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66 Examples of goods and services vehicle movement issues and the success or failure of potential solutions can be seen in communities throughout the country. Six communities were evaluated as detailed case studies, including site visits and stakeholder focus groups convened to discuss issues, solutions, and unresolved needs. Each case study represents one of the smart growth classifications identified in Section 2.1.3. The case study locations and their smart growth clas- sifications are listed in Table 4-1 and mapped in Figure 4-1. None of the six case studies offers a perfect example of a community integrating freight into smart growth environments. The case studies highlight specific strategies, only some of which were successful. In general, freight was largely discovered as an issue throughout the process and was not typically at the forefront of the planning or development. However, each case study offers important lessons about what happened and what stakeholders can still do to improve the situation. Perhaps the most important or valuable lesson learned from these case studies is that establishing a shared vision and a cooperative relationship among developers, land use and design review agencies, the business community, and residents paves the way for introducing innovative design and operations strategies. In the cases of Belmar and Daybreak, specifically, maintaining close working relationships among these groups allowed for the use of unconven- tional ânon-standardâ design features and gave designers the flexibility to adapt such features over time to respond to observed conditions or to changing needs in the community. Each case study describes â¢ The context and history of the case study community; â¢ How plans, studies, and community goals guided the application of smart growth principles in the case study community; â¢ Conditions, with an emphasis on how goods and services vehicles operate within the com- munity, and results of the approaches used; and â¢ Strategies considered and/or implemented to address problems or issues, as well as critical factors that contributed to success. 4.1 Brady Arts District: Industrial Areas Transitioning to Housing and Entertainment Districts Characteristics of the Brady Arts District are presented in Table 4-2. 4.1.1 Context and History Settled in the 1820s, Tulsa, OK, is the second largest city in the state with a population of just under 400,000. The Brady Arts District, along with the neighboring Greenwood neighborhood, C h a p t e r 4 Case Studies
Case Studies 67 are just north of Tulsaâs Central Business District, with I-244 forming the northern and east- ern boundaries, N. Denver Ave. forming the western boundary, and a BNSF rail line along the southern boundary (see Figures 4-2 and 4-3). These two neighborhoods are experiencing rapid growth, with development focusing on entertainment and restaurants. Further retail and com- mercial growth, along with an increasing residential presence, is expected in the next decade. The Brady area flourished in the first half of the 1900s as the Frisco Railroad, followed by the KATY railroad (Missouri-Kansas-Texas Railroad), connected the region with the rest of the country. In the 1920s, what is today the Brady neighborhood developed into a rail-served com- mercial and industrial area. In the 1940s and 1950s, with the national shift toward trucking, the neighborhood became a center for trucking businesses, including depots, warehousing, and Case StudyClassification Industrial areas transitioning to housing and entertainment districts Brady Arts District, Tulsa, OK Working waterfronts transitioning to mixed-use and/or recreation Ballard Neighborhood, Seattle, WA Older commercial and neighborhood areas being revitalized Over-the-Rhine, Cincinnati, OH Retrofitting aging commercial corridors Glen Street (US 9), Glens Falls, NY Greenfield new communities Daybreak, South Jordan, UT Large-scale reconstruction Belmar District, Lakewood, CO Table 4-1. Smart growth classifications. Figure 4-1. Case study locations (Source: Cambridge Systematics).
68 Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth environments transfer facilities. Most of the rail spurs and sidings in the neighborhood were removed after railroad access from the west was closed in 1964, and the region is no longer served by rail. In the 1970s and 1980s, investors began to acquire old buildings, and theater and music groups began to move in. In 1993, the City of Tulsa approved the Brady Village Tax Increment District to assist further development (City of Tulsa 2012). Today, the Brady Arts District is bordered by I-244 and an active freight rail line. There is a mix of restaurants, entertainment venues, and manufac- turing companies such as Borden Dairy, Baird Manufacturing Company, and L. A. King. 4.1.2 Application of Smart Growth Principles Over the past 20 years, the Brady Arts District has been reinvented as an eclectic arts and enter- tainment district that is home to a growing number of bars, restaurants, residences, retail, office space, museums, and arts establishments. Many of these new businesses and residences are being developed so as to preserve the character of the neighborhoodâs historic industrial buildings. The completion of Guthrie Green in 2012 on the site of an old commercial warehouse and freight yard has also provided greenspace and a cultural activity center for the neighborhood with daily and special events, food trucks, a farmers market, and other offerings (Guthrie Green 2015). Other entertainment destinations in the district include the Jazz Hall of Fame, Cainâs Ballroom, Brady Theatre, and the Woody Guthrie Museum. Another major development was the completion of a Fairfield Inn & Suites in 2012, which added hotel accommodations and was Characteristic Description Community Brady Arts District in Tulsa, OK Smart Growth Classification Industrial areas transitioning to housing and entertainment districts Context Former rail-served commercial and industrial area. Introduction of trucking turned district into a hub for trucking depots, warehousing, and transfer facilities. Over the past 20 years, the district has transitioned into an arts and entertainment district, but seeks to preserve the industrial character of the neighborhood. Stakeholders City of Tulsa, Oklahoma State Historic Preservation Office, real estate developers, local businesses, local residents, freight industry Key Issues Ã® Rehabilitation/construction has generated a substantial amount of truck activity. New businesses have also generated freight traffic from food/product deliveries. Ã® Residents have mixed feelings about retaining freight-generating industries. Ã® Conflict between residential and commercial uses. Land being used for truck parking and loading/unloading is attractive to real estate developers; if developed, this would affect businesses. Key Takeaways Ã® Double-parking for loading/unloading may function well now, but as the community grows, it may be necessary to develop formal delivery or loading zone regulations for commercial vehicles. Ã® Certain industrial facilities can be used as a buffer against less desirable municipal uses. Ã® Innovative funding strategies (e.g., tax increment financing) can help planners improve streetscaping and improve walkability with limited resources. Relevant Strategies Ã® 1A: Define your communityâs goals Ã® 1B. Employ freight-compatible development Ã® 2F: Create âbuffersâ with setback and/or landscaping requirements Ã® 2H: Implement traffic-calming techniques to reduce conflict Ã® 2I: Use innovative financing techniques Ã® 4E: Adapt to changing market forces Table 4-2. Characteristics of Brady Arts District.
Case Studies 69 Figure 4-2. Location of Brady Arts District (Source: [top] ESRI; [bottom] Google Earth, 2016).
70 Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth environments built with retail and restaurants on the ground floor. Most of the current development is cen- tered on N. Main Street and points east. The Brady Arts District and the adjacent central business district to the south are gaining population. Over 500 apartment units have come into the downtown in the last few years, with approximately 140 in Brady and neighboring Greenwood. Approximately 1,000 units are either under construction or in planning in Tulsa, with more than 200 of them planned for the Brady/ Greenwood areas. Many of the industrial buildings that have characterized the district since the 1920s still remain, and some of them still house freight-generating businesses. In addition to dining and entertainment and proximity to downtown Tulsaâs central business district, the industrial char- acter and history of the Brady Arts District attracts visitors and residents, especially millennials. Housing options available or to be developed in the District include loft-style apartments and condominiums that are unlike the housing stock elsewhere in the region. There is a desire to retain the industrial character of the District. Availability of both Federal Investment Tax Credit and historic tax credits from the Oklahoma State Historic Preservation Office facilitated rehabilitation of older buildings, instead of building new construction. The two programs allow for a combined 40% reduction in cost for rehabilitation work on non-residential âcertified historic structuresâ (Tulsa Preservation Commission 2015). The City of Tulsa produced a Small Area Plan for the Brady Arts District and adopted it as part of the Cityâs Comprehensive Plan. The Small Area Plan establishes the long-term vision for the District. It describes the mix of business, residential, and entertainment facilities and activities that Figure 4-3. Annotated map of Brady Arts District (Source: Google Earth, 2016).
Case Studies 71 are likely to occur there. The Small Area Plan also establishes design and streetscape guidelines that will advance that vision as they are developed and implemented (see Figures 4-4 and 4-5). These guidelines set safety, aesthetic, and complete streets goals for streetscapes in the district and identify the need to expand the supply of on-street parking and to accommodate loading docks and utilities access as needed (City of Tulsa 2012). 4.1.3 Goods/Services Conditions and Results Industrial facilities in the district, including Borden Dairy, Baird Manufacturing Company, and L. A. King, produce goods ranging from dairy products to valves and regulators to sheet Figure 4-4. City of Tulsaâs streetscape guidelines for Brady Arts District (Source: City of Tulsa, OK). Figure 4-5. Streetscaping at Guthrie Green in downtown Brady (Source: Google Street View, May 2014).
72 Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth environments metal, insulation, ventilation products, and other goods used in manufacturing and construc- tion industries. In addition to these legacy businesses, newer businesses in the entertainment and food service industries generate freight in the form of food and product deliveries and waste disposal. The rehabilitation of older buildings and construction of new buildings generate move- ment of debris, construction materials, and equipment by truck. The overall view on retaining freight-generating industries was mixed. These industries pro- vide jobs and taxes to the neighborhood and help maintain the authentic industrial atmosphere. Industrial properties on the western edge of the District, including Borden Dairy, serve as a buffer by separating the main entertainment and residential areas from the Tulsa County Jail complex. On the other hand, some of the industrial properties in the District are considered âeyesores,â and, although few residents or other groups have complained about truck traffic or truck parking on or next to industrial properties, such conflicts could become common as the Districtâs residential population rises. The continued growth of residential and entertainment uses in the Brady Arts District could create conflict as growth spreads west in the neighborhood. For example, Borden Dairy leases a piece of land across from Brady Theater and uses it as a truck parking area (see Figure 4-6). This piece of land has been identified for conversion to residential or commercial use, with parking for Borden relocated to adjacent areas north or southwest of Brady. Relocating the truck park- ing could affect (1) Bordenâs ability to load and unload shipments efficiently and (2) current or future businesses or residents in the locations to which the parking would be moved. Deliveries to restaurants and retail establishments are not considered a significant issue. Many of the streets in the Brady Arts District are wide enough to accommodate double-parking during deliveries without traffic flow being affected substantially (see Figure 4-7). Some deliveries can or could use alleys established from former rail spurs or sidings that provided access to many of the industrial buildings when rail was the dominant mode of transportation (Farley 2015). Business representatives in the District stated that double-parking to make deliveries generally works for motor carriers and local businesses and is a generally accepted practice. However, this solution is a work in progress and does not meet the safety, aesthetic, and Complete Streets goals for the District to encourage more walking and bicycling. As the Brady Arts District continues to grow and the numbers of businesses, residents, vehicles, and pedestrians increase, district and Figure 4-6. Borden Dairy parking area adjacent to Brady Theater (Source: Cambridge Systematics).
