National Academies Press: OpenBook
« Previous: 11 Appendix D: Crossing Sight Distance Details
Page 159
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 159
Page 160
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 160
Page 161
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 161
Page 162
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 162
Page 163
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 163
Page 164
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 164
Page 165
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 165
Page 166
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 166
Page 167
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 167
Page 168
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 168
Page 169
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 169
Page 170
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 170
Page 171
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 171
Page 172
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 172
Page 173
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 173
Page 174
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 174
Page 175
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 175
Page 176
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 176
Page 177
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 177
Page 178
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 178
Page 179
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 179
Page 180
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 180
Page 181
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 181
Page 182
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 182
Page 183
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 183
Page 184
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 184
Page 185
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 185
Page 186
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 186
Page 187
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 187
Page 188
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 188
Page 189
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 189
Page 190
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 190
Page 191
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 191
Page 192
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 192
Page 193
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 193
Page 194
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 194
Page 195
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 195
Page 196
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 196
Page 197
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 197
Page 198
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 198
Page 199
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 199
Page 200
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 200
Page 201
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 201
Page 202
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 202
Page 203
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 203
Page 204
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 204
Page 205
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 205
Page 206
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 206
Page 207
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 207
Page 208
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 208
Page 209
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 209
Page 210
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 210
Page 211
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 211
Page 212
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 212
Page 213
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 213
Page 214
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 214
Page 215
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 215
Page 216
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 216
Page 217
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 217
Page 218
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 218
Page 219
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 219
Page 220
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 220
Page 221
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 221
Page 222
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 222
Page 223
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 223
Page 224
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 224
Page 225
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 225
Page 226
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 226
Page 227
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 227
Page 228
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 228
Page 229
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 229
Page 230
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 230
Page 231
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 231
Page 232
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 232
Page 233
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 233
Page 234
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 234
Page 235
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 235
Page 236
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 236
Page 237
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 237
Page 238
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 238
Page 239
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 239
Page 240
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 240
Page 241
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 241
Page 242
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 242
Page 243
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 243
Page 244
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 244
Page 245
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 245
Page 246
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 246
Page 247
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 247
Page 248
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 248
Page 249
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 249
Page 250
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 250
Page 251
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 251
Page 252
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 252
Page 253
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 253
Page 254
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 254
Page 255
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 255
Page 256
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 256
Page 257
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 257
Page 258
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 258
Page 259
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 259
Page 260
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 260
Page 261
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 261
Page 262
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 262
Page 263
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 263
Page 264
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 264
Page 265
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 265
Page 266
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 266
Page 267
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 267
Page 268
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 268
Page 269
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 269
Page 270
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 270
Page 271
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 271
Page 272
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 272
Page 273
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 273
Page 274
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 274
Page 275
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 275
Page 276
Suggested Citation:"12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24675.
×
Page 276

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 159 12 APPENDIX E: SITE PHOTO LOGS This appendix shows photo logs of all sites studied during this research. The appendix is organized by site.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 160 12.1 Tucson, AZ Photo Log 12.1.1 Southwest Corner of Grant Road and Oracle Road Figure 12-1: Drivers’ view a) Stop for pedestrians in crosswalk sign (not MUTCD standard, designed and used in Tucson) before crosswalk on both sides of CTL, sign enlarged at right. b) No sign or marking indicating raised crosswalk (markings at this intersection are not complete). c) Yield sign just past crosswalk, before yield point for Oracle Road. d) Business sign restricts driver’s view of pedestrian approaching crosswalk from south (right) around corner. e) Island design and CTL design is relatively small, with relatively small turn radius. f) Lane width is relatively narrow.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 161 Figure 12-2: Pedestrian’s view Sidewalk landscaping ends before crosswalk area, when sidewalk is basically aligned with Grant Road traffic. Person who is blind who doesn’t realize it’s a CTL may cross from that point when contacting curb rather than continuing around corner to the crosswalk. Figure 12-3: Raised crosswalk a) Views of raised crosswalk construction and slope for vehicles, seems to be 3/72 transition slope or 1:24, basically very gentle for drivers. b) Note stop line upstream of crosswalk.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 162 Figure 12-4: Approach from south on sidewalk along Oracle (downstream street) a) Landscaping that is on both sides of sidewalk when approaching is discontinued on the street side before the crosswalk. A person who is blind and unfamiliar with fact there is CTL at this location is likely to cross straight ahead when contacting curb rather than continuing around corner to the crosswalk. Driver will be looking left at that point. b) Landscaping on left of sidewalk continues around corner to sign. Figure 12-5: Curb ramp Parallel ramp with cast iron detectable warning surface (truncated domes). At a parallel ramp, the whole sidewalk slopes down to a level landing. At this location, pedestrians need to turn at the bottom of the ramp to align for the crosswalk. Because of the raised crosswalk, the slope is less steep than at some locations, very subtle. Most participants seemed to use the slope as a cue, then the DW, curb line and traffic moving by them as an alignment cue. Parallel ramps typically have a raised curb area at the back of the ramp, which might be used for alignment in some cases.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 163 Figure 12-6: Crosswalk view from the back of the ramp Detectable warning surface is wider at island than at curb, very low curb on each side of DW on curb side within crosswalk. Figure 12-7: Pedestrian path on island Pedestrian path is paved, with gravel landscaping of the rest of the island. Benches on the island are used by pedestrians on a regular basis.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 164 Figure 12-8: Returned curb on edge of ramp Returned curb on edge of ramp at crosswalk may provide an alignment cue for pedestrians who are blind if aligned with crosswalk direction. Obviously not helpful for that if not aligned with direction of crosswalk. Figure 12-9: Pushbutton alignment a) On island, face of the pushbutton is aligned with crosswalk for the major street crossings, as is returned curb and edge of landscaping. Provides helpful cues for pedestrians who are blind. b) Pushbutton placement is less consistent. Pushbutton location is at edge of landscaping and relatively easy to find. However, one of the buttons is not consistent with MUTCD guidance that pushbuttons be located in line with the crosswalk line furthest from the center of the intersection.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 165 12.1.2 NE Corner of Grant Road and Oracle Road Figure 12-10: Driver view of approach a) Controller boxes in landscape strip may block driver’s view of approaching pedestrian. b) Same signs as on SW corner (stop for pedestrians in crosswalk before crosswalk, yield sign just past raised crosswalk). c) Raised crosswalk with no sign or markings of raised crosswalk. d) Wide lane, longer crossing for pedestrian than the CTL on the SW corner. Figure 12-11: Driver view of pedestrian at crosswalk Pedestrian standing at crosswalk was visible to approaching drivers, and sighted pedestrians could see drivers once they were at the crosswalk.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 166 Figure 12-12: Pedestrian view of approach to crossing, along Grant a) Landscaping along street side except at crosswalk can provide some guidance to crosswalk and provides separation from street, easier and more comfortable to trail with a cane than trailing the curb line. b) Level sidewalk going around corner may make it more likely that a person who is blind will miss detecting the crosswalk and intersection altogether, if aware that it’s a CTL and not looking for the ramp by trailing the edge of the sidewalk (may be particularly an issue for dog guide users). Figure 12-13: Pedestrian approach along Oracle (from downstream end) a) Landscaping keeps blind pedestrians from crossing at the wrong location. b) Paved parking lot on side away from street may result in disorientation.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 167 Figure 12-14: Lighting on the sidewalk a) Lighting was provided over sidewalk, but no extra lighting at the crosswalk [we didn’t look at it at night]. Figure 12-15: Pedestrian's view of approaching vehicles in CTL Controller and other boxes on the side made some possibly confusing sound reflections of approaching and waiting vehicles (noted by O&M specialist), although no blind pedestrians commented on it, nor were there any decisions that were noticeably affected by that.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 168 Figure 12-16: Wide perpendicular ramp from curb to island a) Landscaping on each side of ramp, but outside the marked crosswalk. Because of landscaping, returned curbs could have been used on this ramp too and might provide alignment cues to pedestrians who are blind. b) Detectable warnings at base of ramp at edge street. c) Relatively low slope due to raised crosswalk. d) Longer crossing for pedestrians than CTL crossing on SW corner. e) Note stop line for drivers upstream of crosswalk. Figure 12-17: Edge of landscaping not aligned with edge of crosswalk or with crosswalk direction A blind pedestrian who lines up with it will end up outside the crosswalk.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 169 Figure 12-18: Island pedestrian paths Very similar to island on SW corner (see descriptions at Figure 12-7, Figure 12-8 & Figure 12-9).

