to rely on funding sources dedicated to freight transportation initiatives. It may be necessary to seek alternative financing strategies or public-private partnerships (PPPs) if state or federal funds are not immediately available. – Case-by-case scenarios. Ultimately, every community is different. Not all smart commu- nities look the same, and each one comes with a different history, aesthetic, economy, and vision for the future. There is no one-size-fits-all approach for integrating freight and goods movement in a smart growth community, and planners should consider all options and opportunities to succeed in this planning initiative. 3.2 Identifying Strategies The key conflicts identified in this research tend to fall into one of four major phases: setting the stage, creating places and streets, operating with minimal effects, and ongoing monitoring. These conflicts can be mitigated by both the public and private sector with the right policies and incentives. Various strategies can be used to address these conflicts while integrating freight into smart growth communities. Subsections present each phase-related strategy (including the strategy name, an over- view of the strategy, how it supports freight and smart growth, information about key considerations and tradeoffs in implementing the strategy, the relevant smart growth classi- fications to which the strategy applies, the implementing entity and stakeholders, implemen- tation information, and domestic and international examples of the strategy in a real-world situation). Table 3-1 details the complete list of strategies for each of the four phases and identifies each strategy’s applicability to each of the six smart growth classifications. The connection between the strategies and each of the six categories can be understood as degrees of applicability, with some strategies being more applicable to a particular smart growth category and other strategies being less applicable to the same category. However, some strategies, particularly in the final two

Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth environments 37 phases, are universally applicable to all six smart growth categories. The smart growth classifica- tions are defined as follows: Industrial areas transitioning to housing and entertainment districts; Working waterfronts transitioning to mixed-use and/or recreation; Older commercial and neighborhood areas being revitalized; Retrofitting aging commercial corridors; Greenfield new communities; and Large-scale reconstruction. Smart Growth Classification Industrial areas transitioning to housing & entertain- ment districts Working waterfronts transitioning to mixed- use and/or recreation Older commercial and neighborhood areas being revitalized Retrofitting aging commercial corridors Greenfield new communities Large-scale reconstruction Setting the Stage 1A. Define your community’s goals 1B. Employ freight-compatible development 1C. Promote freight villages or urban logistics centers 1D. Consider overlay zoning 1E. Reuse brownfields for freight development 1F. Discourage incompatible land use development 1G. Promote cargo-oriented development around rail hubs Creating Places and Streets 2A. Consider off-street loading facilities in new developments where practical 2B. Establish designated curbside loading zones 2C. Adopt design requirements for storing containers and equipment 2D. Enact developer mandates for buildings to accommodate freight activity Table 3-1. Strategies to integrate goods and services corresponding to smart growth environments. (continued on next page)

38 Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth environments 3C. Extend hours of operation at terminals 3D. Provide direct transfer of goods from ship to rail 3E. Make deliveries at lockers versus directly to residents 3F. Reduce delivery vehicle emissions 3G. Launch certification/recognition programs for green fleets 3H. Invest in technology to aid freight operators 3I. Identify and support route networks 3J. Add smaller delivery vehicles to fleets Ongoing Monitoring 4A. Host community workshops to connect stakeholders 4B. Provide technical assistance to local planners 4C. Participate in national or global discussion on freight best practices 4D. Work with the private sector to pilot-test delivery solutions 4E. Adapt to changing market forces 4F. Determine ways to measure and monitor performance Strategy Applicability Measure: Less applicable More applicable Smart Growth Classification Industrial areas transitioning to housing & entertain- ment districts Working waterfronts transitioning to mixed- use and/or recreation Older commercial and neighborhood areas being revitalized Retrofitting aging commercial corridors Greenfield new communities Large-scale reconstruction 2E. Design safe and flexible intersections 2F. Create “buffers” with setback and/or landscaping requirements 2G. Designate truck routes 2H. Implement traffic-calming techniques to reduce conflict 2I. Use innovative financing techniques 2J. Implement rail quiet zones Operating with Minimal Impacts 3A. Develop off-peak delivery plans 3B. Use non-motorized vehicles in dense urban centers Table 3-1. (Continued).

Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth environments 39 3.2.1 Phase 1. Setting the Stage To integrate freight into smart growth communities, land use plans must be appropriately and properly coordinated. One of the issues most often discussed in studies of freight and land use issues is conflicts resulting from comprehensive plans that do not support complementary land uses. In some cases, the adjacent land uses can be naturally opposing and generate conflict among opportunities, goods, services, and livability. Achieving a balance of mixed uses (includ- ing housing, education, employment, retail, entertainment, and other opportunities) is essential to achieving a high quality of life in smart growth communities (FHWA 2013). This problem has two components: (1) identifying land uses that are compatible and (2) buff- ering land uses that are fundamentally incompatible. Some types of land uses generate the same pattern of vehicular activity, or can support higher levels of noise, traffic, and transport com- pared to a subdued residential development. It is helpful to understand which land uses have natural similarities to increase the success of all of the land uses. For land uses that are funda- mentally incompatible and that have few or no natural similarities, planners can use zoning and design strategies to minimize the negative effects of these types of land uses and keep them in distinct areas of a smart growth community. Several key strategies can help set the stage for a successful smart growth community with freight activity. State DOTs and MPOs can use state and regional freight plans to identify clusters of freight activity, emerging freight trends, and access and mobility issues in their states or regions. Corridor or subregional plans may take a closer look at land use trends and identify emerging smart growth environments and existing or potential transportation needs to support smart growth and goods movement. In these activities, state and regional agencies can (1) help municipal planners to better understand the context of their smart growth development within the broader land use and transpor- tation scheme of the state or region and (2) supply municipalities with technical assistance to ensure that local comprehensive and land use plans account for smart growth and goods movement needs. Local agencies with land use controls have an important role to fill when establishing a smart growth community. These agencies can (1) disincentivize incompatible land use development or redevelopment through legislation and zoning ordinances (including overlay zoning) and (2) preserve and strengthen designated freight corridors. Additionally, with the right opportuni- ties, municipalities can help reduce overall freight activity by promoting freight villages and urban logistics centers, cargo-oriented development around new or existing rail hubs, and the reuse of existing brownfields for freight development. Municipalities can transition underused land into development that facilitates safer and more efficient freight activity in smart growth communities. All of this preparation also helps the private sector operate more efficiently within the community. Table 3-2 presents each of the seven recommended strategies for setting the stage for freight. (continued on next page) Strategy 1A: Define your community’s goals Strategy Overview Identify valuable freight assets, and determine those that should be preserved, upgraded, or removed entirely. Update or develop a comprehensive plan with desired zoning regulations and land uses. How It Supports Freight & Smart Growth Identifying freight goals helps guide appropriate land use patterns necessary to achieve these goals and preserve valuable freight assets. Some types of land uses generate the same pattern of vehicular activity or can support higher levels of noise, traffic, and transport compared to a subdued residential development. Understanding which land uses have natural similarities can increase the success of all of the land uses. For land uses that are fundamentally incompatible and that have few or no natural similarities, planners can use zoning and design strategies to minimize the negative effects of these types of land uses and keep them in distinct areas of a smart growth community. Table 3-2. Strategies for setting the stage for freight.

40 Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth environments facilities. How It Supports Freight & Smart Growth Proper zoning is used to accommodate long-standing industrial facilities and allow for the development of boutique manufacturing, such as artisan food production, breweries, apparel or maker spaces, and other business establishments that may exist in smart growth environments with minimal effects on neighbors. This can be achieved through buffering land use zoning or FBCs that accommodate various uses and activities, but govern building form and external effects. Considerations and Tradeoffs Integrating freight into development plans can involve scaling back certain land uses to make more room for freight. Although this is an initial tradeoff, it can enhance the overall efficiency and maneuverability of the development plan with seamless freight integration. Classifications All Implementing Entity Public sector: municipal planning department, community development department Supporting Stakeholders Trucking industry, development community, retail and commercial establishments, neighborhood organizations, community groups, MPOs, state DOTs and planning agencies Implementation Tools include effective long-range planning, zoning, and design that incorporate freight needs, environmental impact mitigation strategies, and education and outreach (Christensen Associates et al. 2012). Example(s) The Maryland Strategic Goods Movement Plan (2015) from Maryland DOT predicts high levels of freight activity in and through the state and suggests coordinating land use planning and economic development planning with transportation planning and project development. The Plan also encourages transportation improvements and interagency coordination to achieve a more balanced, multimodal system of accommodating freight. Key Considerations and Tradeoffs Freight movement is often an afterthought during planning. Although freight is rarely the highest priority, incorporating freight concerns in the plan can help avoid future conflict. Understanding how a community’s freight assets fit into the overall freight network of the region is also important. Critical truck routes, intermodal facilities, distributors, warehouses, and other assets that affect the regional economy beyond the smart growth community should be considered. Classifications All Implementing Entity Public sector: municipal planning department Supporting Stakeholders Community groups, MPOs, state DOTs and planning agencies, neighborhood organizations, retail and commercial establishments, trucking industry Implementation Comprehensive planning involves dictating public policy in terms of transportation, land use, utilities, recreation, and housing. Planners can assess their community’s stage by developing a comprehensive plan with information about land use, desired development, and designated truck routes or high-volume corridors. Example(s) Communities, cities, and states across the country regularly develop plans to shape the growth and development of their region. One New York, the citywide plan for New York City, features four overarching visions for the city that touch on aspects of housing, jobs, transportation, infrastructure, the environment, natural resources, and city services. One New York helps to identify what the City’s priorities are so planners can develop appropriate zoning, land use, and other public policies. Strategy 1B: Employ freight-compa ble development Overview Freight-compatible development is designed to preserve existing freight facilities and corridors, plan for future freight activity and needs, and reduce the negative effects that occur when incompatible land uses are near freight corridors and Table 3-2. (Continued).

Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth environments 41 consolidation or deconsolidation of shipments, vehicle and equipment maintenance and repair, etc.—within the freight village. Maintaining a strong freight presence also helps smart growth environments retain jobs and a strong, diverse tax base. Considerations and Tradeoffs Freight villages are most successful with an established public-private partnership, but can succeed with exclusively private funding. In many cases, the public entity is the main shareholder, while the private entities own smaller percentages of the venture. However, private companies can benefit from partnering with other companies with similar logistical needs to reduce overall costs. Classifications Implementing Entity Public and private sectors: municipal planning department, retail and commercial establishments, logistics operators Supporting Stakeholders Trucking industry, community groups, MPOs, state DOTs, local and state grant/loan financing agencies Implementation Unify freight interests among local retail, commercial, and trucking entities to help consolidate deliveries. Secure funding, either from private stakeholders or through a public-private partnership. Example(s) Orlando, FL, illustrates how the freight village concept can develop organically in a metropolitan area. Orlando developed a new zoning designation for warehousing and logistics, which included design standards for freight-related activities. This allows for the building of intermodal connections and attracts businesses looking to lower operating costs by taking advantage of conglomeration effects (Holloway No Date, Smart Growth America No Date, LaCour No Date). Raritan Center in New Jersey is a fully private development executed with the goal of profit maximization. The Center serves over 3,000 private companies and employs over 15,000 people throughout the complex (Center for Advanced Infrastructure and Transportaon (CAIT), Freight and Marime Program, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey 2008). Vanderbilt Medical Center, a private entity, in Nashville, TN, showcases the advantages of consolidating freight warehousing in a single, off-site location a short distance away. Shippers bring goods to an off-site distribution center operated by a third-party logistics (3PL) firm, who consolidates small shipments into full truckload shipments for delivery to the Center (Rhodes et al. 2012). Strategy 1D: Consider overlay zoning Overview This strategy establishes a zoning district over one or more previously established zoning districts, so as to establish stricter standards and protect certain features of the land. Overlay zoning can also be used to promote Strategy 1C: Promote freight villages or urban logiscs centers Overview Freight villages and urban logistics centers aim to cluster freight activities in a single area. Activities best suited for this strategy include transloading facilities (for transferring a shipment from one to another), rest areas, U.S. Customs, restaurants, and repair services (Rhodes et al. 2012, Christensen Associates et al. 2012). How It Supports Freight & Smart Growth Freight villages and urban logistics centers can improve how freight activities are integrated into an urban environment. One of the primary benefits of such consolidation is that it often reduces urban truck trips and vehicle-miles traveled (VMT) by combining goods from multiple vendors in a single vehicle or by performing multiple activities—product assembly, e-commerce fulfillment, specific forms or uses, which are important to the history and/or character of a community or relevant stakeholder groups. How It Supports Freight & Smart Growth Zoning overlays can preserve existing or potential industrial zones in redeveloping areas. They can also specify form-based design and/or operational criteria (e.g., limitations on truck trip generation and maximum allowable noise levels), which would allow low-intensity industrial or commercial uses (e.g., boutique manufacturing or “maker spaces”) in buildings that conform to the criteria. (continued on next page) Table 3-2. (Continued).

42 Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth environments applicable to some properties and not others. Furthermore, another layer of complexity in the zoning code can increase the time and cost of reviewing and approving new developments. Classifications Implementing Entity Public sector: municipal planning departments Supporting Stakeholders Private developers, industry firms, community organizations, trucking industry, MPO or state planning agencies (advisory) Implementation Existing land use and zoning standards should be reviewed to determine how they facilitate truck movement and whether this can be improved. Example(s) The Maryland Maritime Industrial Zone Overlay District (MIZOD) in Baltimore, which protects land in the Baltimore Harbor with water access and deep drafts (18 feet or deeper) suitable for industrial use, illustrates the use of overlay zoning for industrial preservation. MIZOD was established in 2004 and has been extended to 2024 to protect its maritime industries (Strauss- Wieder 2003, Christensen Associates et al. 2012). Strategy 1E: Reuse brownfields for freight development Overview This strategy involves the transition of brownfields into functioning freight centers to remain within urban environments while limiting the footprint to previously used industrial land. How It Supports Freight & Smart Growth Brownfields have limited development opportunities depending on the level of contamination, especially within urban areas. Reusing brownfields to develop urban freight resources is a cost-effective productive use of land and benefits neighboring businesses and commercial districts and helps retain or add jobs in urban areas. Considerations and Tradeoffs Some brownfield sites may be attractive to real estate developers, for both residential and commercial uses. Therefore, converting some parcels into freight-related uses may miss opportunities to provide more housing or retail development in urban areas. However, an efficient use of brownfield space for freight uses can benefit local businesses and keep trucks from taking up valuable pedestrian space. Classifications Implementing Entity Public and private sectors: municipal planning department, real estate developers, retail and commercial establishments Supporting Stakeholders Trucking industry, community organizations, local and state grant/loan financing agencies Implementation Identify brownfield locations within a city or town and establish distances to freight-intensive districts or businesses. Determine how they can be repurposed to facilitate truck movement. Example(s) The North Jersey Transportation Planning Authority conducted a regional brownfields assessment and identified opportunities to accommodate freight facilities in the urban parts of their region (FHWA 2012). The former Bethlehem Steel facility in Lackawanna, NY, is an 11,000 acre site in a designated Empire Zone, making it eligible for special tax incentives and support. The site has close access to Class I rail service, the St. Lawrence Seaway marine freight network, and the Interstate Highway System. The site is being remediated and redeveloped after being declared a Superfund site in 1988 and includes wind energy facilities and a business park that is home to several manufacturing firms (Rhodes et al. 2012). Considerations and Tradeoffs Although overlay zoning can be an effective regulatory tool, it can create complexity and inequity among properties as a result of additional restrictions Table 3-2. (Continued).

How It Supports Freight & Smart Growth New development can hasten the departure of existing industrial facilities. Although new development can benefit a town or city, it is important to segregate land uses to minimize conflict while allowing each use to thrive separately. In particular, residents near an industrial site may be frustrated with noise, traffic, and other negative effects on livability. Keeping land uses separate will help mitigate negative effects while allowing industry to thrive. Additionally, there are different kinds of industrial or freight-generating land uses, and, therefore, different combinations of incompatibility. For example, a slaughterhouse produces negative health and environmental consequences, as well as effects associated with commercial vehicle pickups and deliveries. On the other hand, an urban farm can be considered a smart growth-friendly addition to a community, but the commercial or service vehicles required to bring farming materials on site and distribute produce to offsite markets may create unintended conflicts. Considerations and Tradeoffs Discouraging incompatible land uses will reduce the productivity of land throughout a town or city by forcing residential or industrial developers to choose other sites that may be sub-optimal. However, the long-term benefits to segregating conflicting land uses far outweigh the short-term obstacles of securing a proper site with minimal effects on neighboring uses. Classifications All Implementing Entity Public sector: municipal planning department Supporting Stakeholders Trucking industry, community and neighborhood organizations, developers, industry firms, retail and commercial establishments, MPO (advisory), state planning agencies (advisory) Implementation Existing land use and zoning standards should be reviewed to identify potential clashes between neighboring land uses. New or developing areas should be reviewed before construction to ensure minimal conflicts. It is also important to ensure that there are no loopholes in existing land use regulations that may result in undesirable or incompatible development. Example(s) Layton City, UT, has developed zoning codes to control the development of freight facilities. “M” zoning districts (that is, districts for manufacturing/industrial use) must minimize effects from adjoining uses and districts. “M” districts are only allowed to locate near rail lines and highway interchanges, and most non-industrial uses are not allowed in the “M” districts (FHWA 2012). The City of Toronto blocked a condominium development in 2008 that would have been next to an industrial enclave (Gough 2014). Although there could be a benefit to locating housing near employment, complaints from residents often drive industrial uses out of the area as residents move in. Strategy 1G: Promote cargo-oriented development around rail hubs Overview Similar to freight villages, cargo-oriented development (COD) around railroad logistics hubs is another strategy to concentrate freight uses in a single area. How It Supports Freight & Smart Growth Logistics, warehousing, small-scale manufacturing, and other industries related to the breakdown of rail container shipments can locate in a single area, specifically at existing rail hubs. In addition to concentrating freight uses to enhance efficiency, this has the added benefit of promoting rail transportation, which will help remove long-haul truck trips from the road. In existing communities, CODs help contain sprawl by concentrating activity, reclaiming existing brownfields, and allowing workers to make shorter commutes via public transit, biking, or walking. Furthermore, COD yields environmental benefits as a result of decreased congestion, emissions, and wasted fuel from idling vehicles (Center for Neighborhood Technology 2013). Considerations and Tradeoffs Public-private partnerships are critical to meet the funding needs for railroads, but private entities constitute the bulk of customer demand. Strategy 1F: Discourage incompable land use development Overview Use various strategies through government agencies to discourage development that will create incompatible land uses near existing and viable industrial sites. (continued on next page) Table 3-2. (Continued).