Case Studies 73 city planners recognize there may be a need to revisit the issue and propose formal delivery or loading zone regulations in the future. Traffic-calming and streetscaping strategies have been used or are likely to be used in the District in the future, which reflects Strategy 2H to implement traffic-calming techniques to reduce conflict. Developers recognize that such improvements could, unintentionally, affect truck movements and/or loading/unloading, if they are not planned with input from business owners and other freight stakeholders. Coordination with multiple stakeholder groups will have to be undertaken to ensure that safety, beautification, and economic development goals can be accommodated. The developers, engineers, and business community in the District are generally pleased with the direction the Brady Arts District is heading and want to sustain momentum. Further infill and rehabilitation projects, the creation of a more diversified transportation infrastructure, increasing connections with the Greenwood neighborhood, and increasing the residential pop- ulation were all mentioned as key next steps. Balancing continued attraction of entertainment and cultural facilities (including the Oklahoma Museum of Popular Culture (OKPOP) which is scheduled to open in the District in 2018) with the needs of existing users will be integral in maintaining the âfeelâ of the District and promoting growth in the years to come (Tramel 2015). 4.1.4 Strategies and Critical Success Factors The success of the Brady Arts District has been attributed to the following critical success fac- tors. These can also serve as recommendations to communities facing similar problems. â¢ Identifying a champion. The Brady Arts District owes much of its success to the George Kaiser Family Foundation (GKFF) and the substantial contributions it has made to the neigh- borhood. Although not every location will have access to the financial resources available through the Foundation, the private-sector âchampionâ is generally credited with ensuring the success of the Districtâs revitalization to date. In locations where local government is not Figure 4-7. Box truck making a delivery in Brady while double-parked (Source: Cambridge Systematics).
74 Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth environments able or eager to drive change, the willingness of a private company or individual to push for adjustments can make the difference. For example, private funding for street trees or public events can produce momentum for larger initiatives. The ongoing development in the District is unfolding organically and is driven primarily by private-sector partners. â¢ Planning for all possible growth scenarios. This aligns with Strategy 1A, which encourages planners to define their communityâs goals. Developers, engineers, and local officials have all commented that the rate of change in the Brady Arts District was faster than expected. Elements of the Small Area Plan for the Brady Arts District may need to be implemented on a rapid schedule to keep pace with development and growth. Rapid growth could mean that street improvements that require inclusion in the Transportation Improvement Pro- gram (TIP), which is a list of priority transportation projects for the region as required by the federal government, may advance simultaneously instead of in a phased approach. In this scenario, the developers and the city will have to work with the MPO to (1) prioritize and phase projects and (2) determine whether all of the needs can be accommodated when other priorities in the region are taken into account in the TIP. â¢ Using industry as a buffer. For the western edge of the District, the Borden Dairy production facility acts as a buffer between the core of the Brady Arts District and less desirable munici- pal uses. This is related to Strategy 2F to create buffer zones to reduce the negative aspects of freight activity. The ability to see this freight-generating facility as an asset reduces tension between the legacy industrial businesses and newcomers. â¢ Recognizing that form and history matter. The industrial past of the Brady Arts District is generally considered a unique, valuable asset. Retaining the feel, if not always the function, has been critical in the Districtâs success. Good neighbor policies (such as keeping their sur- roundings clean and coordinating with the community to reduce noise, pollution, or traffic) can help legacy industrial businesses remain vital and desirable members of the community. Although not part of the current Draft Tulsa Zoning Code, the repeated emphasis on form over function may be an argument for using an FBC in other locations. â¢ Using innovative funding. This corresponds with Strategy 2I, which encourages planners to use innovative financing techniques to fund new development. Historic Tax Credits at both the Federal and State level were cited as invaluable resources in allowing the District to keep its historic feel. Brady was also the first Tax Increment Financing (TIF) District in Tulsa, formed in December 1993. TIF is a value-capture strategy in which municipalities divert future prop- erty tax revenue increases from a specific area toward economic development projects in the community. This designation allowed the George Kaiser Family Foundation (GKFF) and its engineers to pursue streetscaping activities with limited financial support from the City. These improvements have improved walkability in the neighborhood, further driving economic activity while maintaining an urban, industrial look. â¢ Understanding land ownership and industry trends. This parallels Strategy 4E, which encourages planners to adapt to changing market forces. Knowing the ownership status of properties (leased or owned, length of lease, etc.) helps inform future land use decisions. For example, as an area improves and property values increase, businesses that lease land may face different economic decisions than those that own their land. Rising property values may push leasing industrial uses out of an area as the rent becomes too high. However, businesses that own their land may not face this same issue. Understanding how every property in a neighborhood will react to this type of market condition is necessary in order to predict and guide future development. It is also important to have a sense of whether local industries are growing or declining to better anticipate changing land use needs. â¢ Ensuring communication among all stakeholders. Communication is essential to reducing tension between legacy industrial businesses and new restaurant/entertainment businesses and residents. The relationship between Borden Dairy and the City of Tulsa was strained for
Case Studies 75 years due to a conflict over the use of eminent domain for the municipal facilities just west of the Districtâthis situation illustrates the consequences of allowing communication to break down. â¢ Acknowledging that informal arrangements or work-arounds that suffice for now may have to be changed in the future. Deliveries to restaurants and retail in the Brady Arts Dis- trict are often achieved by double-parking the delivery vehicle on the road. The current traffic levels and street designs allow for this with minimum disruptions, and it is accepted practice among businesses in the District. However, most commercial drivers do not prefer this situa- tion because it raises the risk of crashes and receiving a ticket. The ability to double-park may shift as the community grows and delivery and transportation needs change. Anticipating and planning for this will allow for freight movement to continue with minimal disruptions to other users. 4.2 Ballard: Working Waterfronts Transitioning to Mixed-Use and/or Recreation Characteristics of the Ballard neighborhood are presented in Table 4-3. Characteristic Community Ballard neighborhood in Seattle, WA Smart Growth Classification Working waterfronts transitioning to mixed-use and/or recreation Context Originally a destination for lumber and shipping activities in Salmon Bay, northwest of Downtown Seattle, Ballard quickly became a major hub for the maritime industry. The neighborhood was affordable for local working class residents, but population grew dramatically by 2010. Land and housing prices have increased dramatically, putting pressure on the maritime industry and local residents. Stakeholders City of Seattle, State of Washington, maritime industry, local businesses, local residents, freight industry Key Issues Ã® Ballardâs increasing residential and mixed-use character is putting pressure on the remaining maritime industry. Ã® Land and housing prices near the waterfront have increased dramatically, affecting both industry and working class residents. Ã® Freight delivery to new business is challenging. Insufficient street geometry and lack of designated commercial loading zones pose a challenge to shippers. Key Takeaways Ã® The long-term viability of the maritime industry depends on whether the residents want to preserve it. Ã® Most streets should be âComplete Streets,â but in the core industrial area there are few options to incorporate elements such as protected bicycle lanes to safely accommodate nonmotorized users on one major truck route. In this rare instance, a âComplete Streetâ may not be needed or wanted and other routes may be improved to better connect nonmotorized users. Ã® Proper zoning and land use regulations are critical to retaining industry. Planners must be sure to close all zoning loopholes to avoid unwanted development. Relevant Strategies Ã® 1A: Define your communityâs goals Ã® 1B: Employ freight-compatible development Ã® 1F: Discourage incompatible land use development Ã® 2I: Use innovative financing techniques Ã® 3I: Identify and support route networks Ã® 4E: Adapt to changing market forces Description Table 4-3. Characteristics of Ballard neighborhood.
76 Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth environments 4.2.1 Context and History As with the industrial area transitioning environment, many working waterfront communi- ties are experiencing a similar transition, and conflicts among the operational and transporta- tion needs of legacy maritime industrial facilities and the needs of newly arriving residents and entertainment and services businesses can arise. The maritime industry (particularly legacy bulk cargo) has changed over the past several decades. Containerization changed how the waterfront is used and resulted in the consolidation of many maritime support services, leaving vacant waterfront parcels open for redevelopment. However, there is competition for access to the waterfront, and limited options for the maritime industry to relocate. The Ballard neighborhood in Seattle, WA, is a community seeking to balance the needs of businesses and residential interests and reap economic and quality-of-life benefits by accom- modating a robust maritime industry and a residential real estate boom. The Ballard neighborhood, about 6 miles northwest of downtown Seattle, runs along the north shore of Salmon Bay and the Fremont Cutâboth of which allow passage to Lake Unionâ north to approximately 85th Street and east from Shilshole Bay to approximately 3rd Ave NW (see Figures 4-8 and 4-9). Ballard was founded as an independent city in 1889 and was annexed by Seattle in 1907. Early development was oriented around a commercial center along Ballard Avenue and lumber and shipping activities on Salmon Bay, including shingle manufacturing and ship construction and repair. The 1910s saw an explosion in maritime industry with the creation of the Ballard Locks (1912â1917); the Ship Canal linking Puget Sound to Lake Wash- ington (1911â1934); and Fishermenâs Terminal, which has served as home to most of the North Pacific Fishing Fleet since 1914 (Ballard Historical Society 2015). Through most of the 20th century, Ballard was an affordable working-class neighborhood where many of the residents worked in local industries. However, rapid growth in housing and population in the neighborhoodâfrom approximately 38,500 in 1990 to approximately 44,000 in 2010âhas resulted in surging land and housing values and rising purchase and rental costs for residents (City of Seattle 2011). Since 2008, the average home price in Ballard is more expensive than the City as a whole. The Cityâs connection to the dot-com industry boom in the late 1990s changed land use patterns and led to a rise in young, higher wage workers entering the housing market, with many choosing to settle in Ballard. Today, Ballard is a diverse neighborhood that is home to various uses, including residential, commercial, retail, brewing and distilling, and light manufacturing, and a significant waterfront industrial presence that is heavily tied to the North Pacific Fishing Fleet (see Figure 4-10). In 1994, Seattleâs Comprehensive Plan designated most of the neighborhood as a Hub Urban Village (HUV) with mixed-use residential focus, but reserved the shoreline as part of the Ballard- Interbay Manufacturing/Industrial Center (MIC). These designations guide development within each areaâthe HUV accommodates employment and housing growth and MIC protects cur- rent and future industrial uses (Seattle 2005 a and b). Although the City recognizes the enormous role that the maritime industry has in the local, state, and national economies, Ballardâs increasingly residential and mixed-use character is put- ting pressure on remaining industries. One of the planning objectives identified in the City of Seattleâs Draft Urban Design Guide for Ballard is âprotecting and supporting Ballardâs industries and ensuring a balance between industrial, commercial, and residential growthâ (Seattle 2014b). Creating a balance between industry and mixed-use residential that supports the continued viability of the areaâs maritime industrial sector is ongoing. The Ballard Merchants Associa- tion and Ballard Chamber of Commerce also exist to strengthen the economic vitality of the neighborhood.
Case Studies 77 Figure 4-8. Location of Ballard neighborhood (Source: [top] ESRI; [bottom] Google Earth, 2016).
78 Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth environments 4.2.2 Application of Smart Growth Principles The Washington State Growth Management Act of 1990 resulted in the creation of the Puget Sound Regional Council and the drafting (in 1993) of Vision 2020, a regional growth strategy to combat sprawl. Vision 2020 inspired the Urban Village Strategy outlined in Seattleâs Comprehensive Plan, Toward a Sustainable Seattle (adopted in 1994) and the first compre- hensive plan for the city. The strategy is to accommodate growth and create a sustainable city by targeting increased density in those areas that can best support it. The strategy includes four categories: Urban Centers, Hub Urban Villages (HUVs), Residential Urban Villages, and Figure 4-9. Annotated map of Ballard neighborhood (Source: Google Earth, 2016). Figure 4-10. Waterfront industry in Ballard (Source: Cambridge Systematics).