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 170 12.1.3 Speedway Boulevard & Wilmot Road Figure 12-19: Approach to channelized turn lane driver and pedestrian view a) Deceleration lane b) Stop sign on both sides of crosswalk (on curb and on island); stop sign on island visible to approaching driver. c) Reflectors on poles on end of island, crash/visibility problem there? d) Narrow sidewalk. e) Landscaping between street and sidewalk. f) Landscaping on back side of sidewalk and low wall. g) No pedestrian crossing sign, although crosswalk is marked; crosswalk not visible to drivers until they start to turn.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 171 Figure 12-20: Crossing view from upstream (on left) and downstream (on right) a) Location of both stop signs visible. b) Crosswalk marked, with stop line upstream of crosswalk. c) Landscaping on both sides of sidewalk. d) Perpendicular curb ramp slopes toward crosswalk, with landing behind ramp and main sidewalk path.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 172 Figure 12-21: View of crosswalk a) Paved area at ramp, including the ramp flare, is wider than the crosswalk. Some blind pedestrians stated that they tried to cross from the curb, not from the ramp, and moved onto the flare to begin their crossings. b) No detectable warnings (truncated domes) installed at base of ramp. Figure 12-22: View of island a) Island is all paved with curb ramps to crosswalks; orientation problems for blind pedestrians; some trailed curb with their cane to find ramp and crossing point then got turned around when looking for pushbuttons. b) Pushbuttons on poles near center of island. c) Additional poles and reflective signs on island. d) Audible signal for main crossings of Speedway and Wilmot.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 173 Figure 12-23: Pushbuttons on island a) Pushbuttons are in line with each crosswalk but located more than 10 back from the edge of the street. b) No pushbutton locator tone so blind participants had to search around for them. c) No tactile arrow on pushbutton; some blind participants pushed the wrong button for their crossing. d) Audible signal mounted on top of pedestrian signal pole above the pushbuttons. Figure 12-24: View of crossing across Wilmot a) Wide crossing. b) Curb ramp without detectable warnings angled to left of crosswalk. c) Pushbutton close to crosswalk, but no pushbutton locator tone.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 174 Figure 12-25: Reflectors on island Signs on the island have sharp protruding edges, hazardous for pedestrians who are blind.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 175 12.1.4 E. Tanque Verde Road and Sabino Canyon Road Figure 12-26: Approach view of CTL, sidewalk and crosswalk a) Right turn only sign (deceleration lane). b) Yield sign on each end of crosswalk). c) Lane designation sign on island. d) Fairly wide lane and large radius on CTL. e) Sidewalk is wide (6 feet) and at back of curb with no landscape separation between street and sidewalk. f) There is landscaping with gravel on side away from street. Figure 12-27: Yield signs at CTL a) Yield signs at crosswalk with shark’s teeth marking about 4 feet in advance. b) Yield sign a merge point with Sabino Canyon Road.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 176 Figure 12-28: Combo curb ramp a) Curb ramp is combo parallel type, sidewalk slopes down approximately 3 inches, and a section of ramp is perpendicular to the street. b) Detectable warnings are installed on the perpendicular section. c) Raised curb at back of sidewalk is typical of a parallel ramp. Figure 12-29: Paths on island a) Cut-through pedestrian paths well-defined. b) Crosswalk, and ramp on curb side, is wider than cut-through area. [One of our pedestrians ended up outside the cut-through when crossing and stepped up onto the paved surface. She thought the cut-through was the curb of the street when she came to it.] c) Detectable warning surface at edge of street at CTL, and each crossing. d) Island paved outside of cut-through areas. e) Pushbuttons on raised section beside street and edge of cut-through path.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 177 Figure 12-30: Pushbutton location a) Pushbutton is on side furthest from the center of the intersection for Sabino Canyon crossing (as per MUTCD guidance). b) Pushbutton for crossing Tanque Verde, photo on left, is on side closest to the intersection. c) Cut-through gathers trash and gravel along the edges, as can be seen in these photos, particularly one on left.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 178 Figure 12-31: Vehicular downstream lane merge a) There’s a lane that could be used as acceleration lane, but is really decel lane for shopping center entrance. Most vehicles did merge directly into the main travel lanes.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 179 12.2 Boulder, CO Photo Log 12.2.1 Southwest Corner of Baseline Road and Foothills Parkway Figure 12-32: Drivers’ view on approach (SW corner) a) Yield sign at crosswalk. b) Placard below yield sign: bicycle symbol, pedestrian symbol, two-headed arrow and 2-WAY CROSSING (photo at right). c) Bicycle lane between right turn lane and through lanes. d) Controller might restrict driver’s view of pedestrian. e) Sound strips in deceleration lane. f) Lane width of CTL relatively narrow.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 180 Figure 12-33: Shared use path joins sidewalk a) Path from right, sign: MULTIUSE PATH USE CROSSWALK THROUGH INTERSECTION. b) Bicycle ramp from street to trail/path. Figure 12-34: Pedestrian's view on approach a) Wide shared use path. b) Landscape buffer strip between sidewalk and roadway, c) Also grass on side away from street. d) Sidewalk turns toward crosswalk. e) VEHICLE CROSSING sign before crosswalk.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 181 Figure 12-35: Closer view of crosswalk a) Ramp and curb line not aligned with crosswalk b) Ramp slope and detectable warning alignment may direct pedestrian past end of island (to left), particularly if they have been trailing sidewalk on the side closest to street (common technique observed with several participants in research); arrow approximates their path, sometimes hitting the sound strip and going around it. c) Continental pavement marking on crosswalk somewhat worn. d) Water puddle at base of ramp (may have affected alignment of some participants who moved to side to avoid it). e) Sound strip closest to crosswalk visible at left. Figure 12-36: Sound strips Temporary strips did move over course of day (not originally intended for this purpose and amount of traffic). Note white temporary chalk marks. Strips were moved back in position before each participant’s trials.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 182 Figure 12-37: Sound strips in deceleration lane Six strips installed across lane, spaced 30 feet apart (Road Quake temporary rumble strips). Figure 12-38: Island a) Island was quite small, particularly considering the amount of bicycle traffic. b) Detectable warnings on ramps; slope and DW seemed to help participants find ramp locations to cross main street sections. c) Two pushbuttons on signal pole.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 183 Figure 12-39: Aligning to cross Baseline Road from island a) Ramp sloped toward center of intersection. b) Detectable warnings, ramp slope, and island curb line, as well as perpendicular traffic, if used for alignment, aimed participant toward the center of the intersection; parallel traffic was heavy and provided a good alignment cue if participants waited for it. c) Face of pushbutton relatively well aligned with crosswalk direction. d) Pushbuttons had visual arrows but no tactile or audible features. Figure 12-40: Aligning to cross Foothills Parkway from island a) Ramp sloped toward center of intersection. b) Detectable warnings, ramp slope, and island curb line, as well as perpendicular traffic, if used for alignment, aimed participant toward the center of the intersection; parallel traffic was heavy and provided a good alignment cue if participants waited for it. c) Face of pushbutton relatively well aligned with crosswalk direction. d) Pushbuttons had visual arrows but no tactile or audible features. Figure 12-41: Pedestrian's view of approaching vehicles Pedestrian’s view of approaching vehicles was partially blocked by the position of the controller. Did not seem to block sound, so not an issue for blind pedestrians, but noticeable to orientation and mobility specialist visually monitoring vehicle approaches and safety.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 184 12.2.2 Northeast Corner of Foothills Parkway and Baseline Road Figure 12-42: Drivers’ view on approach (NE corner) a) Deceleration lane. b) Yield sign at crosswalk. c) Bicycle lane between deceleration lane and through lanes. Figure 12-43: Pedestrian view on approach a) Sidewalk at back of curb. b) Grass growing in crack between sidewalk and curb. c) Crosswalk around corner just past the yield sign (NOT where pedestrian is standing in photo).