44 Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth environments 3.2.2 Phase 2. Creating Places and Streets The next phase in incorporating freight into smart growth communities is designating appro- priate land uses. When developing a site plan for a development or building, other issues must be addressed to ensure that the principles of smart growth are incorporated while allowing for goods movement. These issues can be mitigated through zoning, subdivision or development regulations, and during the site plan review. In many cases, design elements can affect how users interact within a smart growth community, and municipalities can help ensure that appropriate design elements and zoning ordinances shape the community to accommodate freight safely. Streetscape conflicts can arise with freight activity when using traditional planning methods to encourage walkability and multimodal transportation. Complete Streets in smart growth environ- ments are designed to accommodate many users, including pedestrians, bicyclists, transit, and motor vehicles. Often, planners focus on designing facilities that improve pedestrian and bicycle safety using traffic-calming measures, crosswalk treatments, bicycle lanes, and other features. Although these improve mobility within a community, they may hamper truck circulation and loading activities and can result in a change to how goods are delivered to customers in the com- munity. In many instances, truck drivers will use inappropriate locations (e.g., marked bicycle lanes, bus stops, or curbside parking spaces dedicated to non-commercial users) to park and load and unload. Planners and engineers should seek input from the trucking community when design- ing a streetscape to ensure that features that can restrict truck access will not affect deliveries in the area. Common concerns for the trucking industry include overhanging trees or light features that restrict vehicle height, curb extensions or roundabouts that lack mountable edges, and speed bumps. Properly designed, many of these elements can be included so as to benefit all road users. To help create successful public places and streets while accommodating freight activity, municipalities can use several strategies. Agencies can consider off-street loading facilities in new developments, enact developer requirements or guidelines for buildings to accommodate freight activity, and create distinct buffer zones with lot depth and setback requirements. Municipalities also can support the integration of necessary freight activity by creating requirements for storing shipping containers, establishing designated curbside loading zones, separating pedestrian and commercial vehicle traffic, using traffic-calming techniques, and implementing rail quiet zones (see Figure 3-2). State DOTs can establish design standards for state highways that incorporate Complete Streets. State and regional agencies can, through STIP and TIP project selection criteria and funding programs, encourage the creation of places and streets that integrate commercial Supporting Stakeholders Private developers, community development groups, local residents Implementation Existing local and state building lot depth and setback standards should be reviewed as to how much they can protect or buffer residents from negative aspects of truck delivery. Example(s) The City of Memphis, TN, published a plan called Blueprint for Prosperity, which addressed reducing poverty by connecting more people to job centers at freight, logistics, and manufacturing facilities. The city is home to the central FedEx depot, but also has several Class I railroad routes moving millions of cargo containers each year. One of the strategies outlined in the plan was achieving COD through more robust public transit and infill development around economic hubs (Center for Neighborhood Technology 2015.). Classifications Implementing Entity Public sector: municipal planning department Table 3-2. (Continued).

Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth environments 45 vehicles in smart growth environments. State and regional agencies can also provide technical help and best practices to local governments. Without rules and guidelines from the public sector, it is difficult to manage the needs of the entire community. Table 3-3 presents recommended strategies for creating quality places and Complete Streets to accommodate commercial vehicles as needed, and discourage improper driver behaviors in smart growth communities. Figure 3-2. Pedestrian- and bicycle-friendly zone (Source: Cambridge Systematics). (continued on next page) Strategy 2A: Consider off-street loading facili es in new developments where prac cal Overview How It Supports Freight & Smart Growth Considerations and Tradeoffs Classifications Implementing Entity Supporting Stakeholders Consider off-street loading docks where practical in new buildings, and encourage them in substantial renovations of existing buildings. Off-street loading facilities can include internal loading bays, designated alleyways, or other flexible spaces designated for freight during certain times of the day. Off-street loading facilities eliminate the conflicts that can result with other vehicles and pedestrians when trucks park on the street or make curbside deliveries. Depending on how many deliveries an operator is scheduled to make, a truck can remain parked for several hours, taking up valuable sidewalk and bike lane space in urban/downtown environments. Additionally, removing trucks from the curb increases pedestrian safety and promotes walkability and vibrant streetscapes. Off-street loading facilities are not always practical or possible in certain building configurations. One solution to this problem is to consolidate loading docks for multiple businesses on a given block. The design of off-street loading docks must be considered specifically to each location. Insufficient loading dock geometry can lead to unsafe conditions on streets and sidewalks. Not every business in every location can or should design loading docks to accommodate the largest trucks in use. Additionally, dedicating space for freight on the property, instead of on-street, can increase the size and land cost of development, especially in high-value urban center and downtown locations. Public sector: municipal planning and/or buildings department Trucking industry, community and neighborhood organizations, retail and commercial establishments, MPO or state planning agencies (advisory) Table 3-3. Strategies for creating places and streets.

46 Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth environments Strategy 2B: Establish designated curbside loading zones Overview Typical curbside deliveries take place on pedestrian-oriented sidewalks. Establishing designated curbside loading zones delineates specific areas for deliveries in high activity areas. How It Supports Freight & Smart Growth Expanding curbside loading zones and increasing enforcement will help to keep these designated loading areas available when they are needed. This practice also helps limit instances of trucks loading while double-parked or parked in bicycle lanes or other inappropriate locations. Considerations and Tradeoffs Curbside loading zones affect street parking, because they claim spaces that would otherwise be used by residents or visitors to the area. Designated curbside loading zones must have proper signage and clear loading times for both pedestrians and drivers to follow. It is important to take necessary safety precautions for pedestrians in these areas, because freight activity will increase in certain pedestrian spaces. In addition, curbside loading zones remove some walking space for pedestrians, which may cause problems in some congested urban areas. Classifications Implementing Entity Public sector: municipal public works, municipal planning department Supporting Stakeholders Trucking industry, community organizations, retail and commercial establishments, MPO or state planning agencies (advisory) Implementation Identify high-traffic curb locations that can be designated loading zones and that serve local business’ needs. Establish new regulations for curbside delivery space with safe and seamless integration of truck deliveries with minimal conflict with the street or sidewalk. Example(s) Given New York City’s high density and competition for space, most retailers and grocery stores do not have off-street loading docks, but on-street parking is often unavailable because of passenger vehicle parking. In some areas of the city, NYCDOT has established delivery windows to make curb space available for delivery trucks, resulting in reductions in double-parking and traffic congestion. For example, part of Church Avenue in Brooklyn south of Prospect Park has defined delivery window spaces between 7 AM and 12 PM or between 7 AM and 3 PM, Monday through Friday. Delivery windows help to support the City’s economy by improving the efficiency of truck deliveries (NYCDOT 2015). Within urban neighborhoods, Barcelona, Spain, and Cologne, Germany, have allowed lanes that are reserved for buses only during peak commuting hours to be used for curbside commercial vehicle parking during the middle of the business day so as to increase capacity (Goodchild No Date; Center for Advanced Infrastructure and Transportaon (CAIT), Freight and Marime Program, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey 2008). Implementation Identify buildings with potential to add or enhance an off-street loading facility. Establish new regulations for buildings of a certain size or anticipated use to ensure the development of off-street facilities and integration of truck deliveries with minimal conflict with the street or sidewalk. Example(s) Seattle, WA, requires new developments to provide off-street truck loading areas and reserves some on-street parking for commercial vehicles (FHWA 2012). This gives vehicles a safe and legal place to load and unload while out of the way of other transportation modes. Seattle also allows vehicles holding a city Commercial Vehicle Loading Zone permit to occupy alleys for loading or unloading, up to 30 minutes. Although many alleys cannot accommodate large trucks, smaller trucks can use such alleys to load and unload without disrupting vehicular or pedestrian traffic on the adjacent streets and sidewalks (Center for Neighborhood Technology 2013, Pivo et al. 1997). Table 3-3. (Continued).

virtually any open space, but implementing design requirements keeps them from interfering with other uses and helps mitigate conflicts between industry and neighboring residents and businesses. How It Supports Freight & Smart Growth By specifying site design requirements for storing specific types of containers, terminals can increase their efficiency at processing and locating containers and limit effects to neighboring facilities (Christensen Associates, et al. 2012). Considerations and Tradeoffs Design requirements should help make the storage facilities less burdensome on neighboring facilities, but not be so cost-prohibitive as to drive up costs for logistics operators and storage facilities. There are many types of dry cargo, refrigerated, and special containers in varying sizes. The most common types of International Standards Organization (ISO) shipping containers, which are used for intermodal freight movements, are the 20- foot and 40-foot standard container (also known as GP) and the 20-foot and 40-foot high cube (HC) shipping container. GP and HC containers are nearly identical, except that HC containers are 12 inches taller. Both are used for all kinds of general dry cargo. There are also different specifications for refrigerated containers, open- top containers, flat rack and collapsible containers, as well as fuel tank containers. For this reason, it is important to have comprehensive design requirements to dictate the storage requirements for different types of containers (ISBU Associaon Internaonal 2012). Classifications Implementing Entity Public sector: municipal planning department Supporting Stakeholders Trucking industry, community and neighborhood organizations, port operators, logistics centers, retail and commercial establishments Implementation Existing local and state design standards for container storage should be reviewed to determine how they can be altered to better integrate in non- industrial contexts. Example(s) Will County, IL, developed a model container storage zoning ordinance for municipalities in its jurisdiction to use as a guideline. The ordinance took into account the desire of industry and neighbors to locate container storage as close to intermodal transfer facilities as possible (Will County Center for Economic Development 2007). Strategy 2D: Overview Municipalities can mandate that developers design buildings to minimize potential noise penetration, light pollution, and other potential effects of freight transportation and outdoor activities. How It Supports Freight & Smart Growth Designing building elements to reduce the negative aspects of freight transportation helps reduce conflict between residents and logistics operators. Residents can maintain a high quality of life and logistics operators can conduct business as usual in residential areas. These mandates also enable practices such as off-hour delivery to occur with minimal disturbance to local residents. Considerations and Tradeoffs Landscaping and other design features should not impede vehicle movement or sight lines. Any surface parking lots should be designed to ensure that freight circulation routes and driveways are segregated from customer automobile traffic to the extent possible (Goodchild No Date). Classifications Implementing Entity Public sector: municipal planning department Supporting Stakeholders Private developers, municipal public works, community development department, local residents, MPO or state planning agencies (advisory) Implementation Existing local and state building design standards should be reviewed to determine how they can protect or buffer residents from negative aspects of truck delivery. Example(s) Anaheim, CA, included specific planning requirements within the environmental report section of a transit-oriented development (TOD) project. Measures included Strategy 2C: Adopt design requirements for storing containers and equipment Overview Shipping containers, chassis, tractors, and other equipment can be stored in requiring residential units to have solid-core exterior doors and minimum sound (continued on next page) Table 3-3. (Continued).