Case Studies 79 Manufacturing/Industrial Centers (MICs). Urban Centers and MICs are regionally designated by the Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC). Urban villages are locally chosen and based on access to transit, existing development patterns, and capacity for growth. HUVs, like Ballard, are areas that offer goods and services, as well as access to jobs, through a balance of hous- ing and employment. The Crown Hill-Ballard Neighborhood Plan (adopted in 1998) picked up on this strategy to âexpand Crown Hill/Ballardâs image from a Scandinavian enclave to a family-friendly neighborhood that offers the best of Seattle livingâ (Crown Hills/Ballard Neigh- borhood Planning Organization 1998). The Urban Village Strategy was a key element in the 2005 Comprehensive Plan Update, which maintained Ballardâs HUV and MIC designations. Seattle 2035, the current Comprehensive Plan Update, states in the February 2014 Background Report that the plan has âsuccessfully guided three-quarters of the new housing to designated urban centers and urban villagesâ (Seattle 2014b). However, balancing this type of growth with the need to preserve local industries remains an important part of the ongoing planning efforts. In 2012, the Container Port Element was added to the Comprehensive Plan to specifically pro- tect marine cargo jobs and revenue along with vital freight connections (Seattle 2005b). In Ballard, the rise in residential uses and associated retail and commercial uses has created challenges for the industries that historically lined the south side of Shilshole Avenue and the waterfront. Rising land prices (resulting from higher assessed value for non-industrial uses of property and the increasing presence of adjacent residential and mixed-use) creates pressure for industrial owners to sell their land. This applies to waterfront industries and industry located further north off the water. However, unlike truck-served manufacturing companies that can relocate to anywhere with reasonable road access to suppliers and customers, few alternative waterfront sites are available to maritime industries. Despite this pressure on industry, the City of Seattle plans to maintain Industrial Buffer Zone (IB), Industrial Commercial Zone (IC), and Industrial General (IG2) zoning designations along the southeast portion of the District, along the waterfront. Depending on whether or not the community decides to preserve this industrial activity, these zoning plans could change. Industries along the waterfront also face challenges related to the Shoreline Master Pro- gram. The Shoreline Master Program governs land use and activities in the waterfront areas of Seattle and is managed by the city, as required by Washington Stateâs Shoreline Management Act of 1972 (WA GOV No Date). Seattleâs most recent Shoreline Master Program, which took effect in June 2015, includes some goals for the protection of maritime-based industry, such as requiring that no more than 20% of a waterfront urban industrial or urban maritime parcel can be used for non-water-dependent uses (such as machine shops and warehouses). Aspects of the program that protect view corridors and over-water shading present practical limits on the capability of water-dependent industrial businesses to grow or expand in place (Ballard District Council 2011). Local industrial businesses have raised concerns about additional pieces of city legislation, which make it difficult for industrial uses to maintain regular operations over time. These include â¢ City of Seattleâs Noise Code. Although noise-reducing berms, walls, and other features help address noise issues, owners of water-dependent industrial businesses are concerned that a growing population of residents and non-maritime businesses nearby could expose them to more complaints. â¢ Business Occupancy Tax, City of Seattle, tax on gross revenue over $100,000 (0.215%), which several business owners have stated is burdensome (City of Seattle 2015). Although this tax applies to all businesses in the City, industrial uses tend to have high gross revenue based on the products they produce, even if their net revenue is much lower due to the high cost of operation. Industrial uses in Ballard cannot easily relocate to avoid this tax because they rely on access to water.
80 Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth environments 4.2.3 Goods/Services Conditions and Results Most of the truck movement in the Ballard neighborhood is performing one of two dutiesâ delivering food and goods to businesses, restaurants, and residences; or transporting larger quantities of freight to/from maritime businesses on the shoreline (see Figure 4-11). Three major goods movement issues are â¢ Street geometry. Goods movement in the neighborhood is complicated by awkward road geometry in some areas. Several shippers in the neighborhood are using smaller box trucks to deliver to/from their facilities in the neighborhood. For some shippers, the use of smaller box trucks is safer, but can generate more truck trips and transportation cost due to the reduced carrying capacity. This tradeoff is considered a âbusiness decisionâ that businesses in the neighborhood must make. â¢ Insufficient supply of designated commercial loading zones and insufficient enforcement of parking regulations in the existing designated loading zones. The City conducts a study of commercial loading zone use and possible adjustments to street parking schemes when streets are repaved, but when the mix of business and residential facilities changes between paving cycles, conflicts can arise. â¢ Access roads between the waterfront and Shilshole Avenue are steep in places, with limited sight lines due to trees, buildings, and parked cars. These obstacles have become worrisome in recent years, because growing numbers of bicyclists, pedestrians, and other traffic in the neighborhood increase the risk of collisions. The proposed extension of the Burke-Gilman bicycle trail near the Ballard waterfront could introduce more conflicts between truck and bicycle/pedestrian traffic. The City of Seattleâs Department of Transportationâs Freight Master Plan and Freight Access Project together represent efforts that the city is taking to work with regional and state agencies, private stakeholders, and the public to identify freight transportation assets and improvements that will aid economic activity and reduce community and environmental impacts. The Freight Master Plan may provide some aid for the manufacturing industries in Ballard by better defin- ing and recognizing a truck freight network, including crucial first/last-mile connectors that serve businesses or intermodal facilities. The Freight Access Project includes a prioritized list of projects that improve safety, mobility, and connectivity to and from the waterfront industrial area of Ballard, among other industrial areas throughout the City. Sources for the project list include projects identified in previous city plans and studies, the MPOâs RTP, and Washington State DOTâs State Rail Plan (Seattle DOT 2015a and 2015b). Figure 4-11. Development potential for Ballard neighborhood (Source: Ballard Existing Conditions Report).
Case Studies 81 Although significant efforts have been made to retain waterfront industrial businesses and preserve the maritime industry in Ballard, long-term viability of the maritime industry will depend on the residents of the community recognizing and voicing their desire to preserve the industry. Changes to the Cityâs zoning code to encourage preservation of the industrial area and avoid conflicts with residential or other encroaching incompatible property types must be sup- ported by the community at large. 4.2.4 Strategies and Critical Success Factors This case study recognized that much work needs to be done in Ballard to ensure that the needs of the legacy industrial businesses along the waterfront and the needs of the burgeoning residential and entertainment district can be met without harming the character of the neigh- borhood. Some strategies have been implemented, but several need to be implemented in order to achieve that goal. Such strategies include â¢ Raising the profile of the vitality of the maritime industry, its unique characteristics and needs, and its value to the city, state, and nation. Freight remains a hidden part of the econ- omy; most people do not think about supply chains, freight logistics, and support industries needed to get product to a consumer. That disconnect makes it difficult for the public to have sympathy toward freight-generating industries. In communities with legacy industry, it is important for residents to decide whether the industry still adds value, or if relocation is preferred, which could result in greater distances between local residents and their place of work. The Ballard Maritime Academy program at Ballard High School, for example, focuses on preparing students for careers in maritime industries and raises the communityâs aware- ness of career paths in these industries and of the economic benefit these industries bring to the community. The Ballard Maritime Academy is a partnership between private industry, the Seattle Public Schools, and Seattle Central College (public). Other methods to engage the pub- lic and foster broader understanding the importance of industry to their lives could include open houses, and an âindustry education dayâ at local restaurants or community festivals, where the source of the food customers are eating and the role local businesses play in deliver- ing that food could be explained. For example, customers could be informed that the fish they are consuming was caught by a vessel powered by fuel delivered by Ballard Oil, which receives its supply via Shilshole Avenue. â¢ Acknowledging the need to think creatively about housing and how people decide where to live and work. Businesses could offer incentives for employees to live closer to work. This has multiple benefits, including reduced commuting, a better socioeconomic mix in the neigh- borhood, and establishing a residential community that is more closely tied to the industry in the area. Only 6% of the residents in Ballard live and work in the area (Seattle 2014a). The neighborhood is appealing to commuters to downtown Seattle, particularly those in white collar jobs in the tech industry. Housing is generally renter-occupied (71% of all units in 2010) and concentrated in three census tracts in the south-most portion of the District. The City of Seattle classifies this area as an HUV (Seattle 2014a). Figures 4-12 and 4-13 provide additional information about development potential and land uses. â¢ Understanding the potential short-, mid-, and long-term issues of businesses served by the waterfront. This aligns with Strategy 4E, which encourages cities to adapt to changing market forces. A working waterfront is only as valuable as the businesses that rely on it. The needs of the maritime industry reflect whether businesses are consolidating or expanding and plans for the waterfront need to reflect this as well. For example, a railyard may be necessary to support local waterfront businesses in the short term, but may become dormant as those same businesses move, consolidate, or close. â¢ Considering implementing a maritime industrial land savings program similar to agri- cultural land bank programs to preserve industrial areas with deep water access. This
82 Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth environments Figure 4-12. Commercial development with curbside on-street delivery (Source: Cambridge Systematics). would parallel Strategy 2I as an innovative financing technique to help fund development to achieve this goal. â¢ Improving wayfinding. Business representatives have reported the lack of wayfinding in the area, especially compared to what is available for bicycle infrastructure. Lack of wayfinding makes it difficult for trucks to know which streets are supposed to be used to access local businesses or where are safe places to turn around without hampering other road users.
Case Studies 83 â¢ Acknowledging that not every street should be a Complete Street for every user. This cor- responds with Strategy 3I, which suggests planners identify and support route networks. Streets that serve primarily industrial uses (such as Shilshole Avenue) have needs that are difficult to incorporate with Complete Streets. Geometric constraints and sight-line issues were specifically mentioned as freight needs that are sometimes sacrificed in Complete Street designs. Seattle is drafting a Freight Master Plan, which may recognize the need to prioritize truck access on some streets, while others are designed to prefer bicycles and pedestrians. Although Complete Streets are customizable, not every street in a smart growth environment needs to be a Complete Street. For example, a major industrial access route may not be suited to transit use. Similarly, designing a small residential street to accommodate large trucks may be inappropriate. â¢ Improving interagency coordination. The Seattle DOT and the Seattle Department of Plan- ning and Development are working to provide site guidelines and review to better accom- modate freight access to new or retrofitted buildings. â¢ Understanding that land use zoning is integral to retaining industry. This lesson would be best supported by Strategy 1A, which involves defining the communityâs goals. One mistake cited by area businesses was a degradation of buffer zones in Ballard between industry and Figure 4-13. Industrial land use (blue) surrounded by commercial (red/orange) and residential (brown/yellow) in Ballard (Source: Ballard existing conditions report).