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 185 Figure 12-44: View of crosswalk and island a) Pavement marking worn and almost non-existent from curb to island. b) Parallel curb ramp (sidewalk slopes down to level landing area at crossing). c) Sidewalk ends at crosswalk. d) Detectable warning surfaces have gathered debris and dirt. e) Pushbuttons on signal pole on island. f) Raised curb on left side of crosswalk to cross Foothills Parkway (not present on other ramps). Rough (bricklike) surface of areas outside of ramps and crosswalks did not deter blind participants from traveling on or lining up on that surface. Figure 12-45: Narrow island crossing a) Island was quite narrow, disconcerting to some participants to be so close to heavy traffic. b) Detectable warning surface near Foothills Parkway was depressed, rather than level with the crossing area.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 186 Figure 12-46: Pushbutton to cross Foothills Parkway (road to right in photo) a) Quite a distance from the crosswalk. (Photographer is standing at crosswalk.) b) No audible or tactile features. Figure 12-47: Aligning to cross Foothills Parkway a) Pushbutton aligned with crossing but not possible to reach it from crosswalk area. b) Curb between detectable warning surface and pushbutton.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 187 Figure 12-48: Aligning to cross Baseline Road a) Ramp, detectable warnings and curb line angled toward center of intersection; may direct someone toward traffic lanes. b) Pushbutton on signal pole near crosswalk, but face of pushbutton and sign are aligned toward the intersection rather than in line with the crosswalk.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 188 12.2.3 Southwest Corner of Foothills Parkway and Arapahoe Ave Figure 12-49: Driver's approach to CTL along Arapahoe a) Wide deceleration lane. b) Sign: RIGHT LANE MUST TURN RIGHT, BUSES EXCEPTED. d) Sign: SLOW RAISED X-WALK. d) Yield sign at crosswalk. Figure 12-50: Pedestrian's view of approach to CTL a) Wide sidewalk/shared use path. b) Landscaping on both sides of path, ends on street side before crosswalk. c) Yield sign at crosswalk. d) Bollard before crosswalk.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 189 Figure 12-51: Pedestrian view from downstream sidewalk a) Wide sidewalk at back of curb. b) Raised crosswalk at sidewalk level. Figure 12-52: Crosswalk view a) Raised crosswalk. b) Wide crosswalk with continental stripes. c) Detectable warnings at edge of street and for full width of crosswalk, but do not extend the full width of area of the sidewalk that is level with the street. (Sidewalk is level with the street for almost a foot past marked edge of crosswalk.) d) Island is large, paved area with a wide curb ramp to each street. e) Returned curbs on edge of each ramp.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 190 Figure 12-53: View of crosswalk across Foothills Parkway a) Ramp with returned curbs on side. b) Aligned with crosswalk direction. c) Two pushbuttons on one pole between ramps for the two streets. d) Detectable warning at curb edge for full width of ramp. Figure 12-54: View of crosswalk across Arapahoe a) Same basic setup as crosswalk across Foothills Parkway.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 191 12.2.4 28th and Pearl, Northeast Corner CTL Figure 12-55: Drivers view on approach to 28th Street on Pearl a) Right turn decel lane. b) RIGHT LANE MUST TURN RIGHT sign, partially obscured by trees. c) Eight turn arrow lane markings. d) Bicycle lane to left of right turn lane. e) High curb on street.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 192 Figure 12-56: Driver's view of crosswalk (NE Corner 28th and Pearl) a) Marked crosswalk, not raised. b) Bollards on the curb and island. c) Yield sign just before crosswalk on right. Figure 12-57: Pedestrian's view on approach a) Sidewalk widens at corner. b) Landscaping ends before crosswalk. c) Bollards on each side of crosswalk and other locations on curve. d) Perpendicular ramp at crosswalk.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 193 Figure 12-58: Pedestrian approach from downstream street a) Wide sidewalk with landscaping between street and sidewalk that ends before crosswalk. b) Crosswalk around curve of CTL. Figure 12-59: Gap between SW and curb a) Dave commented that the 1 to 2 inch gap confused some participants on approach.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 194 Figure 12-60: View of downstream merge area a) Pavement markings in shade, BIKE BUS ONLY. b) Sign on left hidden behind trees in photo on right. 6 Figure 12-61: View of crosswalk and island a) Bollards on each side of crosswalk. b) Wide crosswalk with continental markings. c) Detectable warnings, ramp slope and gutter in line with crosswalk direction. d) Island raised and paved with somewhat rough textured material outside of concrete path. e) Bollards on each side of crosswalk on island. f) Pushbuttons on one signal pole between crosswalks.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 195 Figure 12-62: Crosswalk across 28th Street from island a) Crosswalk slope, detectable warning and gutter aim to right of crosswalk direction toward median. b) Pushbutton (non-audible) on pole to intersection side of crosswalk. c) No level landing at pushbutton. Figure 12-63: Crosswalk across Pearl Street from island a) Wide crossing, 7 lanes. b) Gutter, detectable warning, and ramp aligned slightly left of crosswalk direction. c) Pushbutton to right of crosswalk (on parallel street side). d) No level landing at pushbuttons.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 196 Figure 12-64: View of island surface a) Slight color difference of area outside walking path. b) No discernible texture difference for blind participants.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 197 12.2.5 28th and Pearl, Northwest Corner CTL Figure 12-65: Driver’s view on approach, northwest corner a) Decel lane. b) Tree-lined road. Figure 12-66: Closer view of crosswalk a) Right turn arrow. b) Lane continues straight with bus only markings. c) SLOW RAISED CROSSWALK sign. d) Yield sign at crosswalk. e) Bollards on each side of crosswalk on curb and island.