class ratings on all windows and exterior walls to help alleviate noise issues while windows are shut (Christensen Associates et al. 2012). Anchorage, AK, involves motor carrier representatives in the site plan review, and such input helps to avoid potential hindrances on safe motor vehicle operation once the plans are approved and the facilities are developed (FHWA 2012). Strategy 2E: Design safe and flexible intersec ons Overview Most street problems occur at intersections, rather than on the roadway itself, making it important for city planners and engineers to focus on designing safe and flexible intersections for all road users. How It Supports Freight & Smart Growth Safe intersections can accommodate larger commercial and service vehicles while remaining safe for pedestrians, bicyclists, and other motorized vehicles. Right-hook type crashes, which involve a car passing a cyclist on the left and making a right turn in front of a cyclist, are one of the more common types of crashes that result in injuries. This type of crash can also occur with right- turning trucks and bicycle lanes. Some DOTs have considered terminating bicycle lanes in advance of the intersection and having bicycles merge with the right traffic lane to help reduce crashes. Regardless of the solution, considering these safety risks when designing intersections in smart growth communities can help reduce collisions. Considerations and Tradeoffs As with many engineering projects, the details of the design are important. One intersection-related issue includes actual vs. effective turning radii. Roadway designers often determine a corner radius based only on intersection geometry and overlook the effective turning radius, which can vary depending on the size of the vehicle. Mountable curbs and truck treatments can help improve safety and mobility at intersections, but flexible infrastructure is key. Classifications All Implementing Entity Public sector: municipal engineering department Supporting Stakeholders Private developers, trucking industry, municipal public works, municipal transportation planning department, community development department, local residents, MPO or state planning agencies Implementation Existing local and state roadway intersection design standards should be reviewed to determine how they can improve mobility and safety at major and minor intersections. Example(s) Oregon DOT implemented a mid-block pedestrian island on US 97 in the City of Madras to enable safer crossing for pedestrians. US 97 is a major north-south route of oversize/overweight (OSOW) loads. On one side of the highway is a low-income residential neighborhood, a convenience store is across the highway, and the nearest traffic signal is approximately a half-mile out of the way. Oregon DOT designed a removable pedestrian crossing in the event of an overdimensional load exceeding normal widths. The island was pre-formed in pieces with pegs, and the concrete pad has holes for the pegs, enabling the concrete to be picked up with a loader and moved if needed. Strategy 2F: Create buffers with setback and/or landscaping requirements Overview Use lot depth and setback requirements to create buffers between residential or commercial uses and adjacent freight activities when possible. These buffers can be combined with landscaping, walls, or other amenities to reduce noise, vibration, air, and light pollution. How It Supports Freight & Smart Growth Buffers created through lot depth and setback requirements help reduce the negative aspects of freight transportation. Residents can benefit from limited interaction with truck deliveries for better quality of life. Considerations and Tradeoffs Although using lot depth and setbacks to minimize freight effects can reduce overall density in the area or limit the buildings next to a street, reducing conflict between uses in key areas is an important overarching goal. However, the design outcome may not support smart growth goals for density and walkability. Table 3-3. (Continued).

Classifications Implementing Entity Public sector: municipal planning department Supporting Stakeholders Private developers, community development groups, local residents, MPO or state planning agencies (advisory) Implementation Existing local and state building lot depth and setback standards should be reviewed to determine how they can protect or buffer residents from negative aspects of truck delivery. Example(s) American Canyon, CA, requires a 20% increase in lot depth for any development next to state highways or railroads (Christensen Associates et al. 2012). Slinger, WI, adopted a design standard in 2007 that mandates a minimum 50-foot non-access easement and planting area for any new land division or condominium next to a limited-access highway or railroad right-of-way. Minimum lot depths were increased by 50 feet in the village to accommodate this buffer area (Christensen Associates et al. 2012). Depending on the density of the community, larger buffers may be required. Strategy 2G: Designate truck routes Overview Designating truck routes is a key strategy in integrating freight in smart growth communities. The goal is to separate pedestrians and bicycles from commercial vehicles, because it is often difficult and unsafe to have them function simultaneously in the same space. Separation can be achieved by implementing barriers, rails, and trees between streets and sidewalks, thus segregating the uses. At crossing points, municipalities can install traffic lights, zebra crossings, or pedestrian bridges (when necessary) to minimize conflict with vehicles. Deterrent paving can also help guide pedestrians to appropriate crossing points. How It Supports Freight & Smart Growth The most critical areas to separate pedestrians and bicycles from commercial vehicle traffic are often in busy commercial districts (Pivo et al. 1997). Keeping commercial vehicles away from pedestrian and bicycle activity allows increased travel speeds and improved safety for freight movement and the general public (FHWA 2012). Considerations and Tradeoffs Consider the tradeoffs of protected versus unprotected bike lanes, including bicyclist and pedestrian safety, available space in the street section, potential effects on-street cleaning, waste pickup, and other services, as well as placement of street parking and transit stops. Separating pedestrian and bicycle traffic can have negative implications if the separation creates barriers to desired movement for either mode. In this case, pedestrians may find alternative, but less safe, routes to reach their destinations more quickly. Classifications Implementing Entity Public sector: municipal public works, municipal planning department, state DOT, roadway or highway authorities (e.g., New Jersey Turnpike Authority), private street owners/developers Supporting Stakeholders Trucking industry, community organizations, retail and commercial establishments. Implementation Existing local and state guidelines should be reviewed to determine how infrastructure can be developed to protect or buffer residents from freight and truck activity. Example(s) Mira Loma, CA, realigned commercial vehicle access to a railyard and established designated and signed truck routes (MIG, Inc., ICF Internaonal, and UltraSystems 2009). Many examples of truck route networks exist, including Baltimore, New York City, Stockton, and Naperville. New York City is working to develop protected bicycle lanes throughout the City—such lanes help to segregate both bicycle and pedestrian traffic from motor vehicles. Protected bicycle lanes exist along key avenues in Manhattan, Brooklyn, and Queens, as well as along the waterfronts. Caltrans in California has developed dedicated truck lanes on sections of Interstate 5 in order to separate commercial vehicles from general traffic lanes. (continued on next page) Table 3-3. (Continued).

50 Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth environments Strategy 2H: Implement traffic-calming techniques to reduce conflict Overview Many municipalities, as well as state transportation agencies, have developed traffic-calming guidelines that include recommended street designs and geometric standards. These standards facilitate truck movement with different standards based on the truck priority of the route. These standards may specify which types of devices may be implemented on which types of streets, as well as geometric specifications for different devices on different types of streets. How It Supports Freight & Smart Growth Appropriate traffic-calming measures can ensure truck access while improving safety for all road users, including truck drivers making curbside deliveries. Truck compatibility should be based on road functional class, and design treatment should be flexible to accommodate truck needs. For example, municipalities can use alternative paving surfaces to reduce noise and vibration while creating visual cues that slow traffic. Mountable curbs can be designed to slow turning traffic while allowing the rear wheels of trucks to track over the curb without causing damage. Achieving an appropriate traffic-calming strategy can improve the safety and livability of an area with active freight uses. Considerations and Tradeoffs The purpose of traffic calming is to slow traffic and increase pedestrian safety. This goal may require geometric compromises (e.g., narrowing of land widths and modifications of turning radii). These interests must be balanced with the needs of trucks. Compromises (e.g., pedestrian median refuges set flush with the pavement) provide a visual cue to cars, yet permit trucks to turn over them when necessary. Such a compromise can introduce pedestrian safety concerns, which should be evaluated and addressed through signage and education if such strategies are pursued. Many traffic-calming techniques can cause problems for public works departments during inclement weather, particularly snowstorms, because it can be difficult to maintain and plow snow in roadways with complex street treatments. Classifications All Implementing Entity Public sector: municipal public works, state transportation agency Supporting Stakeholders Community development department, municipal planning department, public safety, trucking industry, community groups, MPO, state DOT Implementation Existing local and state street design standards, including standards or guidelines describing traffic-calming measures, should be reviewed to determine how they facilitate/support truck movement. Example(s) The City of South Gate, CA, uses a rubberized asphalt material on some city streets to reduce noise from truck traffic. Use of this material has led to decreases in noise impacts, thus increasing the quality of life for local residents (MIG, Inc., ICF Internaonal, and UltraSystems 2009). Gothenburg, Sweden, has reduced its traffic fatalities over the past 25 years by incorporating planning for pedestrians, cyclists, and mass transportation in the design of its streets (World Resources Instute 2015). Strategy 2I: Use innovave financing techniques Overview Many smart growth communities have limited financial resources for pursuing major development or redevelopment projects. Using non-traditional financing techniques can enable planners to accomplish more with fewer municipal resources. How It Supports Freight & Smart Growth Innovative financing exists to help cities accomplish important development and redevelopment projects that they would otherwise be unable to afford. Various techniques can be used. Tax increment financing (TIF) is a value- capture strategy in which municipalities divert future property tax revenue increases from a specific area toward economic development projects in the community. TIF helps spur investment by allowing for the future repayment of loans for projects (e.g., parking structures, water, or roads) by taxing the Table 3-3. (Continued).

Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth environments 51 incremental rise of property values or sales receipts that occur because of the improvement. TIF funds can then be allocated to a design project within the investment area. Sales tax increments, property tax increments, or a combination of both can be used to fund redevelopment projects. Another financing option is New Market Tax Credits (NMTCs), which are primarily used for commercial, industrial, or non-profit development projects or operations costs in low-income census tracts. NMTCs can subsidize around 20% of total project costs in the form of low-interest, forgivable debt. Communities looking to benefit from NMTCs must obtain financing from a certified Community Development Entity (CDE), which is evaluated by the Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI) Fund, a division of the US Department of Treasury (SB Friedman Development Advisors 2014). Two other financing strategies for smart growth communities are Special Service Areas (SSAs) and Business Districts. An SSA allows local governments to tax and deliver services (e.g., physical improvements or other development projects) to geographic areas within their jurisdiction. Business Districts, which are contiguous areas of a municipality, have certain powers and authorities that differ from other parts of the municipality. These powers and authorities allow for increased tax collection to fund these defined areas (SB Friedman Development Advisors 2015). Considerations and Tradeoffs Although innovative financing techniques can help fund a desired development or redevelopment project, not all project costs will be covered. Classifications All Implementing Entity Public sector: MPO, municipal planning department Supporting Stakeholders State DOT, logistics operators, private street owners/developers, municipal public works, community development organizations. Implementation Municipal planners should review the local tax code to determine whether the desired innovative financing strategy is possible and then work with local legislators if the strategy is not. Once a strategy is identified, evaluate the desired development or redevelopment project to determine whether the financing strategy is appropriate and how it will be managed. Example(s) In 2006, the Denver Urban Renewal Authority (DURA) approved the creation of an Urban Renewal Area and agreed to use TIF to help finance several projects within the site. After some redevelopment, the assessed value of the property increased from $900,000 to over $5 million in 2 years, and the property generated more than $380,000 in property taxes. TIF enabled DURA to capture the increase in tax revenue to pay for the redevelopment (Denver Urban Renewal Authority 2016). Strategy 2J: Implement rail quiet zones Overview Through the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), municipalities can establish rail quiet zones. These special zones permit trains to pass through rail crossings without sounding their horn. How It Supports Freight & Smart Growth Train horns can be disruptive in residential communities, particularly during overnight hours when residents expect quiet. Reduction in noise may make a community more accepting of allowing rail operations at night (FHWA 2012). Additionally, increased rail operations during the evening hours can result in a reduction in traffic and congestion during peak hours for commuting and other non-freight activities. Considerations and Tradeoffs Proper design and signage should be reviewed to ensure that the crossings designated as rail quiet zones are safe to both motorists and pedestrians. Because the absence of a train horn increases the crash risk at rail crossings, it is important to install warning devices to alert motorists, including flashing lights, gates, and other devices. These devices can cost local authorities between $30,000 per crossing to over $1 million, depending on the number of crossings and the warning devices required for each crossing (FRA 2013). (continued on next page) Table 3-3. (Continued).

52 Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth environments 3.2.3 Phase 3. Operating with Minimal Impacts Once the foundations for incorporating freight in smart growth communities are established, strategies will still be necessary to ensure success. Daily operations may be enhanced with addi- tional policies, practices, and investment from both the public and private sectors. How well the overall transportation system operates has a powerful influence over quality of place, in that it can either create conflict or be used to reduce or eliminate conflict between goods movement and other priorities. Poor or inefficient transportation systems can harm the air quality and the environment. Diesel engine emissions have been shown to harm the natural environment and human health. Although trucks represent fewer than 5% of vehicles in the United States, they generate 22% of all transportation emissions—more than airplane, marine vessel, and rail modes (Tomer 2015). The disproportionate effect on air quality elevates the importance of managing trucks in all com- munities, and particularly in smart growth communities. Both private- and public-sector stakeholders can help maintain transportation operations that minimize negative effects on a smart growth community. Companies can implement various strategies such as extending hours of operation at terminals, providing direct transfer of goods from ship to rail at port facilities, using cargo cycles and freight tricycles to make deliveries (see Figure 3-3), and investing in technology to assist carriers and freight operators. Public-sector Figure 3-3. Freight bicycle in San Francisco, CA (Source: Peter Martin). Classifications Implementing Entity Public sector: authority with jurisdiction over roadway crossing (with FRA conditions met) Supporting Stakeholders MPO, state DOT, logistics operators, railroad industry, municipal planning department, municipal public works, community development organizations Implementation Determine key crossings that are near to residential communities. The municipal planning agency should then work with the FRA to establish designated rail quiet zones. Local authorities should be prepared to finance installation of warnings and safety infrastructure surrounding the crossings. Example(s) Residents of Boulder, CO, have struggled with train horn noise from BNSF trains at nine railroad crossings for many years. In 2013, the city requested a cost estimate to implement rail quiet zones at these nine locations and identify options for reducing noise. It was determined that it would cost between $2.4 million and $4.4 million to install the infrastructure necessary to create rail quiet zones. Proposed strategies included gates, wayside horns, and hybrid options (SEH 2014). Table 3-3. (Continued).

Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth environments 53 agencies can develop an off-peak delivery plan, offer incentives for clean vehicles, and launch certification or recognition programs for businesses with sustainable freight plans. Collectively, private- and public-sector agencies can use non-motorized vehicles in urban centers, make resi- dential deliveries at lockers rather than directly to residents (see Figure 3-4), and add smaller delivery vehicles to their fleets. For transportation operations to go smoothly, both sectors must manage their fleets and invest in appropriate technology and delivery vehicles. Table 3-4 pres- ents strategies for operating freight with minimal negative effects on smart growth communities. Figure 3-4. Amazon locker pickup service (Source: Cambridge Systematics). Strategy 3A: Develop off-peak delivery plans Overview Off-peak delivery encourages delivery of goods to retailers and other customers during overnight hours as opposed to typical business hours when the most vehicles are on the roads. How It Supports Freight & Smart Growth New York City DOT conducted a voluntary pilot implementation and analyzed the results. The resulting benefits include improved travel time for truck drivers, improved driver productivity, and decreased odds of encountering delays while searching for available parking or loading areas. The strategy also supports smart growth by increasing pedestrian safety, reducing traffic congestion, and supporting parking for non-freight uses during key hours. For private companies, off-peak deliveries can save shippers and transportation companies significant operations costs. This strategy has been found to reduce congestion and enable larger trucks to access the area, because there is less concern about conflict with other road users. Considerations and Tradeoffs Successful off-hour delivery arrangements can take considerable cooperation— desired time of delivery may not match with port and business schedules. Often, success comes from finding the right customer to achieve this balance of freight flow. One of the challenges can be incompatibility with customer operating hours. Although stores not open during the nighttime may not be willing to remain open to receive deliveries, such stores could provide a secure area to drop packages if store personnel are not available. Also, nighttime deliveries can generate noise that might not be well-received by those residing next to or near the delivery location(s). Incentivizing this shift in customer demand could lower delivery costs by reducing congestion and allowing larger trucks to access the area because there would be less concern about conflict with other road users. (continued on next page) Table 3-4. Strategies for operations with minimal impacts.

54 Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth environments Chicago, Boston, and Atlanta have also expressed interest in participating in the program (Supply Chain Media, LLC 2014). Strategy 3B: Use non-motorized vehicles in dense urban centers Overview Using alternative means of delivery such as cargo bicycles, especially in congested urban areas, can reduce emissions and congestion for trips that do not require a full commercial vehicle (Tomer 2015, Weber 2012). Similar to the consolidation centers, freight providers can use non-motorized vehicles to serve dense urban centers. These vehicles can run on a hub-and-spoke pattern and operate out of a larger vehicle that remains on the periphery while alternative transportation covers the last mile of delivery (Supply Chain Media LLC 2014, Weber 2012). How It Supports Freight & Smart Growth Non-motorized vehicles, such as freight tricycles or cargo bicycles, offer several key benefits to smart growth communities and dense urban centers. Such vehicles help reduce congestion along the roadways, emit virtually zero emissions, have greater flexibility in parking and navigating, and are cheaper to own and maintain than traditional diesel-powered trucks. Private companies also benefit from reducing or eliminating other costs such as vehicle maintenance, insurance, and fuel. Considerations and Tradeoffs Despite the substantial benefits of using non-motorized vehicles for freight delivery, there are tradeoffs with scalability, speed, and volume. Because non- motorized vehicles tend to be smaller than traditional trucks, more vehicles and drivers are required to carry the same volume of cargo. Additionally, these vehicles are human-powered and do not travel at the same speed as diesel- fueled trucks. Classifications Implementing Entity Private sector: logistics operators Supporting Stakeholders Trucking industry; retail and commercial establishments; community groups; community development department; local, state, or private grant/loan program managers Implementation Logistics operators and private retail or commercial establishments can review their logistics models and identify delivery routes in compact or dense areas and smart growth communities. Example(s) Revolution Rickshaws in New York City is a non-motorized vehicle service. This private company provides hourly and route cargo delivery services in and between Manhattan and Brooklyn. Past clients have included Quinciple, Murray’s Cheese, and City Harvest, as well as other local companies for which Revolution Rickshaws has provided customized local delivery services to customers and between retail locations. B-Line, a delivery company in Portland, OR, also use cargo cycles to make deliveries to customers from companies such as Office Depot, Portland Roasting Coffee, and Guayakí teas. Classifications Implementing Entity Public and private sector: municipal transportation department in concert with shippers/receivers Supporting Stakeholders Trucking industry, community groups, MPO, port operators Implementation Freight transporters will respond to the demands of their customers—if shippers/receivers can be convinced to change their demands, the transportation providers will adapt to meet these demands (Holguin-Veras et al. 2012, Pivo et al. 1997). Example(s) New York City is the first U.S. city to experiment with off-hour delivery programs. This experiment was successful among participants. Barcelona, Spain, and Dublin, Ireland, have experimented with off-hours delivery programs as well (BESTUFS No Date). Following the success of New York City’s program, the FHWA and EPA created a program to provide funding to cities interested in off-hour delivery. Funding was awarded to the cities of Orlando, FL, and Washington, DC; Table 3-4. (Continued).

Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth environments 55 (continued on next page) Strategy 3C: Extend hours of opera on at terminals Overview Many terminals at major ports have typical business hours between 6:00 AM and 6:00 PM, which align with rush hour traffic and congestion. How It Supports Freight & Smart Growth Providing extended access at terminals allows truck drivers to access ports during off-peak hours, thereby avoiding midday and rush hour traffic. Terminals can help increase delivery potential by opening early in the morning, before morning commutes, and/or closing late in the evening. This system has the added benefits of reducing (1) emissions from idling and (2) congestion, thus improving both the air quality and mobility of residents and commuters. Considerations and Tradeoffs Extending hours of operation at terminals can help truckers avoid peak hours and enable more deliveries. However, without an off-hour delivery facility, truckers may not be able to make a final delivery at a retail or commercial establishment overnight or early in the morning. Depending on the truck operator and the route/customer base, the operator will need to ensure that deliveries can be completed. If extending the hours of operation at terminals is not possible, one solution may be to identify underused parcels near terminals that can be used as storage. These underused areas (e.g., corners of a shopping mall parking lot) are often vacant after business hours and could be used to store containers while truckers are making multiple trips during overnight hours, before the terminals reopen. Classifications Implementing Entity Public and private sector: logistics operators, port terminals Supporting Stakeholders Trucking industry, retail and commercial establishments Implementation Terminals in congested urban areas should review their operating hour policies and determine whether it is possible to extend or shift their business hours to benefit customers. Example(s) The PierPASS system, in use at the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach, is a private-sector-created non-profit that encourages commercial vehicles loading at the terminals to do so during off-peak hours. To pay for the expanded hours the terminal is in operation, cargo owners pay an increased fee for commercial vehicles entering the port during peak hours. Improved efficiency and reduced air pollution are benefits, but increased noise and emissions during the weekend and at night are potential consequences. This private-sector response, prompted by impending legislative action that would have required a similar system under public control, resulted in nearly 40% of container moves occurring during off- peak hours (Smart Growth America No Date). Strategy 3D: Provide direct transfer of goods from ship to rail Overview Shippers can opt for direct transfer of goods from ship to rail at ports rather than relying exclusively on trucking. How It Supports Freight & Smart Growth Short-haul truck moves, also known as drayage, often use older, less efficient vehicles and need to traverse heavily populated and congested areas. Establishing more direct transfers of goods from ship to rail reduces the demand for drayage trucking and consolidates movements to an off-site location. This can result in reduced emissions, congestion, and delivery times. Considerations and Tradeoffs Rail projects are expensive, which may make it difficult for some port agencies to bear the full cost of the project. Additionally, rail lines are fixed and not easily moved or modified if truck routes are to change or adapt over time. It is critical to anticipate future volumes and ensure that this project will make sense for decades to come. If building a shortline railroad is feasible, it is also important to ensure grade separation to reduce conflict between rail and road users. Maintaining full grade separation increases the safety and efficiency of moving goods from the ports to an off-site location. Classifications Table 3-4. (Continued).

56 Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth environments Implementing Entity Private sector: logistics operators, port terminals, railroads Supporting Stakeholders Trucking industry, municipal planning department, municipal public works, port authorities, MPO, state DOT Implementation A Port Authority or terminal facility can review common drayage routes and determine whether a rail connection makes sense and is feasible. Depending on cost, a public-private partnership can be used to secure funding and streamline construction and implementation. Example(s) A proposal for the San Pedro Bay Ports (of Los Angeles and Long Beach) to increase rail access to the port would eliminate 30,000 daily truck trips by 2035. Twenty-one percent of cargo is transferred from ship to rail (Smart Growth America No Date). Strategy 3E: Make deliveries at lockers rather than directly to residences Overview Similar to an urban consolidation center, which consolidates larger deliveries before dispatching smaller last-mile delivery vehicles, lockers can have the same effect on residential deliveries. Consumers ordering individual items can select the locker facility from which they want to retrieve their item and pick it up at their convenience. How It Supports Freight & Smart Growth In dense urban areas, FedEx and UPS vehicles can spend hours circling for parking and claiming spaces, which reduces available parking for non-freight uses and increases the likelihood for parking tickets. The individualized nature of residential deliveries is highly inefficient and,while convenient for the consumer, negatively affects cities and smart growth communities. Lockers can provide a secure central location for consumers to pick up their packages at their convenience, without the need for a car or delivery signature. These services can help reduce truck traffic, congestion, and emissions in urban areas. Considerations and Tradeoffs Private-sector participation is important to making locker delivery services a success, given the high cost of implementation and coordination required. In the Bento Box example (described in the Example(s) section below), this type of system requires coordination and cooperation among multiple entities (e.g., logistics departments, 3PLs, and receivers), and some companies may lose face- to-face contact with customers. Despite the high success rate of delivery lockers in some urban areas, this delivery option requires sufficient volume. If there is not enough demand to use the service, there will not be enough packages delivered to these locations to consolidate delivery patterns. It can also be expensive to manage and operate at locker sites, so maintaining regular activity is crucial to making the service cost- effective for businesses. Classifications Implementing Entity Private sector: private companies Supporting Stakeholders Trucking industry, logistics operators, retail and commercial establishments, community groups, municipal planning department, municipal/grant funding agencies Implementation Unifying freight interests among local retail, commercial, and trucking entities can help consolidate deliveries. Secure funding either from private stakeholders or through a public-private partnership. Example(s) Amazon, a major online retailer, continues to expand its Amazon Locker services in many cities throughout the United States. A customer orders products from Amazon like any e-commerce purchase, but selects a locker location as opposed to their residential address as the delivery location. Locations exist in office buildings, grocery stores, convenience stores, and other retail locations. Upon pickup, customers retrieve their orders by entering a unique code on the locker touch screen. In 2016, supermarket chain Giant launched a grocery pickup service at several Washington, DC, area Metrorail stations. Customers order on line and pick up their groceries at a kiosk at the rail station on their evening commute. A similar concept, Bento Box, was piloted in Berlin, Germany. Bento Box used bicycles for the last-mile segment after packages were deposited in a consolidation center (Weber 2012). Table 3-4. (Continued).

Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth environments 57 Strategy 3F: Reduce delivery vehicle emissions Overview Diesel engine emissions have been shown to harm the natural environment and human health. Even if freight operations are efficient, using outdated technology or fossil fuels in freight vehicles may harm residents in neighboring areas. Reducing delivery vehicle emissions in smart growth communities can improve air quality and quality of life of residents. There are many low-emission delivery vehicles on the market, including battery electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) vehicles, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, and biodiesel vehicles. How It Supports Freight & Smart Growth Diesel fuel contains more than 40 toxic air contaminants, many of which are suspected cancer-causing substances. Although the prevalence of diesel-powered vehicles makes it nearly impossible to avoid exposure, people living in urban and industrial areas are more likely to be exposed to pollutants regularly (American Lung Associaon of California 2015). Clean vehicles emit fewer pollutants and are often quieter and less disruptive to communities. Using these vehicles contributes to cleaner air and a higher quality of life, particularly in dense or urban environments. Investments in emissions reduction strategies such as hybrid, natural gas, electric, and other truck and locomotive technology have reduced per-vehicle emissions over the past two decades (MIG, Inc., ICF Internaonal, and UltraSystems 2009). For many consumers, buying from “green” companies is a priority. Freight stakeholders can gain access to this consumer base by reducing diesel emissions through the use of alternative-fuel vehicles or limiting the distance or frequency of vehicle trips. Considerations and Tradeoffs For the public sector, the health and environmental benefits of requiring or incentivizing the “greening” of the freight transportation fleet must be weighed against the potential disruptions to supply chains and the effect that might have on local business (if regulations are used) or the cost of incentives (if that approach is preferred). Non- monetary incentives (e.g., priority access to certain locations) may be a particularly effective approach as the cost to the public side is typically lower. The private sector must weigh the cost of implementation versus the potential benefits of being seen as a “green” carrier and gaining access to incentives. Incentives must be examined to ensure that the financial case is sustainable over the long term. Classifications All Implementing Entity Public or private sector: local or state environmental agencies, other public or private grant/loan financing organizations Supporting Stakeholders Logistics operators; trucking industry; local, regional, or state planning and environmental protection agencies; community development organizations. Implementation Government agencies can help private companies incorporate more clean vehicles in their fleets by offering incentives. The incentive can be monetary or it can improve the delivery process for those that adopt clean vehicles, thus benefitting both the community and the carrier. Incentives can be established by local, state, or federal agencies, depending on the level of political support. The public entity would determine the desired emissions reduction outcomes and create incentives to achieve these goals. Example(s) FedEx’s EarthSmart initiative aims to improve the fuel efficiency of its fleet by 30% by 2020. Part of the success comes from using low-emission vehicles. By 2012, FedEx Express had increased its global electric vehicle and hybrid-electric vehicle fleet to 482 vehicles, an increase of nearly 18% (URTC 2014). CALSTART and the Northeast Diesel Collaborative (NEDC) are working with public- and private-sector stakeholders in the California and Northeastern United States to identify opportunities to reduce diesel emissions, improve public health, and promote clean diesel technology. NEDC works to educate the public, lawmakers, and fleet operators; create partnerships; demonstrate new technologies; expand existing programs; and improve data on emissions and health effects. (continued on next page) Table 3-4. (Continued).

Strategy 3G: Launch cerficaon/recognion programs for green fleets Overview Recognition programs or certification programs for green fleets from the state or federal government can incentivize companies to opt for electric or low-emission trucking vehicles. How It Supports Freight & Smart Growth These programs can bring positive publicity for companies and encourage them to adopt sustainable and environmentally-friendly delivery practices, which is aligned with smart growth goals and a higher quality of life. Companies can also use membership for marketing purposes in order to grow their customer bases. Considerations and Tradeoffs As with incentive programs, certification or recognition programs can motivate private companies to use low-emission vehicles in their logistics models. However, the certification or recognition program must be able to generate publicity or awareness of the company and its eco-friendly practices in order for it to be effective. Classifications All Implementing Entity Private and public sector: municipal transportation department, municipal environmental planning department. Supporting Stakeholders Logistics operators, state environmental agencies, state DOTs, MPOs or COGs, community organizations. Implementation Certification/recognition programs can be established by local, state, or federal agencies, depending on the level of political support. The public entity would determine the desired sustainability and emissions reduction outcomes and create a certification or recognition program to entice companies to achieve these goals. Example(s) Idaho-based transportation asset management company Alpine Group, LLC, presents an annual award, the Eco-Friendly award, to clients who recycle over 750,000 pounds of aging and outdated fleet equipment. The award produces positive press for companies and helps encourage the use of safe and fuel- efficient equipment on the road. Past award winners have included Old Dominion Freight Lines, UPS, and FedEx (Alpine Group LLC 2014). The EPA’s SmartWay Program exists to encourage greater efficiency and lower greenhouse gases and other emissions from transportation supply chains. The program has enabled collaboration, technical assistance, and funding to participants to help quantify freight emissions and overall costs in the supply chain. The SmartWay brand is used to promote “green” transportation and demonstrates participants’ commitment to SmartWay and freight sustainability. Truck operators and other qualifying passenger vehicles can display a SmartWay-designated mark on their vehicles as a symbol of sustainability (EPA SmartWay 2015). The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Cities Program supports local actions to cut petroleum use in transportation. Clean Cities coalitions are public-private partnerships composed of businesses, fuel providers, vehicle fleets, state and local government agencies, and community organizations. The benefits of joining include networking opportunities, technical training, individual consultation and technical assistance, funding opportunities from DOE, assistance with media outreach, and public recognition for progress in reducing petroleum consumption (USDOE No Date). Strategy 3H: Invest in technology to aid freight operators Overview There are many ways to communicate delivery and trucking regulations to drivers and operators, one of which is enhanced technology. In addition to proper signage along roads and near delivery zones, technology can be used to guide and monitor drivers from their smartphones or GPS devices. Cities can also develop resources to help freight stakeholders keep up with changing technology in the industry. How It Supports Freight & Smart Growth Technology and variable message signs can be used to direct commercial vehicle operators to available loading zones, alley loading areas, and loading docks. Allowing companies to book parking and loading areas on line could also be effective. Table 3-4. (Continued).