84 Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth environments commercial/residential areas, allowing for increased encroachment by uses that do not inter- act well with industry. This was partially an attempt to simplify the zoning code and partially an attempt to attract tech companies to the region. An important lesson from Ballardâs expe- rience is for planners to review zoning regulations and close any loopholes that may result in unwanted or incompatible development. â¢ Acknowledging that rising land prices create a dilemma for freight-intensive uses. As land prices rise around industrial uses due to conversion to mixed-use, the industrial users want to be protected from economic pressure to change the character of the neighborhood to a âhigher and best use.â However, they also want to benefit from the rise in land prices if they decide to sell their property. Increases in land or housing costs can affect the job-housing balance, forcing working-class laborers to travel further to their place of work. In 2010, 40% of households in Ballard paid more than 30% of their total income on rent (Seattle 2014a). 4.3 Over-the-Rhine (OTR): Older Commercial and Neighborhood Areas Being Revitalized Characteristics of Over-the-Rhine are presented in Table 4-4. Community Over-the-Rhine (OTR) neighborhood in Cincinnati, OH Smart Growth Classification Older commercial and neighborhood areas being revitalized Context Small neighborhood just north of downtown Cincinnati. By the early 1900s, the neighborhood was inhabited by working-class German-Americans and had a mix of residential and industrial uses (e.g., breweries, barrel making, bottle production, distribution, and shipping). A combination of factors led to urban disinvestment and a deep decline of the OTR neighborhood. Since the early 2000s, the City and local community organizations have tried to revitalize the neighborhood with residential, entertainment, and retail development. Stakeholders Cincinnati Center City Development Corporation (3CDC), The City of Cincinnati, local businesses (particularly Rhinegeist and Findlay Market), local residents, freight industry Key Issues Ã® The neighborhood is in transition and rebuilding to become an economically and racially diverse community; however, OTR still has a significant number of abandoned or dilapidated properties. Ã® Most deliveries take place using general street parking spaces, despite the availability of some designated curbside loading zones. Many of the loading zones are not located to allow easy access to businesses. As revitalization continues, street parking may not be as easily available in the future. Ã® Construction vehicles often block traffic, and larger vehicles have difficulty navigating narrow streets. Key Takeaways Ã® Time-of-day access control allows trucks to make deliveries during early morning hours while allowing the streets to remain open to pedestrians during prime hours. Ã® Loading zones are more likely to be used if they are placed strategically near businesses. In addition, metered parking may encourage trucks to use the loading zones instead of parking spaces. Ã® Urban development corporations, such as 3CDC, can help spur economic development and revitalization in struggling cities. 3CDC promotes the interests of the neighborhood while using funding from both the private and public sectors. Relevant Strategies Ã® 2B: Establish designated curbside loading zones Ã® 2I: Use innovative financing techniques Ã® 4B: Provide technical assistance to local planners Ã® 4E: Adapt to changing market forces Ã® 4F: Determine ways to measure and monitor performance Characteristic Description Table 4-4. Characteristics of Over-the-Rhine.
Case Studies 85 4.3.1 Context and History Over-the-Rhine (OTR) is a 360-acre neighborhood in Cincinnati, OH, just north of the downtown business district (see Figures 4-14 and 4-15). The construction of the Miami & Erie Canal in 1828 linked the Ohio River to the Great Lakes and turned Cincinnati into a trading hub, drawing mostly German immigrants to the area just north of the canal or âOver the Rhineâ from downtown (Over-the-Rhine Chamber of Commerce No Date). By the turn of the century, the population was mostly working-class German-Americans with a mixture of residential and industrial uses in the neighborhood, focused around a thriving brewery business and off-shoot industries such as barrel making, bottle production, distribution, and shipping. Anti-German sentiment during and immediately following World War I, combined with Prohibition, led to the closure of many of the breweries and other businesses and a related loss in population. An influx of people during the Depressionâprimarily from Appalachiaâagain raised the population and shifted the character of the neighborhood. The construction of Inter- states I-71 and I-75 in the 1950s and 1960s displaced a large number of African Americans, many of whom settled in OTR. Suburbanization and urban disinvestment that occurred through most of the latter half of the 20th Century contributed to the decline of the neighborhood. OTR became synonymous with poverty and crime in Cincinnati. Although the efforts of groups and individuals, including the Over-the-Rhine Foundation, helped to slow the decline and stabilize parts of the neighborhood in the 1990s, OTR remained an overlooked section of the City (Over- the-Rhine Chamber of Commerce No Date). In 2001, the police shooting of an unarmed African American in OTR sparked demonstra- tions and riots. These riots and acknowledgment of conditions in the neighborhood drew the attention of both private- and public-sector leadership who decided to invest time and resources in restoring OTR. 4.3.2 Application of Smart Growth Principles The City of Cincinnatiâs 2002 Over-the-Rhine Comprehensive Plan and the creation of the Cincinnati Center City Development Corporation (3CDC) in 2003 have been the guiding vision and driving force behind the transformation of the neighborhood. The plan aimed to ârebuild the housing and economic infrastructure of the neighborhood in a way that will create an eco- nomically and racially diverse community that can be sustained over the long term.â The 3CDC has provided the guidance and financial tools that have led OTR to becoming one of the most vibrant neighborhoods in the City. While work is ongoing in many parts of the neighborhood, residents are confident that the initial successes will spread. In 2010, OTR was home to just over 6,000 residents; it is estimated to have risen to around 8,000 since then. The southern end of the neighborhood (below Liberty Street) contains mixed-use development based around entertainment and small retail, especially on Vine Street, Main Street, and the area around Washington Park. This section of the neighborhood has seen the most revitalization, with Washington Park (renovated in 2012) considered one of the major successes. Washington Park provides a central point for the neighborhood, offers a wide variety of programs and activities, provides underground parking, and attracts people to the neighborhood. Most of the major freight-reliant industries (Christian Moerlein and Rhinegeist breweries, Findlay Market, Rookwood Pottery Company) are in the northern part of the neighborhood, an area that still has some abandoned or dilapidated propertiesâan issue that 3CDC is heavily involved in through its role as a land bank. The entire neighborhood is part of the National Register of Historic Places due to its heavy concentration of Italianate Architecture.
86 Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth environments Figure 4-14. Location of Over-the-Rhine (Source: [top] ESRI; [bottom] Google Earth, 2016).
Case Studies 87 4.3.3 Goods/Services Conditions and Results Most of the goods movement issues in OTR center on deliveries to restaurants, bars, and some of the small businesses. Beyond these, the heaviest producers of freight are the breweries, Kroger Grocery store, and Findlay Market. Adjacent freight generators, including a large Samuel Adams distribution facility on the western edge of the neighborhood, produce some traffic on major roads such as US 27 which borders the western edge of OTR and Liberty Street. Many of the delivery vehicles working in the neighborhood are not full tractor-trailer combinations due to the geometry and relatively narrow streets in OTR, where the typical right-of-way is 65 feet (see Figure 4-16). One exception to this is trucks bringing goods to Kroger. The grocery store has a loading dock that trucks can back up to and be out of the main flow of traffic, but the maneu- vering required to dock can block traffic on Vine Street for several minutes as trucks back into and pull out of the loading dock. Both Christian Moerlein Brewing and Rhinegeist have loading docks that allow large vehicles to get out of traffic. Rhinegeist almost exclusively uses Sprinter vans for distribution, which can navigate narrow streets and small parking areas easily. Most deliveries take place using street parking, which is a problem given the narrow streets and short blocks in central OTR. There are some loading zones throughout the neighborhood, but these are not always conveniently located. As a result, some trucks use regular parking spaces or double-park. Many of the north-south oriented streets are one-way, which provides space for vehicles to pass parked trucks without worrying about oncoming traffic. Many users, including pedestrians, bicyclists, and delivery vehicles, prefer one-way streets, but some one-way streets Figure 4-15. Annotated map of Over-the-Rhine (Source: Google Earth, 2016).
88 Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth environments can be problematic for public bus routes and retailers, who tend to favor two-way streets. One- way streets that are properly designed and managed can support smart growth. 4 Entertainment Group, which runs some restaurants in the neighborhood, mentioned that most of its deliv- eries occur in off-peak hours, between 9 AM and 3 PM, with trucks using on-street parking. On-street parking or loading zones can be effective as long as they remain available for truck use and are large enough to allow trucks to use them. In addition to being among the top destinations in the City, Findlay Market is a major attractor for freight activity. Fresh produce must move into the market daily, which draws several trucks to the area. Because of high pedestrian activity throughout the day, the streets immediately next to the market are closed to vehicle traffic after 10 AM. Metal gates swing over the road to block vehicles from entering the area around the market. If trucks want to deliver directly to the vendors, they must arrive before 10 AM. Later deliveries must use the parking spots on nearby streets and move the goods to the Market by hand. Findlay Market is working on building an incubator kitchen across the street that will include a large cold storage area. When opened, this facility could decrease the frequency of truck deliveries to the market by allowing some vendors to store goods and retrieve them as needed using handcarts or other non-motorized methods, instead of relying on daily truck deliveries. Given that it is a revitalizing area, construction vehicles are also a constant presence in the neighborhood, with many active projects for building stabilization, rehabilitation, and new construction. Construction vehicles block traffic on the streets where they are operating. The narrow roads and tight intersections also make it difficult for construction vehicles to reach projectsâsome equipment has difficulty navigating turns due to the street corner geometry and presence of parked cars. The Cincinnati Streetcar is scheduled to begin operating in 2016 on tracks that run past Find- lay Market, Rookwood Pottery, and Rhinegeist Brewery. Some view the streetcar as an ongoing project that already has caused limited issues and may cause more problems in the future. One of the maintenance and operation shops for the streetcar will be next to Rhinegeist. Once the streetcar is running, timing conflicts between delivery vehicles and the streetcar will need to be worked out, but the business has been an excellent neighbor and worked well with the City to reduce these conflicts. First, the City worked with Rhinegeistâs requests to restrict construction Figure 4-16. Narrow streets in central Over-the-Rhine (Source: Cambridge Systematics).
Case Studies 89 activity during key pickup and delivery hours for the brewery so as to minimize disruption and delays. In addition, Rhinegeist agreed to contribute $5,000 a year toward the streetcar in exchange for a tax abatement from the city that is valued at over $65,000 over a 10-year period (Coolidge and Bowdeya 2014). Once the streetcar is operating, loading zone locations may need to be moved in order to keep delivery vehicles from blocking the streetcarâs path when parked. Consolidation of these zones into a single area is also a possibility (Steigerwald 2015). Waste collection is another commercial vehicle activity that affects the neighborhood (see Figure 4-17). Trash is picked up every week throughout the City of Cincinnati, and recycling and yard waste are collected every other week on the same day as regular trash collection. These vehicles often create traffic issues when blocking the narrow streets that make up most the neighborhoodâs street types. Some businesses consolidate their waste, thus reducing how many individual stops trucks must make. Because of the historic nature of the district, many busi- nesses do not have locations immediately next to their buildings to dispose of waste. Attendees mentioned this activity will likely need to increase as more businesses and residents enter the neighborhood. Locals are excited by the future of the neighborhood. They foresee a continued potential for managed and targeted growth in both population and more mixed-use development, with small-scale retail and entertainment as the key target groups. They also hope to spread the new development and success focused in the southern section of the neighborhood toward the north, with the streetcar acting as an economic driver. 4.3.4 Strategies and Critical Success Factors Several key tools and lessons were identified as part of this project. Although not all are directly related to freight movement, they are all important in the development of the neighborhood, Figure 4-17. Waste collection in Findlay Market (Source: Cambridge Systematics).