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 198 Figure 12-67: Pedestrian approach to crosswalk a) Wide sidewalk. b) Sidewalk at back of curb. c) Yield sign just before crosswalk. d) Raised crosswalk. e) Bollards at each side of crosswalk and in middle of crosswalk area. f) Entrance to buildings at right. Figure 12-68: Photo showing slope, for vehicles, of raised crosswalk.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 199 Figure 12-69: View across crosswalk and island a) Wide crosswalk. b) Somewhat faded marking.s c) Detectable warnings on both ends of crosswalk. d) Bollards at each side and in center of crosswalk area. e) Relatively large island, all paved with curb ramps to signalized sections of crossing.s f) Two pushbutton on one pole on island.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 200 Figure 12-70: Crosswalk across Pearl Street on west side a) Pushbuttons beside curb ramp (no level landing). b) Detectable warning, gutter and slope of ramp aim left of crosswalk. Figure 12-71: Crosswalk across 28th Street a) Pushbutton on left, street side, of ramp. b) Face of button aligned with crosswalk directions. c) Detectable warning, ramp slope, and gutter all aligned to right of crosswalk direction.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 201 12.2.6 28th Street and Canyon Boulevard Figure 12-72: Driver's view of approach to crosswalk a) Deceleration lane. b) RIGHT LANE MUST TURN RIGHT, BUSES EXCEPTED on sign hidden by trees. c) Right turn arrow pavement markings. Figure 12-73: Driver's view of crosswalk when approaching a) Raised crosswalk markings. b) Raised crosswalk warning sign, obscured by trees. c) Pedestrian waiting on curb side hidden by bushes, with restricted line of sight.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 202 Figure 12-74: Pedestrian approach to crosswalk along Pearl a) Wide sidewalk. b) Shaded by trees. c) Landscaping and wall on side away from stree.t d) Landscaping on street side until about 25 feet before crosswalk, then sidewalk at back of curb. Figure 12-75: Pedestrian and driver view from close to crosswalk a) Yield sign just before crosswalk on curb side. b) Bollards at each edge of raised crosswalk. c) Concrete raised crosswalk.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 203 Figure 12-76: View of crosswalk from downstream end of CTL a) Wide sidewalk at back of curb. Figure 12-77: Pedestrian view across crosswalk and island a) Scoring on sidewalk at raised crosswalk. b) No detectable warning at edge of street. c) Worn, almost non-existent crosswalk markings. d) Flat paved island, with curb ramps to each signalized crossing. e) Bollards on each side of raised crosswalk.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 204 Figure 12-78: Crosswalk across 28th Street a) Island all paved. b) Perpendicular curb ramp. c) Two pushbuttons on pole near crosswalk (no level landing). d) Detectable warning at base of curb ramp. e) Marked crosswalk. Figure 12-79: Crosswalk across Canyon Boulevard a) Curb ramp aligned slightly left of crosswalk direction. b) Marked crosswalk. c) Pedestrian pushbutton on pole. d) Detectable warning at base of curb ramp.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 205 12.3 Hilliard, OH Photo Log Figure 12-80: Approach from south (looking north) There is another roundabout just south along Main Street. Photo shows view from just south of pedestrian crosswalk for Scioto Darby Road and Main Street roundabout, looking north on Main Street toward the Main Street/Cemetery Road roundabout. Figure 12-81: Signs on approach from south Extensive signage between the two closely spaced roundabouts. Highway guide signs, followed by lane control sign, then almost immediately followed by the pedestrian crosswalk on the south side of roundabout.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 206 Figure 12-82: View of roundabout from south median, at north pedestrian crosswalk for Scioto Darby Road roundabout Lane control pavement markings and sign are shown here. Figure 12-83: Driveways close to roundabout On all approaches, there were driveways quite close to the roundabout, just beyond the pedestrian crosswalk. Exits from driveways had stop signs and no left turn signs, as well as one way signs on the median, as shown in photo on right.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 207 Figure 12-84: TO BOTH LANES IN ROUNDABOUT plaque added below YIELD sign on all approaches. Figure 12-85: Red reflective sheeting was added on posts of some YIELD signs.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 208 Figure 12-86: Rough "cobblestone" surface used to separate sidewalk and roadway Dark cobblestones were used to separate the sidewalk from the roadway, beginning before each pedestrian crosswalk and continuing around the curve of the roundabout to the next crosswalk. As seen in photo, sidewalk and curb ramp were concrete and/or asphalt (some sidewalk areas). The cobblestone surface was relatively detectable under foot and under cane, but blind participants did not recognize it as a non-walking surface, so it didn’t provide guidance (that might have been intended) without specific training. Inset on right shows size of cobblestones in comparison to foot. Figure 12-87: Overhead school crossing flashers Overhead school crossing flashers installed on north and east crosswalks. Flash from 7:00 – 7:40 am and 2:10 – 2:52 pm, Monday – Friday during school days for school arrival and departure. They do not operate in the summer months.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 209 Figure 12-88: Yield signs and markings at crosswalk a) Crosswalks were marked with continental style markings. b) Had yield pavement markings before the crosswalk, and pedestrian crossing warning signs on curb side (W11-2 with a diagonal downward pointing arrow, W16-7P plaque). c) In addition, there were in-crosswalk STATE LAW YIELD TO PEDESTRIANS IN CROSSWALK signs (R1-6), which were also installed on posts on the splitter islands. Signs varied from crosswalk to crosswalk; pavement word markings YIELD were installed on all approaches; School crossing signs (rather than pedestrian crossing signs) were used at the east and north crosswalks, accompanied by overhead mounted flashers. Pedestrian crossing warning signs were used on the west and south crosswalks. All crosswalks had the in-crosswalk signs on the center lane line and post-mounted on the splitter. Figure 12-89: R1-6 used as post mounted signs on splitter islands