Autonomous vehicles are in development and expected to be on the road in the coming decades. Cities have only begun to prepare for the effect that these vehicles will have on our transportation system. The public sector can help the autonomous vehicle industry by engaging in pedestrian safety outreach, in- ground charging facilities, side guards, advanced driver systems, and other strategies to help adapt to new vehicle technology. Considerations and Tradeoffs Although mobile apps and electric signage can be helpful, directions should be clear and understandable. Loading zones should be as easy to access as possible to reduce circling and erratic driving of truckers attempting to follow directions. In addition, technology development can be costly, so using personal mobile devices to assist with navigation may be the most scalable and cost-effective option. Classifications All Implementing Entity Private and public sectors: state DOTs, municipal transportation department, logistics operators Supporting Stakeholders MPOs or COGs, municipal public works department, municipal planning department, trucking industry, community organizations, advocacy groups Implementation Both governments and private stakeholders can participate in developing effective technology for truck drivers. Governments can identify key locations for electric directional signage in addition to wired parking spaces to notify drivers where parking is available. Private entities can help build mobile apps to help truckers abide by local truck laws and guide drivers to their destinations. Example(s) New York City has experimented with a reservation system with some success (LKW 2010, Caruso and Hollaron 2014). In the private sector, Transfix has the goal of providing better technology for both truck drivers and shippers. Drivers can download an iPhone app to help them plan drives, manage loads, and get paid more quickly. With some enhancements, the route planning feature could help drivers find available parking and loading zones to make deliveries more efficiently. Strategy 3I: Idenfy and support route networks Overview When planning freight networks and corridors in a local area, it is important to identify route networks throughout the region. Although a particular corridor may pose problems within a city, it may be a crucial part of the overall transportation network and should be properly supported. How It Supports Freight & Smart Growth Transportation networks help connect communities, cities, states, and regions across a geographic area. Although municipalities, counties, and states are responsible for maintaining their designated roadways, the roads are often valued beyond a localized area. Similarly, one corridor can create traffic or flow issues that extend beyond the immediate area of that particular corridor. Scope of a corridor is not always the same as the actual area of effect. As a result, transportation planners must identify complete route networks and support those that are vital for freight movement and traffic flow of the regional and national economy. Understanding the broader freight transportation network can help planners make informed decisions about the roles of certain streets. Most streets ought to be Complete Streets. In some cases, such as connectors to marine terminals or intermodal rail terminals, large volumes of trucks present considerable safety concerns, so elements such as bicycle lanes may not be practical unless physical separation and buffers are included in the design. Considerations and Tradeoffs Transportation planners should take care to manage both geographic effects and jurisdictional effects of roadways. Classifications All Implementing Entity Public sector: municipal planning department, transportation planning department Supporting Stakeholders Logistics providers, MPOs or COGs, municipal public works department, trucking industry, community organizations, advocacy groups (continued on next page) Table 3-4. (Continued).

60 Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth environments 3.2.4 Phase 4. Ongoing Monitoring The final phase for integrating goods movement into smart growth environments is ongoing monitoring. Once foundational and operational elements are in place, monitoring helps ensure that freight practices improve, adapt, and align with national or global standards. Although freight activity tends to be driven by profit maximization within individual organizations, moni- toring can be used to mitigate or eliminate negative consequences. Implementation Municipal, county, and state transportation planners should review their transportation plans to ensure that they identify and support freight transportation networks. If not, revise plans to consider both geographic and jurisdictional effects of roadways on the regional network. Example(s) The Alameda County Goods Movement Plan (Feb 2016) considered the entire Bay Area—Sonoma, Napa, Marin, Solano, Contra Costa, San Francisco, San Mateo, and Santa Clara Counties—evaluating the goods movement systems for Alameda County. This included major Interstate Highways, US Highways, State roads, Class I railroads, the Port of Oakland, and other freight assets. With that context established, the plan detailed the local goods movement system for the County and identified the most crucial last-mile connectors. This approach helps support the regional economy by defining how Alameda County’s freight movement relies on and supports the broader transportation network. Columbia Street in Brooklyn, NY, is next to a marine terminal and a residential neighborhood. To accommodate truck traffic associated with the terminal and bicycle mobility in the neighborhood, the New York City Department of Transportation, with engagement from the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey and Brooklyn Bridge Park, developed a protected bicycle lane. Strategy 3J: Add smaller delivery vehicles to fleets Overview Opt to use smaller delivery vehicles, electric vehicles, cargo cycles, or freight tricycles in preference to standard-size trucks in dense, urban environments. How It Supports Freight & Smart Growth Smaller vehicles take up less space on the road, require smaller parking spaces, and consume less fuel than standard delivery vehicles. They also can better maneuver urban and smart growth environments, which often have limited space to make deliveries (The City College of the City University of New York and The Region 2 University Transportaon Research Center 2014). Considerations and Tradeoffs Despite the substantial benefits of smaller vehicles for freight delivery, there are tradeoffs with scalability, speed, and volume. Using smaller trucks can result in an increase in the number of trucks needed to carry the same volume of cargo, perhaps resulting in more traffic and higher transportation costs to shippers. The benefits of smaller delivery vehicles are maximized with efficient incorporation into a company’s existing logistics network. Classifications All Implementing Entity Private sector: logistics operators Supporting Stakeholders Trucking industry, retail and commercial establishments, community groups, MPOs or COGs. Implementation Logistics operators and private retail or commercial establishments can review their logistics models and identify delivery routes in compact or dense areas and Smart Growth communities. Example(s) Small delivery vehicles are already popular in European and Japanese cities and are beginning to emerge in U.S. cities. FedEx uses a 15-ft-long van from the Nissan Cargo series for city deliveries. Nissan determined two target groups of interested customers: small businesses using non-commercial vehicles to make deliveries due to a lack of inexpensive vehicle options, and large cargo fleet owners seeking to swap out larger vehicles that were inefficient in some routes. The demand appears to be increasing for many businesses operating in dense urban areas (Besact 2013). Table 3-4. (Continued).

Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth environments 61 Monitoring can be done on many levels, so it is important to cover all transportation aspects of a smart growth community as well as neighboring communities. Smart growth policies that affect land use decisions generally occur at the local level, while freight transportation is often regional, national, or international in scope. Local land use and development policies that do not accommodate the needs of freight can have negative repercussions that extend far beyond the area where the land use decision was made. Organizations from both the private and public sector can get involved in monitoring within a smart growth community or region (see Figure 3-5). Some strategies involve con- necting the two sectors to achieve a stronger outcome. For example, hosting a community workshop for all stakeholders and participating in national or international discussions on freight best practices can foster active engagement among all parties. State DOTs, statewide planning departments, MPOs, and/or COGs can provide assistance through workshops, model zoning ordinances, and other efforts to municipal governments. Private-sector com- panies and organizations can provide information and feedback (on operational issues and needs) to MPOs and local planners who do not have the resources to monitor performance over time. Finally, public agencies can take advantage of the resources available in the private sector by working with firms to pilot-test delivery solutions. Table 3-5 presents strategies for ongoing monitoring. Figure 3-5. Ballard case study focus group in session (Source: Cambridge Systematics). Strategy 4A: Host community workshops to connect stakeholders Overview Several communities host workshops to bring stakeholders together to discuss their needs and have them incorporated in the development of comprehensive plans, redevelopment plans, and transportation studies. Live demonstrations and visualization software are helpful in communicating designs and issues to stakeholders. How It Supports Freight & Smart Growth Smart growth planning is not a result of efforts from one company or one city agency; it is a collective of stakeholders and a mix of communities, businesses, residents, and consumers. Hosting community workshops allows local entities to discuss issues, identify needs, and find compromises among differing goals and uses within a smart growth community. (continued on next page) Table 3-5. Strategies for ongoing monitoring.

62 Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth environments through the intersection, so ODOT set up a mock course and tested the vehicles most likely to move through the intersection. A Washington State DOT study interviewed motor carriers in Seattle and King County to collect their suggestions for road and site design considerations (Smart Growth America No Date). Strategy 4B: Provide technical assistance to local planners Overview Developing a technical assistance capacity at regional agencies such as MPOs can help local planners address smart growth and freight integration. How It Supports Freight & Smart Growth GIS analysis tools, better visualization techniques, and travel demand and traffic simulation analysis tools can help planners better understand the potential effects of decision making (Strauss-Wieder 2003, Smart Growth America No Date). Some planning agencies may lack expertise or funding to acquire these tools individually, so technical assistance may be required. Implementing assistance or training programs can help these agencies be more effective and realize optimal outcomes in their planning districts. Considerations and Tradeoffs Analysis tools can be improved by expanding and standardizing land use classifications that concern freight activities in travel demand forecasting models and traffic simulation models and refining measures of freight trip generation (estimated based onemployment) and freight generation (based on economic activity). Better classifications and modeling factors will allow modelers to more accurately estimate truck and automobile trip generation and to prepare more appropriate plans (Caruso and Hollaron 2014). Considerations and Tradeoffs Although community workshops enable stakeholders to connect and have vibrant discussion, it is important to establish a clear agenda to avoid off-topic discussion and ensure productive conversation. In addition, defining the roles and responsibilities of ongoing working group participants can help discussion and ideas get put into action. Classifications All Implementing Entity Private and public sector: state DOTs; statewide planning agencies, MPOs or COGs; chambers of commerce; community development groups; municipal planning department Supporting Stakeholders Logistics operators, trucking industry, retail and commercial establishments, advocacy groups, community groups, community development department, local residents Implementation A local community group or planning agency can organize the event, secure the meeting location, connect with all relevant stakeholders, and ensure follow-up on issues discussed in the public meeting. The municipal planning agency can then review the comments and suggestions and incorporate themes into regional freight planning efforts. Example(s) The Institute of Transportation Engineers, FHWA, and Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission (DVRPC) conducted the nation’s first Downtown Delivery Symposium in 2015 to recognize the importance of balancing the need to get goods to the point of sale with the importance of offering a high quality of life to the citizens of the region’s small, medium, and large towns. The 1-day workshop brought experts and stakeholders together to discuss solutions that balance freight operations and community goals. Oregon DOT (ODOT) established an organized engagement process with the freight industry to help vet issues in the transportation network. ODOT also uses demonstrations such as “better block” and roundabout rodeos that temporarily show how a proposed roadway design will work in real time. In one example, ODOT was building a roundabout intersection of US 20 and Barclay Drive in Sisters, OR. The freight industry was concerned about the ability to move its oversized loads Table 3-5. (Continued).