90 Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth environments and the resulting growth affects demand for goods and the network on which the movement and delivery of goods takes place. â¢ Time-of-day access control. The Findlay Market allows trucks to access the streets directly next to stalls in the market and make deliveries directly to vendors during the morning, before 10 AM. Most deliveries occur between 7 AM and 10 AM. After this time, trucks must park on adjacent streets and deliver goods by hand (see Figure 4-18). This allows the area to remain a vibrant, pedestrian-focused location during busy lunchtime and afternoon hours, while giving delivery companies and vendors options on the best way to access goods. Once the streetcar begins operations, some of the most convenient on-street parking locations for delivery will be unavailable, thus requiring trucks that deliver after 10 AM to find loading zones farther away. â¢ Reliable truck data. This aligns with Strategy 4F, which suggests planners find methods to measure helpful qualitative or quantitative data. The Kroger store in OTR has a loading dock specifically for off-street truck deliveries, but the maneuvering required to dock can block traf- fic on Vine Street for several minutes as trucks back into and pull out of the loading dock. Data on truck trip generation would help transportation planners in Cincinnati understand how often trucks need to access the loading dock and what time-of-day it most often occurs, thereby enabling more practical design concepts for local roadways. â¢ Strategic placement of loading zones. This idea complements Strategy 2B, which suggests establishing designated curbside loading zones. Strategically placed loading zones allow trucks access to businesses. Maintaining these parking spaces available for commercial use is a challenge and participants noted that better enforcement may be needed in the future, as businesses and residents continue to locate in the neighborhood. The City is examining the use of floating zones, where commercial loading and unloading is allowed during the day and regular parking is allowed in the evening to allow greater flexibility and shared use of valuable and in-demand on-street parking spaces. The City is also discussing increasing the number of metered parking locations in the neighborhood in order to better control parking issues and encourage the use of nearby parking structures by automobiles. â¢ Cooperation to achieve common goals. Of note was a universal convivial approach among the various stakeholder groups and a shared philosophy and commitment to communicating and working together to solve the inevitable issues of growth. All acknowledged that growth and development are needed, and all acknowledged that growth brings some challenges. Rec- ognizing that everyone shares the goal of wanting the neighborhood to succeed, stakeholder Figure 4-18. Hand-cart delivery in Findlay Market (Source: Cambridge Systematics).
Case Studies 91 groups must be willing to discuss issues and work together to find solutions. One example of this cooperation is between Rhinegeist and the City. The new streetcar line runs past the brewery; construction and future operation of the line have affected the ability of trucks to access the brewery. Rhinegeist and the City have worked together to find solutions that allow both parties to accomplish their respective goals and are in constant communication about future operations and needs. Good neighbor policies implemented by businesses are a key component in achieving the balance and communication needed to make a dense, vibrant, and, at times, chaotic urban neighborhoods thrive, especially when it comes to noise concerns from current and future tenants. â¢ Waste consolidation. Some locations in the neighborhood consolidate their waste disposal locations, thereby reducing the number of stops that trucks must make to collect waste. Although it increases the initial distance employees must travel to remove waste, reducing the truck traffic and its effects on traffic in the neighborhood is worth the effort. Neighbor- hood businesses speak with the waste collection companies and work together to find times and locations that are convenient for all parties and that limit the noise impact to surrounding residents. â¢ Flexible and adaptable planning. Both flexibility and the ability to change direction if things are not working out are needed. Although having an overall direction and plan has proven valuable to the renaissance of Over-The-Rhine (the 2002 Comprehensive Plan is still the guid- ing document for redevelopment efforts and community planning in the district), both gov- ernment and private companies must be willing to adapt and discuss and find new solutions if something is not working. Communication with residents is also critical to the districtâs overall success in that it can help alert other stakeholders to situations that are not working well and are a crucial resource in developing initial plans. â¢ Effect of an Urban Development Corporation. This idea complements both Strategy 4B and Strategy 2I, which suggest providing technical assistance to local planners and using innovative financing techniques, respectively. The recent vibrancy in the neighborhood was largely credited to 3CDC, the Cityâs non-profit development corporation dedicated specifi- cally to this neighborhood. 3CDC promotes the interests of the entire neighborhood and blends funding from both public and private sources to leverage city-owned land-banked properties. Although not directly related to freight movement, the organization takes a âbig- pictureâ approach to development in the neighborhood, advocating for policies and practices, such as waste consolidation, that benefit the neighborhood as a whole. 3CDC wears several hats: developer, land bank, and lender. With the sizeable roll of city-owned properties in OTR, 3CDC has been able to stabilize, manage, and redevelop buildings and properties that other- wise might continue to decline. The singular purpose and geographic scope that 3CDC has been charged with allows the organization to focus resources and act as an âhonest brokerâ for the entire neighborhood and make considerable strides that have resulted in the successful revitalization of one of the largest historic districts in the country. A single organization pos- sessing the resources and responsibilities of the 3CDC is uncommon and could be effective in other communities. 4.4 Glens Falls: Retrofitting Aging Commercial Corridors Characteristics of Glens Falls are presented in Table 4-5. 4.4.1 Context and History Glens Falls is in Warren County, NY, approximately 50 miles north of Albany (see Fig- ures 4-19 and 4-20). With an estimated 2013 population of 14,552 and covering just less than 4 square miles, it is a small city surrounded by suburban and rural areas. US Route 9, named
92 Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth environments Glen Street locally, runs through the middle of the downtown core and is a major commuting route through the city (US Census Bureau No Date). US Route 9, a State highway that runs parallel to I-87 (a major corridor throughout New York State) also serves freight users as the local access route to many commercial and retail businesses as well as major freight generators, including Finch Paper LLC, the Glens Falls Hospital, Flomatic Corporation, and SCA Tissue North America. Glens Falls Hospital relies heavily on Route 9 for emergency vehicles to access the site quickly and efficiently. This case study focuses on the Glen Street corridor through downtown Glens Falls, includ- ing Centennial Circle, a roundabout completed in May 2007 that serves as a focal point for the downtown and is considered a key component in the revitalization of the corridor. Running through a smaller urban area with a mix of uses and users as well as regular and diverse freight traffic, Glens Fallsâ successful revitalization project can provide lessons and tools for similar communities. Characteristic Description Community Route 9 (Glen Street) in Glens Falls, NY Smart Growth Classification Retrofitting aging commercial corridors Context The only case study bisected by a major highway, Glens Falls has a unique set of freight access issues. The Route 9 corridor is approximately 1 mile and runs through the heart of Glens Falls. It is a State highway, parallel to I-87, and is a major commuting route through the city, as well as a local access route for freight vehicles. The Corridor features a 5-way intersection, which was redeveloped into a roundabout in 2007. The project had a highly positive effect on traffic flow, pedestrian safety, and freight access into downtown Glens Falls. Stakeholders City of Glens Falls, Creighton Manning Engineering, MPO, local businesses, local residents, freight industry Key Issues Ã® Glen Streetâs 5-way intersection had numerous issues, including long pedestrian crossings, long vehicle queues, and high crash rates. It was perceived as unsafe for pedestrians and avoided by local fire and emergency response. Large trucks and freight vehicles often backed up at this intersection and had difficulty making deliveries. Ã® Pedestrians are exposed to a greater risk of being struck by a motor vehicle when crossing from the median to the sidewalk. Liability exists for drivers who park in the median should an incident occur. Ã® The presence of trucks in the center median may reduce visibility for pedestrians trying to cross mid block. Key Takeaways Ã® Anticipate all possible scenarios in planning and design. Ã® The roundabout solution reduced delays, despite increases in traffic volumes. It also addressed safety and congestion issues. The roundabout is credited with spurring revitalization to the area with investment in mixed-use developments, apartments, office space, and retail space. Ã® A flush median design between travel lanes serves several purposes. It splits traffic, serves as a safe area for delivery vehicles to load and unload freight, and allows the driver to avoid competing with automobiles in the flow of traffic and so reduces the need for curbside delivery space. Relevant Strategies Ã® 1A: Define your communityâs goals Ã® 1B: Employ freight-compatible development Ã® 2E: Design safe and flexible intersections Ã® 2H: Implement traffic-calming techniques to reduce conflict Ã® 4B: Provide technical assistance to local planners Ã® 4E: Adapt to changing market forces Table 4-5. Characteristics of Glens Falls.
Case Studies 93 Figure 4-19. Location of Route 9 study area in Glens Falls (Source: [top] ESRI; [bottom] Google Earth, 2016).
94 Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth environments Route 9 through downtown Glens Falls is over 100 years old and has served as the âmain streetâ for the city for decades. Urban renewal during the 1950s and 60s transformed the route into a one-way thoroughfare to facilitate the movement of automobile traffic. This focus on vehicle throughput created a corridor inhospitable to pedestrians. With the completion of I-87 west of the City, the construction of the Aviation Mall in nearby Queensbury in 1975, and other socioeconomic trends, including a reduction in urban population, businesses in the cor- ridor suffered. Route 9 was returned to two-way operation in the 1990s, which increased access to the downtown shops but created a five-way intersection with Warren Street, Ridge Street, and Hudson Avenue at the southern end of the downtown business district. Issues with the inter- section included â¢ Long pedestrian crossings, including a 90-foot crossing on the southern leg of Route 9 that created a physical and psychological barrier between different sections of the City; â¢ Long vehicle queues with 140-second signal phases caused delay for both passenger and freight vehicles; and â¢ High incident rates due to the multiple movements at the intersection and the long wait times. Because of these issues, the Glen Street corridor was perceived as unsafe for pedestrians. Traffic performance at the intersection delayed commuters, visitors, and deliveries and created emergency response issues. The local fire department, for example, routed response vehicles differently to avoid the intersection at certain times of the day. These safety and operational Figure 4-20. Annotated map of Route 9 study area in Glens Falls (Source: Google Earth, 2016).
Case Studies 95 issues convinced local stakeholders and state transportation officials that a different solution was needed. 4.4.2 Application of Smart Growth Principles The City of Glens Falls led a study of alternatives to improve the safety, congestion, and visual aesthetic of the Glen Street Corridor, with New York State DOT participating in the study. Nine alternatives were initially considered. Options included a return to one-way traf- fic, modifying the signal timing, various roundabout configurations (including a return to one-way traffic), and the closure of Hudson Avenue at the intersection. Beginning in 2004, 26 outreach meetings were conducted in the community to solicit ideas and feedback on the various options. New York State DOTâs Highway Design Manual encourages that roundabout alternatives be analyzed when reconstructing or constructing new intersections on the state highway system to determine if they are feasible solutions (NYSDOT 2011). For this reason, a roundabout alterna- tive was evaluated, and, ultimately, a roundabout alternative in combination with a two-way traffic pattern on Glen Street emerged as the only alternative that addressed safety and conges- tion issues (see Figure 4-21). US Route 9/Glen Street from the roundabout and heading northwest has an 11-ft-wide travel lane in both directions with on-street parallel parking on both sides and a flush median between the travel lanes. The flush median was a conscious design decision based in part on concerns from the business community about access for delivery vehicles. The corridor has many retail and commercial establishments, including banks, a theater, a brewery, a movie theater, restau- rants, businesses, and offices. Just south of the roundabout is the Glens Falls Civic Center, which hosts concerts, shows, graduation ceremonies, and sporting events. Bicyclists, pedestrians, tran- sit, service vehicles, and trucks all use the corridor regularly. The roundabout and accompanying streetscape project is viewed as the catalyst for revitaliza- tion in downtown Glens Falls. Streetscape improvements along Glen Street and adjacent and adjoining streets stemmed from the initial Glen Street Corridor Study and have enjoyed general support from area businesses and residents. Previous Conditions Current Conditions Figure 4-21. Five-way intersection converted to roundabout, Route 9 (Glen Street) (Source: Creighton Manning Engineering).