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 210 Figure 12-90: Lane drop just past roundabout There was a lane drop on east, and north exits of the roundabout. Sign, RIGHT LANE ENDS (W9-1), just beyond crosswalks followed by END SCHOOL ZONE and LANE ENDS (W4-2) sign and pavement markings. Lots of signs right near crosswalk. Figure 12-91: Crosswalk for exit set back from circulatory roadway (east crosswalk) Crosswalk for exit is further from circulatory roadway than the entry crosswalk with zig-zag cut-through median. Is it better for pedestrians? Higher speeds at crosswalk?

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 211 Figure 12-92: Zig-zag cut-through of island Island cut-through with zig-zag to guide to offset exit and entry crosswalks; detectable warnings at edge of streets, cut- through curbs aligned with direction of crosswalk; cut-through area is smooth concrete; rest of island is the dark cobblestone pavers; small solar-powered lights on splitter near crosswalk cut-through. Figure 12-93: Island cut-through edge is aligned with crosswalk (photo at north crosswalk)

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 212 Figure 12-94: Ramp is generally aligned with crosswalk (east crosswalk) a) Slightly angled right due to rbt curvature at entry. Figure 12-95: Narrow splitter islands on west and south approaches Island on west and south legs were much narrower than north and east legs. Island was cut-through with detectable warnings installed. Curbs on island cut-through were generally aligned with the crosswalks.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 213 Figure 12-96: View of roundabout when approaching from east Roundabout sign, GMI signs, overhead flashers, pavement markings, etc. Figure 12-97: Signs on east approach Figure 12-98: Pavement markings within roundabout, and directional signs on splitter island

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 214 Figure 12-99: Flashers and markings in advance of crosswalk. School flashers and extensive pavement marking, as well as signs (east and north approach). Figure 12-100: Control box extended into crosswalk approach area at head height for pedestrians who are blind. Although there is a steep flare on the ramp on that side of the pole, a blind individual approaching along the sidewalk (from left in photo) could turn by the pole and contact the box with the face! The installation could be hazardous and does not meet protruding objects requirements of the ADA (extends more than 4 inches from post).

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 215 Figure 12-101: North crosswalk exit lane crossing North crosswalk also has pedestrian flashers, school crossing sign, and a lane drop shortly beyond the crosswalk (no LANE ENDS sign here). Figure 12-102: Island decorative elements A rather unusual planting arrangement has a section that almost looks like a sidewalk. This is just an architectural element rather than a sidewalk; may also be used by maintenance crews.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 216 Figure 12-103: Sidewalk dip near crosswalk was confusing to some blind participants The sidewalk sloped down and back up relatively steeply, just north of the crosswalk (north crosswalk, west end), which some blind participants mistook for a ramp to the crossing. More than one lined up, in line with the sidewalk, at the bottom of the dip and thought they were at the street edge. Under foot and with a cane, it seemed like the gutter at the edge of the street; it may be that the dip was related to water flow; not sure why it was there. Figure 12-104: Zig-zag island at north crosswalk (used for wayfinding trials)

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 217 Figure 12-105: Roundabout sign on north and west approaches a) Road widens to two lanes on approach, just past the school crosswalk north of the roundabout. Figure 12-106: West crosswalk a) Pedestrian crossing warning sign. b) In-crosswalk sign. c) Lane drop is around curve, but most drivers stay in left lane (probably because of lane drop).

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 218 Figure 12-107: Narrower island on west approach Figure 12-108: Children crossing

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 219 12.4 Oakland County, MI Photo Log Figure 12-109: South leg, directional sign on approach Figure 12-110: Driver's view on approach a) Yield ahead sig.n b) Road widens to two lane.s c) Pavement markings and sign with lane assignment.s d) Pedestrian warning signs and RRFB’s at crosswalk (barely visible in this picture). e) NO sign regarding raised crossing or speed hump.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 220 Figure 12-111: Driver's view - closer to crosswalk. a) Lane control assignment pavement markings and sign. b) Pedestrian warning sign and RRFBs. c) White triangular markings on edge of raised crosswalk visible (only notice of presence of raised crosswalk). d) NOTE: Raised crosswalks only on south leg entry, east leg entry and exit, and north leg exit; drivers entering from west didn’t encounter raised crosswalk until/unless they exited on east or north leg. Figure 12-112: Driver’s view of raised crosswalk from 100 feet back a) Additional lane assignment markings, just before crosswalk. b) Temporary raised crosswalk. c) RRFBs at crosswalk. d) Yield sign at entry, with one way placard on top. e) Yellow and black chevrons on island.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 221 Figure 12-113: Pedestrian view of approach a) Grass landscaping on both sides of sidewalk/path at all locations around roundabout except at crosswalks. b) RRFBs and pedestrian warning signs at crosswalk. Figure 12-114: Grass landscaping on both sides of wide sidewalk

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 222 Figure 12-115: Different ramp configurations Photo on left: south crosswalk, entry lanes: a) Perpendicular ramp outside of sidewalk area. b) Slopes to crosswalk. c) Slope aligned slightly to left of crosswalk direction. d) Raised crosswalk installed. Photo on right: east crosswalk, exit lane side: a) Parallel combo ramp. b) Sidewalk slopes down to level landing at crosswalk location. c) Small slope down to street level at detectable warning. d) Raised crosswalk installed. Figure 12-116: View of temporary speed humps installed as raised crosswalks a) Triangular marking on edge of speed hump. b) No crosswalk markings. c) Rubber material. d) Raised approximately 3 to 4 inches for vehicles. e) Steep slope up from gutter for pedestrians is not ADA compliant. (NOTE: this was installed temporarily forresearch.)

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 223 Figure 12-117: Pedestrian view of crosswalk: south crosswalk a) Detectable warning at edge of street. b) Ramp slope and DW line up slightly to left of direction of travel on the crosswalk. c) Pushbutton on pole next to crosswalk. d) RRFBs installed with crosswalk warning device (or audible information device) on pole with pushbutton locator tone and speech message, “The yellow lights are flashing” when button is pressed. e) RRFBs flash for approximately 20 seconds. f) Temporary speed hump material installed as raised crosswalk on entry lanes only.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 224 Figure 12-118: RRFB mounted too low RRFBs were mounted so the lower edge of the arrow sign was at head height for a 6-foot-tall person. One of the blind participants almost hit his head while reaching for the pushbutton. Signs and RRFB need to be raised so the bottom edge is above 7 feet. Figure 12-119: Island, lining up to cross exit lanes; south crosswalk. a) Gutter aligned perpendicular to crosswalk. b) Cut-through concrete not aligned with crosswalk direction. c) DW not in line with crosswalk. d) RRFB and pushbutton on downstream side, more than 5 feet back from curb.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 225 Figure 12-120: South crosswalk exit lane; used for wayfinding trials a) Ramp, DW and gutter aligned to left of crosswalk direction. b) No raised crosswalk. c) Three-lane crossing. Figure 12-121: Island, alignment of crossing for entry lanes, south crosswalk a)DW and gutter aligned to left of crosswalk direction. b) Raised crosswalk.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 226 Figure 12-122: Crossing exit lanes, east crosswalk a) Curb ramp aligned with crosswalk direction. b) Pushbutton beside ramp with button aligned with direction of travel on crosswalk. Figure 12-123: East crosswalk - merging traffic as road narrows from three lanes to one lane just past crosswalk