Strategy 4C: Parcipate in naonal or global discussion on freight best pracces Overview Private companies can participate in industry forums or conferences to exchange ideas and discuss industry problems. How It Supports Freight & Smart Growth This type of engagement can help mitigate issues between incompatible land uses and encourage a more seamless, safe, and environmentally-friendly integration of freight into smart growth communities. Considerations and Tradeoffs Although industry engagements enable stakeholders to connect and have vibrant discussion, it is important to establish a clear agenda and encourage productive conversation. Classifications All Implementing Entity Private and public sector: USDOT, state DOTs, MPOs or COGs, municipal planning agency, education/research institution Supporting Stakeholders Logistics operators, municipal public works, trucking industry, research institutions, consultancies Implementation In most cases, meetings can be initiated by a research institution or organization with a topic or issue of interest. Stakeholders could meet in person or via conference calls Example(s) The Volvo Research and Educational Foundations’ Center of Excellence for Sustainable Urban Freight Systems (CoE-SUFS) hosts webinars, conducts research, and establishes best practices in the freight industry. Private companies can contribute to research efforts and participate in organized discussion on key topics. The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) provided funding to organize an international conference in New York City to address cleaner mobility vehicles and last-mile freight delivery issues. The conference brought together over 100 public- and private-sector stakeholders from the United States, France, Portugal, Brazil, and the Netherlands (UTRC 2014). Strategy 4D: Work with the private sector to pilot-test delivery soluons Overview Government agencies can take advantage of resources within private-sector companies to pilot-test delivery solutions. How It Supports Freight & Smart Growth Government agencies can remain involved in developing innovative solutions to freight delivery without investing significant time and money into the testing process. Private companies benefit from the collaboration with the public sector, and delivery solutions can be tested in current, real-world situations. This ensures that the solutions are relevant and effective. Considerations and Tradeoffs Financing necessary testing periods may be difficult for some municipalities. Findings may be difficult or cost-prohibitive to implement. Additional staff may Classifications All Implementing Entity Private and public sector: state DOTs, statewide planning agencies, MPOs or COGs, private consultancies, municipal planning agencies Supporting Stakeholders Community development groups, advocacy groups. Implementation MPOs and other regional agencies can release a request for proposals (RFP) to qualified private consultancies, who can strategize and develop technical assistance and analysis tools to assist the planning agency. Example(s) Metro (the MPO for Portland, OR) coordinated a technical assistant account for cities to use toward routine modeling and analysis needs. Metro also added a transportation engineer to its team to help smaller jurisdictions with urban design solutions appropriate for their needs (Transport for America 2014). be required to manage test projects. (continued on next page) Table 3-5. (Continued).

64 Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth environments Implementing Entity Private and public sector: municipal planning agency, education/research institution Supporting Stakeholders Logistics operators, state DOTs, MPOs, municipal public works, research institutions, advocacy groups, consultancies, public or private grant/loan financing organizations Implementation Municipal agencies can issue requests for proposals (RFPs) for private-sector companies to develop and test solutions to freight problems within a smart growth community. Project deliverables would include a robust testing period to ensure the effectiveness of the solution. Example(s) The European Union is pilot-testing delivery solutions in major cities. In Berlin, Germany, an urban freight laboratory has been developed in a central community with residential and mixed-use business and retail activity. The site consists of lockers for parcel storage and electric-assisted bicycles for delivery (Besact 2013). Additionally, TRB’s second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2) was developed to promote research in highway safety, congestion reduction, and improved methods for renewing roads and bridges (TRB 2015). DVRPC, the metropolitan planning organization for Greater Philadelphia, is working on developing the Philadelphia Delivery Handbook (expected completion Fall 2016). The book gives greater attention to last-mile freight operations and the further emergence of vibrant city neighborhoods and offers best practices and a complete streets checklist for delivery considerations. The City of Philadelphia and members of DVRPC’s freight advisory committee are helping this effort. Strategy 4E: Adapt to changing market forces Overview Smart growth environments are most successful when governments adapt plans, strategies, and roles to fit the current context. How It Supports Freight & Smart Growth Communities, cities, and states are constantly changing in response to the political climate, economy, and overall society. However, city, state, and regional transportation plans are often developed for an extended period. As market conditions change within a particular area, it is important for the government to embrace positive change and mitigate negative developments. Changes can occur in manufacturing industries, retail and restaurant businesses, rental housing markets, buyer housing markets, and transportation mode choice, among other market forces. Considerations and Tradeoffs In addition to adapting to changing market forces, governments can also play a role in enforcing and educating the public about the changes. A public education component can improve the success of a program or initiative because sometimes things do not work because people do not understand them. Outreach material can be helpful to demonstrate to stakeholders how the community was created and where it is headed in the future. Implementing Entity Private and public sector: USDOT, state DOTs, MPOs or COGs, municipal planning agency, education/research institution Supporting Stakeholders Logistics operators, municipal public works, trucking industry, research institution, consultancies Implementation Municipal governments should monitor the success of comprehensive plans and adjust plans or policies when necessary, acknowledge when markets begin to affect the local economy or transportation network, and educate the public when appropriate. Classifications All Classifications All Table 3-5. (Continued).

Strategies for Supporting Goods Movement in Smart Growth environments 65 Example(s) South Park, in downtown Los Angeles, has gone through extensive redevelopment over the past 10 to 15 years. The district experienced a significant decline in the post-WWII era of mass suburbanization, which led to a flight of jobs, businesses, and entertainment from the area. In recent years, South Park has transformed into a central business district, with ample restaurants, shopping, and residential development. There is a strong focus on transportation and making South Park more pedestrian friendly. However, at least six different development plans and eight major project masterplans may have overlapping and potentially conflicting land use regulations. With so many development plans, the South Park Business Improvement District (BID) is taking the lead to coordinate these plans, become more involved in planning and development approval, and ensure that South Park’s development is livable and sustainable. The South Park BID is also considering tackling underused surface parking lots, which presents an opportunity to incorporate both smart growth principles and freight into redevelopment plans (Urban Land Instute 2013, Jones Lang LaSalle 2013). Strategy 4F: Determine ways to measure and monitor performance Overview Once a community implements a plan or strategy related to incorporating freight into smart growth environments, put in place a way to monitor and manage progress and results. How It Supports Freight & Smart Growth Developing performance measures for smart growth strategies helps planners evaluate how effective the strategy is in their community. Without appropriate data, it can be difficult for planners to prove to the public whether the strategy works. However, either a quantitative (measurable and quantifiable data) or qualitative (descriptive or observational data) approach to collecting data and assessing performance helps to solve this issue. Considerations and Tradeoffs Once planners decide how to measure and record performance data, they should ensure the data is accessible to the public. Doing so increases the transparency of program success and enables others to evaluate the data and provide input on the progress of the program. Classifications All Implementing Entity Public sector: municipal planning department, transportation planning/engineering department, MPO Supporting Stakeholders Logistics operators, state DOTs, municipal public works, advocacy groups, consultancies, public or private grant/loan financing organizations Implementation Identify strategies to incorporate freight into smart growth environments and develop methods of collecting quantitative or qualitative data that evaluates its success or failure. Post data or results in a publicly accessible format (such as a PDF or Microsoft Excel worksheet on the agency’s website) for further review. Example(s) The Port Authority of New York & New Jersey (PANYNJ), New Jersey DOT, and New York State DOT developed the Goods Movement Action Program (G-MAP) to share the responsibility of managing freight mobility throughout the New York– New Jersey metropolitan region. The program establishes an agenda of discrete and tangible measures to address efficient and sustainable goods movement, operational and regulatory reforms, and long-term investment needs. The team has identified specific “early actions” to improve the freight network, in addition to specific action packages to help accomplish what is vital and achievable. Two G-MAP highlights include (1) a network for 53-ft-long trailers to John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK), which creates a legal highway-only route to carry freight to and from the airport, and (2) an open source data portal to provide transportation data critical to maintaining an efficient freight network (PANYNJ 2016). Table 3-5. (Continued).

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TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Research Report 844: Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth Environments describes policy, planning, design, and operations practices considering the coexistence of moving goods and services in smart growth environments at both the design and implementation stages as well as retroactively improving existing conditions. This report will help readers understand common issues and conflicts pertaining to smart growth, how those issues and conflicts manifest themselves in different environments, and the types of strategies and actions stakeholders can take to better integrate goods and services movement by commercial vehicles in smart growth environments.

The report also presents the results of six case studies, each of which addresses one of the following Smart Growth classifications: industrial areas transitioning to housing and entertainment districts, working waterfronts transitioning to mixed-use and/or recreation, older commercial and neighborhood areas being revitalized, retrofitting aging commercial corridors, greenfield new communities, and large-scale reconstruction.

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