96 Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth environments The roundabout and streetscaping has also driven private investment in the business district, including a $25 million mixed-use development a block west of the corridor that is expected to begin in the Fall of 2015. This project will add 90 market-rate apartments; 40,000 square feet of retail space; 9,000 square feet of office space; and approximately 500 off-street parking spots that will serve the adjacent hospital and the downtown (Pinckney 2015). The infrastructure investment at the roundabout and in the corridor is a key factor in attracting this investment. 4.4.3 Goods/Services Conditions and Results Traffic volumes increased 20% in the year following construction of the roundabout while delays have decreased (Thompson 2008.). A survey of the âbeforeâ (2006 pre-construction) and âafterâ (2008 post-construction) conditions of the intersection showed that the level of service (LOS)1 increased substantially, from an overall of LOS F to an overall of LOS C after construction. The overall delay also decreased by approximately 85 seconds. In addition, safety conditions at the intersection improved following construction of the roundabout. A compar- ison of crash data from before and after the roundabout showed an immediate decrease in crashes (Creighton Manning 2008). Qualitative evidence from business owners and emergency responders indicated that pedestrian traffic has surged and that crashes in the corridor and at the intersection are down. It is estimated that 350 to 400 residential units have been constructed in the downtown in the past 4 years. The corridor accommodates various commercial vehicles daily. Service vehicles, emergency vehicles, local delivery vehicles, box trucks, and large semi-trailers all use the corridor and roundabout. US Route 9 also serves as an alternate route for oversize/overweight vehicles (such as shipments of wind turbine blades) that must detour from I-87 due to bridge restrictions. The corridor and roundabout can accommodate the large trucks carrying timber that occa- sionally stray from other routes to manufacturing facilities in the area and end up on Route 9 by mistake. The initial draft plans called for a raised center median with landscaping along Glen Street. Due to concerns from emergency responders and the local business community regarding the potential for double-parked or disabled vehicles to disrupt the flow of traffic on a single lane in each direction, the plans eliminated the raised center median and selected a flush center median with stamped asphalt and brick color treatment instead. Delivery vehicles often use the space to park while making deliveries (see Figure 4-22), though this was not the intended purpose for the center median, and no signs or pavement markings recommend the practice. Although several businesses in the corridor have access to off-street parking behind the build- ings, the geometry of the off-street lots makes access by some commercial vehicles impossible. The center median provides those vehicles with another option. During the site visit, trucks were observed parking in the center median while the drivers used mid-block crosswalks to cross the traffic lane with loaded handcarts (see Figure 4-22). This practice has both positive and potentially negative implications. By parking in the flush center median, delivery vehicles are out of the flow of traffic and are not competing with auto- mobiles or other users for the limited supply of curbside parking space. By crossing the traffic lane on foot, even in a marked crosswalk, the driver is exposed to a greater risk of being struck 1Six level of service (LOS) categories reflect the calculated volume-to-capacity ratio on any given corridor. A score of âAâ indicates free flow traffic, âBâ indicates steady traffic, âCâ indicates limited steady traffic, âDâ indicates steady traffic at a high density, âEâ indicates traffic at saturation (uniform but low speed), and âFâ indicates congestion. (Source: Transportation Research Board (1994) Highway Capacity Manual, 3rd Edition, p. 3-9.)
Case Studies 97 by a motor vehicle. Drivers also risk liability for parking in the median if an incident involv- ing a pedestrian or motor vehicle happens. Further, the presence of the truck in the center median could reduce the visibility of those pedestrians using the mid-block crosswalks to pass- ing motorists, decreasing the safety and walkability of downtown Glens Falls. Further, the design vehicle for the roundabout was the local fire departmentâs largest emer- gency vehicle, with the expectation that 53-ft-long tractor-trailers and overdimensional vehicles would use an alternate system of designated truck routes that bypass the central area of the city. Although large trucks were not desired or anticipated in the design, the facility has to accom- modate those vehicles on occasion. Either by necessity or driver error, large trucks occasionally travel along Glen Street toward the roundabout. Fortunately, the trucks can navigate the circle, but, given acute intersection angles, they must make a loop around the circle to make some turn- ing movements. Signs have been posted to direct truck drivers (see Figure 4-23). MPO staff and the Cityâs engineers suggested that the âdriving cultureâ of Glens Falls was changed after this project was implemented, and, therefore, the risk to pedestrians is much lower today, thereby making the unique parking/delivery situation effective. Travel speeds in the cor- ridor have been reduced and, qualitatively, a high rate of driver (for trucks, automobiles, and transit) compliance with regulations requiring them to yield to pedestrians has been observed. Targeted enforcement by the local police department and extensive outreach and education are credited with producing this compliance (Lehman 2014). 4.4.4 Strategies and Critical Success Factors Many residents attributed the success of the Centennial Circle roundabout and Glen Street corridor improvements to the following factors, which can serve as recommendations to com- munities facing similar problems. â¢ Persistence and outreach are key. The project consultants hired by the City conducted 26 outreach meetings to elicit feedback from stakeholders prior to project construction. Those meetings were crucial to building community support and weathering oppositionâincluding Figure 4-22. Truck unloading in the flush center median in downtown Glens Falls (Source: Cambridge Systematics).
98 Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth environments the election of a mayor opposed to building the roundabout. This approach aligns with Strat- egy 1A, defining the communityâs goals. â¢ Outside-the-box solutions may appear after planning and design phases are completed. Median parking for trucks, while not an intentional feature of the design, has solved a prob- lem for this community. This design feature provides delivery vehicles with front-door access to businesses along the corridor, especially for larger delivery vehicles that cannot enter off- street parking behind the buildings. However, although this design solution works now, it may not be suitable for the long term as freight needs in downtown Glens Falls increase. The City should continue to evaluate its effectiveness and monitor any safety or congestion concerns. â¢ Education and enforcement must work in combination with environment. The median parking is effective in this community because the built environment (that is, roundabout, mid-block crossings, traffic calming on approach streets, and parallel parking) is combined with education and enforcement activities. This combination of methods creates a situation where pedestrian movements are anticipated and respected, allowing delivery drivers to use the median parking and mid-block crosswalks safely. â¢ Pedestrian focus during planning. This community recognizes pedestrian activity in the corridor as one of the key drivers of business activity in this corridor. Pedestrian access and safety were therefore key goals of the project. Accommodating goods and services vehicle movements should be considered and planned for appropriately, but not at the expense of pedestrian access and safety. This approach complements Strategy 2H, which suggests imple- menting traffic-calming techniques to reduce conflict among road users. â¢ Anticipate all potential scenarios in planning and design. The designâs intention was not to encourage 53-ft-long tractor-trailer traffic to use the facility as a through route. However, in its early phases, this project failed to anticipate that large trucks would, at least occasionally, find themselves on this corridor. Designing the facility to handle these vehicles when neces- sary, such as implementing truck aprons and appropriate guidance, helps ensure that the Figure 4-23. Truck signage at roundabout, downtown Glens Falls (Source: Cambridge Systematics).
Case Studies 99 movement of trucks here does not result in situations where the truck blocks traffic and/or creates a risk to safety or property. â¢ Ensure sufficient visibility. This point complements Strategy 2E, which recommends design- ing safe and flexible intersections. Truckers are becoming more comfortable with round- abouts and are trained in how to navigate them. However, obstructed views due to objects in the center of the roundabout can cause issues for drivers who may be unfamiliar with the area. â¢ Include commercial vehicle operators in the discussion. One group that was not well rep- resented during the Centennial Circle and Glen Street project outreach was the trucking community. This group is critical to the movement of goods and the provision of services to businesses both in the corridor and in the immediate vicinity. Several other ideas could be considered during similar projects, such as the need for wayfinding signs and navigation applications in multiple language and providing better outreach and education to truckers about appropriate truck routes. â¢ Promote mutually beneficial coordination among businesses. Better coordination among businesses in the downtown could help to limit the number of trucks necessary to serve the area. Consolidating waste collection was specifically mentioned as a topic under review. Fur- ther, the possibility of coordinating delivery schedules or using a shared loading or storage facility was raised. Although small independent businesses may be unaccustomed to sharing such services, coordination can help limit the number of trucks needed to serve the downtown business district. The implementation of a new project is a good time to broach this topic. â¢ Preserve off-street and alley loading areas when possible. Although not all trucks can use the available off-street parking (mostly due to geometry restrictions), these areas are assets to several of the local businesses. The center median loading situation accommodates many of the districtâs delivery needs, but not all communities can use a center median for that purpose, and on-street parking areas are in demand for shopper parking. If a community wishes to transform alleys to pedestrian zones, it must provide some alternative or accommodation for truck loading/unloading. 4.5 Daybreak: Greenfield New Communities Characteristics of Daybreak are presented in Table 4-6. 4.5.1 Context and History Daybreak is a master-planned community in the City of South Jordan, approximately 20 miles southwest of Salt Lake City, UT (see Figures 4-24 and 4-25). Daybreak covers 4,000 acres owned by Kennecott Land, a subsidiary of Rio Tinto Group. Kennecott Utah Copper, another subsid- iary, operates the Bingham Canyon Mine, one of the worldâs largest copper mines, on this land. In the early 2000s, when it appeared as though the mine would have to close, Kennecott sought alternative means of generating revenue off of land holdings in the area. Kennecott worked with consultants to draft a development plan and design guidelines for a multiple-use development, including residential, retail, institutional, parkland, and entertainment facilities (see Figure 4-26). The inclusion of these non-residential land uses creates a greater need for commercial vehicle accommodation, particularly in the commercial and entertainment areas such as SoDa Row. 4.5.2 Application of Smart Growth Principles Daybreak is designed as a traditional neighborhood development (TND), a style that is often associated with smart growth. TND communities include various land uses and housing types (such as single-family and multi-family), where commercial, entertainment, educational, and civic buildings are in walking distance of homes and where walkability, bike-ability, and transit access are defining features of the transportation network. Facilitated by the extensive street grid
100 Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth environments and multi-use trail network, 88% of school children in Daybreak walk to school, compared to 17% outside the community. Fixed-route and flex bus route services operate within Daybreak. Daybreak is linked to the Salt Lake Valley by the Mountain View Corridor highway and bicycle/ walking trail corridor, which traverses the Kennecott Land tract and I-15 several miles to the east, and two Utah Transit Authority TRAX light rail stations. Today, Daybreak is home to about 3,000 housing units, two elementary schools, and a small cluster of shops, restaurants, and commercial facilities on SoDa Row. Commercial buildings are required to be LEED rated, and homes are Energy Star rated. Most of the commercial develop- ment to date is clustered in SoDa Row, a stretch of restaurants, stores, and community facilities along Kestrel Rise Road. When full build-out is achieved, as many as 20,000 housing units and 15 million square feet of commercial space may be developed. 4.5.3 Goods/Services Conditions and Results Most goods movement in the developed section of Daybreak consists of delivering goods to businesses, homes, and offices in the community. Parcel delivery and small package companies Characteristic Description Community Daybreak neighborhood in South Jordan, UT Smart Growth Classification Greenfield new communities Context Master-planned community approximately 20 miles from Salt Lake City. The site covers 4,000 acres owned by Kennecott Land, a subsidiary of metals and mining corporation Rio Tinto Group. Though not fully developed, the site has various land uses and housing types (all LEED/Energy Star rated), and commercial, entertainment, and educational facilities within walking distance of homes. Stakeholders City of South Jordan, Kennecott Land, local residents, local businesses, freight industry Key Issues Ã® Street design and regulations governing traffic operation limit through truck and automobile traffic. Features must not be restrictive enough to prevent trucks from accessing the community. Ã® Changing tenancy of commercial rentals has changed the delivery needs of new businesses. This will be an ongoing issue, and proper loading docks should be prioritized in new commercial developments. Key Takeaways Ã® Kennecott Land closely monitors the development in the neighborhood and is sensitive to Daybreakâs residents, demographics, and commercial and retail use. Kennecott Land also has a very close working relationship with the City of South Jordan, which gives them the flexibility to try innovative design solutions that wouldnât otherwise be possible. Ã® Not all roadway designs have been successfulâDaybreakâs roadway design has evolved over time via trial and error. This enables the streets to adapt to changing needs and respond to issues in the street network. This flexibility helps ensure that streets are safe for pedestrians, automobiles, and motor vehicles. Ã® Establishing multipurpose areas that accommodate freight needs reduces the need for delivery docks while allowing trucks to make safe and efficient deliveries. Relevant Strategies Ã® 1A: Define your communityâs goals Ã® 1B: Employ freight-compatible development Ã® 1F: Discourage incompatible land use development Ã® 2E: Design safe and flexible intersections Ã® 2F: Create âbuffersâ with setback and/or landscaping requirements Ã® 2H: Implement traffic-calming techniques to reduce conflict Ã® 4E: Adapt to changing market forces Ã® 4F: Determine ways to measure and monitor performance Table 4-6. Characteristics of Daybreak.