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 227 Figure 12-124: Pedestrian view of east crosswalk (looking north) a) Three lane crossings. b ) Detectable warning at edge of street. c) Raised crosswalk for entry and exit lanes. d) Narrow splitter island with pushbuttons for RRFBs installed on downstream side for each crossing.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 228 Figure 12-125: Signage and markings on approach from east a) Lane assignment pavement markings. b ) Informational sign. c) Pedestrian crossing warning sign. d) Yield ahead sign. e) Lane assignment sign and pavement markings. Figure 12-126: East leg – three-lane entry, closer view

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 229 Figure 12-127: Sidewalk on east leg, north side On the north side of Maple Road, the sidewalk is over 20 feet from street approaching the intersection. It turns toward the roundabout at the crosswalk and continues with about a 4 foot landscape strip around the roundabout. Some wayfinding trials for this leg (crosswalk on left) began from a location near the lower edge of the photo. Figure 12-128: View of east entry leg pedestrian crosswalk a) Crosswalk aligned with gutter and detectable warning, slightly out of alignment with approach sidewalk. b) RRFB and pushbutton for RRFB on downstream side of crosswalk. c) Participants commented that the pushbutton locator tone on audible information device was hard to hear at this location.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 230 Figure 12-129: View of raised crosswalk a) Note steep rise on edge, somewhat of a tripping hazard for pedestrians. b) May have thrown off alignment for some individuals. Figure 12-130: Pedestrian approach to north crosswalk a) Landscaping on both sides of crosswalk. b) Curb ramp outside of sidewalk area (had to trail grass to find it). c) RRFB and audible information device with pushbutton locator tone beside crosswalk. d) Raised crosswalk on exit lane.s e) Pedestrian crossing warning sign at crosswalk.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 231 Figure 12-131: View of North crosswalk a) RRFBs, raised crosswalk. b) Note lane drop just past crosswalk. Figure 12-132: Closeup view of audible information device a) Speaker in device. b) Message when pushed: “yellow lights are flashing.” M c) Message repeated. d) Tactile arrow on device aligned with direction of crosswalk.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 232 Figure 12-133: North crosswalk and island pedestrian view a) Curb ramp and DW aligned slightly left of crosswalk direction. b) Returned curb aligned very slightly to left. c) Pushbutton on downstream side of crosswalk. d) Island grass outside of cut-through area. Figure 12-134: view of North crosswalk, from west, showing narrow splitter island a) Not raised for entry lanes. b) RRFB on opposite sides of crosswalk (downstream side).

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 233 Figure 12-135: View of west crosswalk a) West crosswalk - RRFBs and audible information devices installed but no raised crosswalk. Figure 12-136 Lane pavement markings within circle

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 234 12.5 Ann Arbor, MI Photo Log 12.5.1 Multi-lane site – Ellsworth and State Street Figure 12-137: East leg exit lane crossing a) Two- lane crossing. b) Zig-zag cut-through in island. c) Rumble strips before crosswalk. d) Continental crosswalk markings. Figure 12-138: Approach to roundabout, looking west from east leg a) Lane drop shortly past crosswalk. b) Bike ramp merging from sidewalk into bike lane on street in foreground of photo.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 235 Figure 12-139: Drivers’ view of crosswalk a) Stop here to pedestrians sign before crosswalk. b) Lane ends sign shortly after crosswalk. c) On-street bicycle lane resumes shortly after crosswalk. Figure 12-140: View of zig-zag cut-through island a) Detectable warning surface at opening. b) Curbed area of island around walkway.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 236 Figure 12-141: Rumble strips in pavement a) Pen at bottom left for size comparison. Figure 12-142: Entry east leg a) Continental crosswalk marking. b) Yield word sign pavement marking. c) Yield sign on both sides of entry. d) Dotted edge line at entry. e) Chevron sign on island.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 237 Figure 12-143: View of curb and detectable warning surface and alignment of sidewalk at east entry a) Detectable warning surface and curb line/gutter not aligned the same. b) DW aligned with crosswalk? c) Short distance between crosswalk and yield sign. Figure 12-144: Looking back at entry rumble strips and lane markings a) Rumble strip about 20 feet before crosswalk. b) Pavement markings with lane designation before rumble strips.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 238 Figure 12-145: View of north crosswalk exit lanes a) Landscape strip between sidewalk and roadway. b) Stop here to pedestrians sign just before the crosswalk. c) Light pole right before crosswalk. d) Continental markings for crosswalk. Figure 12-146: View of rumble strips and distance before crosswalk

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 239 Figure 12-147: View of another zig-zag cut-through island Figure 12-148: North crosswalk, crossing exclusive right turn a) Narrow island without zig zag and then wider island with zig-zag between opposing entry and exit lanes. b) Ramp, detectable warnings and gutter/curb line not aligned with crosswalk direction here.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 240 Figure 12-149: Exit lanes – west crosswalk (studied) a) Rumble strips in pavement. b) Stop here to pedestrians sign. c) Continental crosswalk markings. d) Lane ends sign just past crosswalk. e) Bike lane resumes just past crosswalk. f) Zig-zag cut-through splitter island. Figure 12-150: Another view of exit lane crosswalk and splitter island

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 241 Figure 12-151: Pedestrian view of west crosswalk exit lane crossing a) Curb ramp with returned curbs aligned with crosswalk direction. b) Detectable warnings at base of ramp. c) Crosswalk perpendicular to curb line/gutter. Figure 12-152: Bike ramp and sidewalk view

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 242 Figure 12-153: Entry lane crosswalk from island west leg a) Detectable warning at edge of island. b) Gutter and curbs angle slightly right of DWalignment. Figure 12-154: Pedestrian view of entry leg crossing west crosswalk a) Wide crosswalk. b) Landscaping on each side of walkway/ramp. c) Detectable warning the full width of the ramp. d) Curb and gutter aligned perpendicular to crosswalk.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 243 12.5.2 Single-lane roundabout: Nixon Road and Huron Parkway Figure 12-155: View of overhead crosswalk signs Signs were internally illuminated at night. Figure 12-156: View of ramp to crosswalk at exit lane with bike ramp in background

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 244 Figure 12-157: View of crosswalk studied, sidewalk and landscaping a) Landscaping between sidewalk and road. b) Rumble strips at exit from roundabout. c) Crosswalk marked with transverse lines. d) Worn brick stamped texture and color on crosswalk (see later photo). e) Yield here to pedestrians sign before crosswalk. f) Curb ramp with returned curbs, aligned slightly left of crosswalk. g) Narrow splitter island. Figure 12-158: Closer view of bike ramp a) Note how close to sidewalk it is, angle of ramp, and detectable warning surface. b) Landscaping between street and sidewalk begins after bike ramp.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 245 Figure 12-159: Small diameter circle a) Truck apron in center and at entry. b) Chevron signs on island. c) Directional street name signs on splitters. Figure 12-160: Drivers view of exit crosswalk – south leg

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 246 Figure 12-161: Yield signs a) Yield sign posts with reflective tape. b) Yield sign on left angled for driver looking left. c) Sharkstooth yield line used at roundabout entry. Figure 12-162: West crosswalk

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 247 Figure 12-163: View of crosswalk lighting (west crosswalk) a) Note light over crosswalk in addition to overhead signs. b) Overhead signs were illuminated at night. Figure 12-164: Pedestrian view of crosswalk approach west leg a) Landscape strip between sidewalk and street. b) Yield here to pedestrians sign before crosswalk. c) Overhead crosswalk signs. d) Rumble strips in roadway. e) Narrow splitter island. f) Crosswalk outlined with white lines, brick color/texture in crosswalk.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 248 Figure 12-165: Narrow splitter island a) Cut-through. b) Brick patterns on raised sections (same brick pattern in crosswalk). c) Less than one foot separation in detectable warning surfaces. d) Detectable warnings aligned with crosswalk direction. e) Curb line and gutter slightly angled in relation to crosswalk direction.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 249 Figure 12-166: Truck apron at entry a) Slightly raised but very close to crosswalk. b) Worn brick stamped pattern in crosswalk. Figure 12-167: North crosswalk

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 250 Figure 12-168: View of east crosswalk a) Odd alignment of island edges, not aligned with crosswalk. b) Brick pattern in crosswalk. c) Narrow splitter island. Figure 12-169: East crosswalk splitter island

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 251 Figure 12-170: East crosswalk splitter island a) Very narrow. b) Inadequate separation between detectable warning surfaces. Figure 12-171: Bike ramp on entry a) Wrong way sign for bicyclists. b) Short ramp. c) Landscape strip continues past bike ramp.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 252 12.6 Greenbelt, MD Photo Log 12.6.1 Cherrywood Lane and Metro Access Road Figure 12-172: Driver’s view on approach on west leg (Cherrywood) a) Roundabout sign and yield ahead sign. b) No directional signage on approach ( what street). c) Bike lane (see next photo and description) d) Pedestrian crossing ahead sign. e) Pedestrian crossing sign at crossing with ‘hump’ placard under it. f) Wide striped median area, then raised landscaped area. g) Directional sign for Metro station.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 253 Figure 12-173: Bike sign and ramp to sidewalk a) Bicycle sign. b) No bike lane ends sign, although there’s no dotted line to signify bicyclists can take lane. c) Widened sidewalk and bike ramp to sidewalk with construction identical to curb ramp construction. d) If bicyclists want to go left toward Metro station, they have to take a lane unless they cross at pedestrian crossing, but then sidewalk is very narrow on north side of roundabout. e) Observed some erratic and dangerous bicyclist movements (riding on left, wrong way in circle, etc.).

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 254 Figure 12-174: Markings and signs at entry a) Faded sharks tooth yield line. b) Yield sign. c) TO TRAFFIC IN CIRCLE placard below yield sign d) Chevron sign and one-way sign on central island Figure 12-175: Pedestrian view on approach a) Wide sidewalk. b) Landscaping between sidewalk and curb. c) No indication of crosswalk location on sidewalk (blind pedestrians have to be looking for it). d) Path narrows sign (for bicyclists?).

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 255 Figure 12-176: Narrow entry to curb ramp and crosswalk a) Narrow, four-feet entry to ramp/crosswalk area, missed by some blind participants. b) Wide flares on ramp (flares unnecessary with landscaping on both sides). c) Would be better to have entry as wide as crosswalk with returned curbs on each side. d) Detectable warnings at base of ramp. Figure 12-177: View of pedestrian crosswalk – west crosswalk across Cherrywood looking north a) Six-foot wide crosswalk. b) Perpendicular curb ramp with detectable warnings. c) Crosswalk raised as speed hump for vehicles, although slope is not really detectable underfoot to pedestrian. d) No pedestrian refuge area between entry and exit lanes, although there are raised planted medians between each lane. e) Ladder markings for crosswalk. f) Speed hump markings very faded.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 256 Figure 12-178: Uneven pavement near beginning of west crosswalk, from south Figure 12-179: View of west leg, (leaving roundabout), looking west from crosswalk on north side of Cherrywood Lane a) Lane ends symbol sign (W4-2) b) BIKE LANE AHEAD sign c) Dotted bike lane markings between lanes d) 30 mph speed limit sign after roundabout on all legs, no sign reducing speed at roundabout.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 257 Figure 12-180: Parallel curb ramp on north side (exit lanes )of west crosswalk a) Parallel curb ramp in narrow sidewalk. b) Cars felt very close to pedestrians on narrow sidewalk, particularly buses (and there were a lot of buses here). c) Lots of cross slope on sidewalk coming around curve toward ramp. d) Detectable warnings on curb ramp landing. Figure 12-181: Approach from north a) Two lanes, right lane with pavement markings RIGHT ONLY b) Guide sign is beyond roundabout center island [To south 95-495 and left arrow] somewhat hidden by bushes; no other guide signs found. c) Pedestrian crossing ahead warning sign.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 258 Figure 12-182: Crosswalk not far from yield line/sign for vehicles entering roundabout from north Figure 12-183: Median between lanes a) Concrete island installed between right only lane and through/right lane (similar treatment present on east approach). b) Yield signs on median island and splitter islands. c) Placard TO TRAFFIC IN CIRCLE under yield sign. d) Orange delineators in front of median nose. e) Crosswalk close to yield point. f) Pedestrian crossing sign, with HUMP placard installed beneath it (partially visible on right edge of photo).

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 259 Figure 12-184: Another view of median and crosswalk (north crossing) a) Raised crosswalk. b) Speed hump markings and construction visible. c) Yield sign for left lane. Figure 12-185: View of crosswalk north crossing a) Ladder crosswalk markings. b) Combo curb ramp. c) Raised crosswalk. d) Crosswalk not aligned perpendicular to gutter. e) No pedestrian refuge even though there’s a splitter island and there could be adequate room for a refuge.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 260 Figure 12-186 View of exit lane crosswalk on west leg from north leg (from median between right only lane and right/through lane) a) Note that from this point driver in right lane cannot see pedestrian standing in the ramp at the crosswalk. b) Yield sign – not sure who driver is yielding to at that point - pedestrians? c) Narrow sidewalk at back of curb. Figure 12-187: East approach a) Right only lane and right/through lane. b) No pedestrian crosswalk on this leg. c) Bike lane has dotted markings, then solid again ending in median nose? Should be striped out somehow? d) Roundabout sign, yield ahead placard.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 261 Figure 12-188: View from crosswalk of vehicles approaching from east let to north leg a) Vehicle moving pretty quickly downhill. b) Closest lane vehicle not visible around curve until about 50 feet before crosswalk c) Speed hump and pedestrian sign with HUMP placard not visible more than 50 before crosswalk. Figure 12-189: Narrowed sidewalk along south side of roundabout