Case Studies 101 Figure 4-24. Location of Daybreak (Source: [top] ESRI; [bottom] Google Earth, 2016).
102 Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth environments Figure 4-25. Annotated map of Daybreak (Source: Google Earth, 2016). Figure 4-26. Daybreak development plan (Source: Calthorpe Associates).
Case Studies 103 (such as UPS, FedEx, and USPS) were observed during the site visit. Some service vehicles were observed throughout Daybreak, including those installing cable and internet and collecting waste from homes and businesses. Some of the restaurants along SoDa Row and the University of Utah Medical Center receive deliveries in three-axle single-unit box trucks. Construction vehicles traveling to and from construction sites in the community include dump trucks and haulers of construction materials and equipment. Trucks traveling into and out of Daybreak use arterial roads, such as Daybreak Parkway, to connect to the regional network. However, vehicles also use the connector streets (such as Kestrel Rise Road) and some of the neighborhood streets to reach their ultimate destinations. Deliveries to commercial and business locations either park curbside to make deliveries or, in some cases, use a multipurpose alley between stores to park close to delivery locations and out of traffic and parking lanes (see Figure 4-27). During the site visit, a delivery driver for a food distribution company mentioned that most of their deliveries are made with 28-ft-long trucks and these have no issues navigating to destinations. However, at times, the company makes deliveries using larger 48-ft-long trucks, which can have problems finding places to park. The problem was described as relatively minor due to the infrequency of deliveries using this type of vehicle. The hierarchical street network is seen as enhancing truck mobility in Daybreak, while keeping significant volumes of truck traffic off of most residential streets. Off-street loading docks allow many of the facilities that receive frequent deliveries to receive goods and waste pick-ups without interfering with curbside parking and customer access through the front door. The University of Utah Medical Center, for example, has two loading docks in the back of its building which are reached by crossing a mountable curb and backing into a large loading bay. Given that the Medical Center is one of the largest freight generators in the commu- nity, this design feature is a key way to keep deliveries away from Medical Center visitors while providing more-than-adequate accessibility for trucks. The Medical Center receives between 40 and 45 truck deliveries a week, with vehicles ranging from Sprinter vans up to 53-ft-long semi- trailers, so having a location to receive deliveries is crucial. One building on SoDa Row has a similar loading dock. The building houses a restaurant and gymnasium, which do not require the use of the dock. However, the property is slated to become a grocery store in the future and will be receiving greater volumes of inbound product and outbound waste. The loading dock will accommodate those delivery needs more efficiently than reliance on curbside deliveries through Figure 4-27. Delivery from rear parking area at local deli in Daybreak (Source: Cambridge Systematics).
104 Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth environments the front door. This change in tenancy and associated change in delivery needs underscores the importance of considering the range of possible needs that the occupants of a building may have for years to come and to plan accordingly so as to avoid potential conflicts. The street design and regulations governing traffic operation limit through-truck and auto- mobile traffic. Roundabouts, curb extensions, and narrow lanes, along with a 35 mph speed limit make streets and parkways in Daybreak unattractive âshort-cutâ routes to through-traffic. Although these design features help increase safety for pedestrians and bicyclists (which is key in smart growth environments), these features must not be so restrictive that trucks cannot enter the community, given that construction and delivery vehicle access is necessary (see Fig- ure 4-28). Kennecott has been heavily involved in ensuring that street design makes sense and has adapted infrastructure to meet changing needs and respond to issues that arise. The flexible and innovative street design has been critical in helping this master-planned community become and remain a success. Part of the undeveloped land on the western edge of Daybreak is set aside for light industrial uses. Two freight-generating facilities in this area are the distribution center for the Bingham Canyon Mine and a data center for eBay/PayPal. This industrial area is on the opposite side of the Mountain View Corridor from the multiple-use core of the Daybreak community. Signifi- cant volumes of truck traffic associated with this industrial cluster are not expected to affect the residential areas of Daybreak for that reason. As Daybreak grows, a larger mixed-use town center may develop closer to the Mountain View Corridor. With this large cluster of higher intensity development, greater demand for deliveries by truck will exist in this area. The town centerâs proximity to the Mountain View Corridor will contain most of the delivery truck traffic to the streets that connect the town center to the corridor, and truck trips will not be dispersed throughout the community. However, as these new developments are planned and constructed, and as the Utah Depart- ment of Transportation advances plans to improve the Mountain View Corridor, coordina- tion between Kennecott Land, local officials in South Jordan, the Wasatch Front Regional Council MPO, and the Utah Department of Transportation will be needed to ensure that Figure 4-28. Truck successfully navigating through roundabout in Daybreak (Source: Cambridge Systematics).
Case Studies 105 traffic projections remain current. Any changes to land development plans or transporta- tion engineering for the Mountain View Corridor improvements, including ramps and access roads, could change the magnitude and location of associated traffic impacts. Coordination will be necessary to ensure that travel demand can be accommodated and that vehicle and bicycle and pedestrian safety along the corridor and connecting roadways are not adversely affected. 4.5.4 Strategies and Critical Success Factors Rather than retrofitting an already existing neighborhood, corridor, or building, greenfield development occurs from the ground up. The experience of Daybreak proves that through thoughtful urban design, innovation, and flexible roadway design, and monitoring performance to make adjustments in later phases, freight can operate within a mixed-use, pedestrian environ- ment. Key lessons evident as part of this case study are as follows: â¢ Monitor performance. Kennecott closely measures development in the neighborhood, includ- ing the demographics of residents, the rate of purchase for new residences, and commer- cial and retail use. The operation of the transportation system is similarly monitored over time. Several design features, such as curb extension dimensions, were tested and revised in response to performance. All of these efforts support Strategy 4F, which recommends deter- mining ways to measure and monitor the performance of freight initiatives. The preferred intersection design includes a mountable curb with flexible bollards at intersection corners. This design provides the shorter pedestrian crossing distance achieved by extending the curb, but the mountability allows a truck to complete a turn safely. This practice of evaluating designs and making adjustments to respond to the demands of day-to-day operation informs the design of future phases of the development, allowing each new phase to take a âsmarterâ form than the phase before it. â¢ Share the vision for the community. This aligns with Strategy 1A to define the communityâs goals for all stakeholders. Kennecott Land has a very close working relationship with the City of South Jordan. By including the municipality in every step of the development, the high level of trust allows Daybreak to attempt innovative approaches to road and intersection designs that may not be possible in other areas of the municipality. â¢ Establish multipurpose areas that accommodate delivery needs. In a destination like SoDa Row, which has a limited number of freight movements, each business may not need a dedicated loading dock. Instead, trucks use a multiple-purpose alley as a place to park while making deliveries to adjacent businesses. The deliveries occur during early morning hours, when there are fewer pedestrians in the area. In the afternoons and evenings, the alley can be used as a pedestrian passageway or to accommodate events. This arrangement can save development costs by eliminating loading docks, reduce the need for dedicated on-street curbside loading areas, and provide a public space during most of the day when deliveries are not occurring. â¢ Discourage pass-through truck trips. Traffic-calming features (such as roundabouts, narrow lanes, on-street parking, and low-speed zones) are used to reduce travel speeds and promote safety for vehicles, bicycles, and pedestrians. This approach complements Strategies 2F and 2H, which advocate for safe and flexible intersection design and implementing traffic-calming techniques to reduce conflict, respectively. Traffic-calming measures also discourage the use of streets in Daybreak as âshort-cutâ routes for pass-through traffic. As Daybreak and the southwestern Salt Lake Valley as a whole grow over time, and as the Mountain View Corridor is further improved and more heavily used in the future, the potential for pass-through traffic may increase. This is not a problem Daybreak can address on its own; therefore, coordination with South Jordan and other local governments, the MPO, and Utah DOT will be needed to
106 Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth environments identify appropriate routes for truck traffic to use and measures to appropriately protect safety throughout the region. â¢ Learn from Daybreakâs example. Daybreakâs experience with roadway design that accom- modates both commercial vehicles and pedestrians has evolved over time through careful planning and trial and error. Solutions are not one-size-fits-all, and what works for Daybreak may not work everywhere, but lessons learned over more than a decade of design, implemen- tation, and monitoring could be useful to other communities throughout the region, state, and nation. According to the Wasatch Front Regional Council MPO, Daybreak is presented to other communities in the Wasatch Front region and throughout Utah as a model for smart growth and constructive relationships between private developers and local governments. 4.6 Belmar District: Large-Scale Reconstruction Characteristics of the Belmar district are presented in Table 4-7. 4.6.1 Context and History Belmar is a planned, multi-use community built on the site of the former Villa Italia shop- ping mall in Lakewood, CO, a city of approximately 150,000 located 8 miles west of Denver (see Figures 4-29 through 4-31). The mall was initially developed by Von Frellick Associates in the mid-1960s, housing approximately 140 stores and restaurants at its height and featuring four anchor stores: Foleys, Dillardâs, Montgomery Ward, and JC Penny. However, during the 1990s the main tenants left and the mall declined and then closed for good in 2001. The decline of the mall appeared to have a direct effect on property values in surrounding neighborhoods and the perception of Lakewoodâs desirability to prospective residents and businesses. With the City of Characteristic Description Community Belmar district in Lakewood, CO Smart Growth Classification Large-scale reconstruction Stakeholders City of Lakewood, Continuum Partners, local residents, local businesses, freight industry Key Issues Ã® There are a limited number of commercial loading zones in Belmar. Smaller retail and restaurant establishments mostly use curbside delivery or on-street loading zones, which sometimes results in double parking. Key Takeaways Ã® The relationship between Continuum Partners and the City of Lakewood has been excellent, allowing for cooperation and modified rules for the development that would not be permissible in other parts of Lakewood. Ã® Continuum Partners intentionally designed some streets to accommodate larger trucks, while others are narrower and more conducive to pedestrian activity. Major retail tenants have access to loading docks. Ã® Most of the buildings are owned by Continuum, which allows for consolidated trash areas and other conditions for tenants that might not be possible in an area with multiple owners. Relevant Strategies Ã® 1A: Define your communityâs goals Ã® 1B: Employ freight-compatible development Ã® 2E: Design safe and flexible intersections Ã® 2H: Implement traffic-calming techniques to reduce conflict Ã® 2I: Use innovative financing techniques Ã® 3I: Identify and support route networks Ã® 4F: Determine ways to measure and monitor performance Table 4-7. Characteristics of Belmar district.