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 262 12.6.2 Channelized Turn Lane Kenilworth Road and East West Highway, Greenbelt MD Figure 12-190: Approach to intersection a) RIGHT LANE MUST TURN RIGHT sign. b) Pedestrian crossing warning sign. c) Lots of truck traffic on Kenilworth Road. Figure 12-191: Unusual placard under pedestrian warning sign: ACROSS RAMP

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 263 Figure 12-192: View of crosswalk location a) Channelized right turn with decel lane, sloping downhill toward East West Highway. b) Yield signs at merge point with EW Highway. c) Pedestrian warning signs. d) Marked crosswalk. e) Signal controller box may block driver’s view of pedestrians (from slightly further back). Figure 12-193: Pedestrian's view on approach a) Sidewalk at back of curb. b) Grass on side away from street.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 264 Figure 12-194: Pedestrian's view of approaching traffic from crosswalk a) Note that controller blocks view of cars approaching in the right turn lane. Figure 12-195: View of crosswalk and island a) Parallel ramp (entire sidewalk slopes down to level with the street). b) Detectable warning at point where sidewalk is level with the street. c) Crosswalk with diagonal striping. d) Narrow cut-through areas on island aligned with crosswalk direction, but much narrower than crosswalk. e) Grass on island areas that are not cut-through. f) APS with pushbutton locator tones on island for crossings of Kenilworth and East-West Highway.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 265 Figure 12-196: Detectable warning on island at entry to cut-through area covered in dirt and debris Figure 12-197: Crossing East West Highway from island a) Narrow cut-through bordered by grass. b) Curbs on cut-through basically aligned with direction of travel on the crosswalk. c) Detectable warning at edge of street. d) APS more than 10 feet from edge of street.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 266 Figure 12-198: Crossing Kenilworth Road from island a) Narrow cut-through area bordered by grass. b) Lots of debris in cut-through area. c) APS about 5 feet back from road. d) Cut-through, gutter and detectable warning aligned with direction of travel on the crosswalk.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 267 12.7 Cary, NC Photo Log 12.8 CTL – SW corner of Tryon Road and Kildaire Farm Road Figure 12-199: Driver’s view on approach on Tryon Road a) RIGHT LANE MUST TURN RIGHT sign. b) Right turn arrow lane marking. c) Signal ahead warning sign (behind RT sign in this photo). d) Uphill approach. Figure 12-200: Signal ahead sign a) Signal ahead sign with road name. b) Other guide signs on approach.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 268 Figure 12-201: Driver’s view of CTL and pedestrian crossing a) Right turn arrow and ONLY pavement marking. b) Informational signs (bike route and wildlife viewing area signs). c) No pedestrian crossing sign. d) Marked pedestrian crosswalk (pavement markings). Figure 12-202: Marked crosswalk is not very visible on approach Although the crosswalk is marked with continental stripes, it is not very visible to approaching drivers. No warning sign to add more visibility.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 269 Figure 12-203: Pedestrian approach a) Sidewalk separated from roadway by wide landscape strip. b) Sidewalk curves away from road, around corner, then a spur angles back to crosswalk. c) Crosswalk is at location were pole and with signal controller is visible in this photo. Figure 12-204: Crosswalk approach sidewalk a) Perpendicular ramp. b) Sidewalk all slopes toward crosswalk. c) Grass landscape strip between sidewalk and curb on approach to crosswalk.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 270 Figure 12-205: Crosswalk across right turn lane and view of large island area a) Large flares on ramp wider than crosswalk area. b) Detectable warning at base of ramp. c) Continental markings for crosswalk. d) Large completely paved island. e) Signal pole in middle of island where some blind participants looked for a pushbutton (could hear the pole). f) Standard (non-audible) pushbuttons on pedestrian signal pole near crosswalks across Kildaire Farm and Tryon.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 271 Figure 12-206: Curb ramps and crosswalks for Tryon (front) and Kildaire Farm (to right) a) Ramp slope and detectable warning aligned with crosswalk direction, gutter not aligned perpendicular to crosswalk. b) Pushbuttons back more than 10 feet from both crosswalks, two buttons on same pole. c) Darker pavement on ramp as well as detectable warnings. d) Lots of debris and sand on detectable warning at Kildaire Farm crossing. In addition, entire corner is basically flat, not just where detectable warning is installed. Figure 12-207: Closer view of curb ramps a) Ramp to Kildaire Farm Rd. crossing on left, Tryon Road crossing on right. b) Designs look like they were an attempt to align the ramps with the crosswalk, but road/ramp connection does not meet ADA requirements.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 272 12.8.1 Roundabout – Old Apex Road and West Chatham Street, Cary, NC Figure 12-208: Driver's view of roundabout on approach from west on Old Apex Road a) Roundabout sign and advisory speed sign. b) Yield ahead sign. c) Center two way turn lane. d) Driveway into gas station on right just before crosswalk and roundabout entry. e) Pedestrian warning signs at crosswalk. Figure 12-209: Pedestrian approach to west crosswalk, entry leg a) Brick sidewalk. b) Grass landscape strip between sidewalk and curb. c) Ramp slope outside of sidewalk area.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 273 Figure 12-210: West crosswalk, from south end a) One lane entry. b) Landscaping on both sides of ramp. c) Brick sidewalks near roundabout. d) Perpendicular curb ramp. e) Detectable warning at base of ramp. f) Ramps slope, detectable warning and gutter lined up in crosswalk direction (generally within). g) Narrow splitter island with wide cut-through area. h) Detectable warning surface does not cover full width of cut-through opening in island.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 274 Figure 12-211: View of west exit crosswalk from beyond east crosswalk Figure 12-212: Pedestrian approach to west crosswalk, exit lane a) Grass landscape strip between sidewalk and curb. b) Brick sidewalk, concrete curb ramp. c) Pedestrian warning sign with downward arrow before crosswalk.

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 275 Figure 12-213: West crosswalk, looking south, exit lane crossing a) Perpendicular ramp. b) Brick sidewalk. c) Sidewalk does not continue past crosswalk. d) Ramp, DW and gutter aligned to left of crosswalk. e) Narrow island with wide cut-through. Figure 12-214: Illustration of pedestrian stepping past detectable warning surface that doesn't extend the full width of the cut-through in island

NCHRP 3-78b: Final Project Report April 2016 276 --- This page intentionally left blank ---

Next: 13 Appendix F: Detailed Field Study Results »
Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities Get This Book
×
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Web-Only Document 222: Guidelines for the Application of Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities provides guidance to engineers and planners on the design of roundabouts and channelized turn lanes for accessibility. NCHRP Web-Only Document 222 is the final report for NCHRP Research Report 834: Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities: A Guidebook.

The accessibility of modern roundabouts and intersections with channelized turn lanes is an important civil rights challenge in the United States that has broad potential implications for engineering practice in this country. This report builds on the results of NCHRP Report 674: Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities. It provides a framework for empirical study and analysis of accessibility performance, documents field testing of several treatments, and provides a research extension through modeling and simulation to expand the results beyond the field-tested sites.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!