Case Studies 107 Lakewood, Denver-based Continuum Partners led the development of Belmar, beginning in 2002. The site was designed as a multi-use development with residential, commercial, and retail uses in close proximity. Now, instead of anchor stores, the site features several big-box busi- nesses, local shops and restaurants. Although the various uses are within walking distance, they are segregated within Belmar, meaning that there is no residential-above-retail development. 4.6.2 Application of Smart Growth Principles The redevelopment of the Villa Italia mall site was guided by desires to create a sustainable, mixed-use urban âdowntownâ environment in a suburban setting, where visitors and residents Figure 4-29. Location of Belmar district (Source: [top] ESRI; [bottom] Google Earth, 2016).
108 Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth environments Figure 4-30. Annotated map of Belmar district (Source: Google Earth, 2016). Figure 4-31. Villa Italia shopping mall before demolition, 1993 (Source: Google Earth, 1993).
Case Studies 109 could safely walk between residences, offices, shops, and entertainment facilities in the district. For this reason, the 104-acre site was sliced into an urban street grid consisting of 22 city blocks. The grid is bounded by major arterial roads on the north and west bounds of the site. Within the site, a tiered system of roads includes two-lane collectors which serve as the primary gateways into the community for vehicular traffic and are the routes used by transit buses serving the community. Lesser single-lane streets between the collectors connect residences, businesses, and alleyways. All of the streets in the community include sidewalks, concrete crosswalks at inter- sections and some mid-block crossings, and attractive street furnishings. Streets in Belmar do not include marked bicycle lanes. Planners say that may change in the future. The reduction of reliance on fossil fuels is a priority that has guided Belmarâs development as well. Coloradoâs first LEED-certified buildings were constructed here, thereby reducing energy consumption. Continuum used tax incentives to install more than 8,000 solar panels on top of parking decks in the area, which power the lighting inside the parking decks. Parking meters are solar powered, and wind turbines atop street lighting fixtures power street lights. The City of Lakewood has enjoyed the tax revenues generated by the Belmar development, and residential and commercial property values in adjacent neighborhoods have risen. Further, the success of Belmar has led local officials to support other major investments throughout the municipality (such as light rail and a new medical center) which are credited with further improving Lakewoodâs quality of life. Today, Belmarâs 22 city blocks contain 900,000 square feet of retail (including big-box retail stores, boutiques, and restaurants); a movie theater; more than 260,000 square feet of office space; and 1,300 residential units consisting of single-family homes, townhouses, and loft-style rental apartments. Belmar is home to more than 2,000 residents within a 22-block area and another 4,000 live within walking distance. Three thousand people are employed by businesses (Briggs 2014). Belmar hosts numerous festivals and events and acts as the downtown core for Belmar as the designers originally intended. The development is almost completely built out, with only a few small areas available for additional construction. 4.6.3 Goods/Services Conditions and Results Although there are no industrial buildings in Belmar, the site is home to various freight-reliant businesses, including large national retail chains (such as Target and Dickâs Sporting Goods), other national chains in small retail stores (such as Foot Locker), and many locally owned retail and restaurant establishments. All of these users require regular freight deliveries. Goods coming into the development move entirely by trucks in a wide variety of types ranging from vans and box trucks to 53-ft-long trailers. Most of the major retail chains rely on larger vehicles and have dedicated loading docks to receive the goods. The smaller retail and restaurant establishments mostly use curbside delivery from box trucks or vans and use handcarts if multiple deliveries are required or a spot cannot be found directly in front of a specific business. There are a few com- mercial loading zones in the center of Belmar. In addition, at least one of the restaurants picks up goods from an off-site location multiple times a week. Freight movement in Belmar is aided by a hierarchy of streets arrayed in a grid pattern. It is a conscious effort on the part of the developer to design some streets meant to accommo- date large trucks and transit buses while others are narrower and built to a more pedestrian scale. West Virginia Ave., South Salisbury St., and South Vance St. are all built at a larger scale, while West Alaska Drive, South Upham Street, and South Teller Street are built at the smaller scale. The streets in the residential section of the development, specifically South Reed Court, South Quay, and South Reed Street are smaller. Although the smaller streets are designed to
110 Guide for Integrating Goods and Services Movement by Commercial Vehicles in Smart Growth environments be âpedestrian-firstâ streetscapes, trucks making residential and business deliveries and service trucks (such as waste collection trucks) can navigate the streets and get to and from the places they need to go within the community. Intersections incorporate mountable curbs designed to allow trucks extra room to maneuver. Most of the buildings are owned by a single companyâBelmarâwhich allows the develop- ment to impose some conditions on tenants (such as consolidated trash areas) that might not be possible in areas with multiple building owners. Belmar is nearly built out, and only a few parcels along West Virginia Ave. remain undevel- oped. Although few undeveloped parcels remain, the managers of the development intend for Belmar to adapt to future market needs by repurposing or redeveloping buildings or blocks as needed. The hope is that the community in its current form can withstand many decades of changing market and community demands. 4.6.4 Strategies and Critical Success Factors Some key lessons were discovered as part of this case study. Although not all are directly related to freight movement, these lessons are important in the planning, development, and ongoing operations in Belmar and the demand for goods and services to move into, out of, and through the community. â¢ Foster cooperation between developers and local government. The development team cited the excellent working relation with the City of Lakewood as one of the main drivers of suc- cess for the development project over the years. The developers wanted to design roads nar- rower than the cityâs prototypical street dimension, which drew some criticism from utility companies. Intersections were another area where Belmar was given additional flexibility; some intersection dimensions in the development require a truck or fire vehicle to use part of the opposing lane to make a turn. This is not typically permitted in Lakewood, but the coop- erative relationship between the developer and the city fostered a âtry it and seeâ flexibility, which led to innovative designs such as mountable curbs and other versatile street designs, which are also ADA-compliant. This relationship has survived through multiple municipal election cycles and has allowed the developers to create a project that meets its guiding prin- ciples and continues to draw residents and businesses. â¢ Design places for deliveries to happen. Belmar incorporates multiple design features to allow for loading and unloading of goods, which complements Strategy 1B to employ freight- compatible development. Most of the major retail tenants have their own loading docks to accommodate deliveries and waste pickup. Many of these loading docks, especially those on the periphery of the community, are hidden behind landscaping or behind buildings away from pedestrian streets. On-street loading zones in the core of the development allow for commercial vehicles to deliver goods to the smaller retail locations. Residential areas with low traffic flow are served by curbside (or at times double) parking. For future development, Belmar planners are considering âflexible streets,â which could serve as commercial loading zones during early morning hours and as public spaces or to accommodate food trucks or other vendors during lunchtime, afternoon, and evening hours. â¢ Use innovative financing. Belmar, in conjunction with the Lakewood Reinvestment Authority (LRA), uses tax increment financing (TIF) to help spur investment. TIF allows for the future repayment of loans for projects such as parking structures, water, or roads by taxing the incremental rise of property values or sales receipts that occur due to the improve- ment. TIF funds can then be allocated to a design project within the investment area. This approach aligns with Strategy 2I, which recommends using innovative financing techniques to accomplish development. Sales tax increments, property tax increments, or a combination of
Case Studies 111 both can be used to fund redevelopment projects. Belmar is part of the West Alameda Avenue Corridor Redevelopment Area under the LRA (Lakewood Reinvestment Authority 2011). â¢ Use of Special Districts. Special Districts are quasi-governmental corporations authorized by the State of Colorado and formed by municipalities in order to perform specific functions. Governed by a Board of Directors, special districts allow for local control over certain issues in the area governed, while still qualifying for government loans and grants and subject to state oversight. Special Districts have the authority to levy property taxes and condemn property, powers that make them different from a property or home owners association (Special Dis- tricts Association of Colorado No Date). This is another example of an innovative financing technique as per Strategy 2I. Belmar incorporates three special districts within the develop- ment; one covers most of the residential property, one covers most of the commercial prop- erty, and one acts as an oversight/umbrella district for the entire development. These districts also allow for more control and flexibility in street design and geometry than a traditional municipal government might allow. â¢ Attention to local road design. Relatively minor roadway design features including mount- able curbs and curb cuts in only one direction of travel help balance the needs of trucks and other road users, including pedestrians. â¢ Coordination with State DOT and regional transit agencies. The Belmar developmentâs western boundary is Wadsworth Boulevard, a state highway under the jurisdiction of Colo- rado DOT. Although improvements to Wadsworth Boulevard are not planned or foreseen, the City of Lakewood and the Regional Transportation District (RTD) have engaged in Colorado DOTâs studies of improvements elsewhere along the Wadsworth Boulevard corri- dor. This coordination ensures that the DOT can consider alternatives that address the future needs of the community, including goods movement, transit service, passenger vehicles, and pedestrians. Although marked bicycle lanes do not exist on streets within the Belmar develop- ment today, the developers have stated that they could be installed in the future. Coordina- tion between the developers, the City, and the State DOT could determine the feasibility of connecting bicycle lanes in Belmar with other parts of the City via a combination of state and local roadways. â¢ Establish ways to collect information on performance. This complements Strategy 4F, which recommends determining ways to measure and monitor the performance of freight initiatives. Better ways are needed to monitor the performance of the transportation network and various design features once the project is completed. Developers acknowledge that once a project is done, they rarely receive feedback on their design decisionsâfeedback that could help them improve future designs. This issue will require action from all sidesâdevelopers, engineers, architects, public officialsâin order to discover lessons learned following the completion of a project.