National Academies Press: OpenBook
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities: A Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24678.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities: A Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24678.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities: A Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24678.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities: A Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24678.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities: A Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24678.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities: A Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24678.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities: A Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24678.
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N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 834 Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities A Guidebook Bastian Schroeder Lee Rodegerdts Pete Jenior Edward Myers Kittelson and associates, inc. Portland, OR Christopher Cunningham Katy Salamati Sarah Searcy Sarah O’Brien institute for transportation research and education north carolina state university Raleigh, NC Janet Barlow Billie Louise (Beezy) Bentzen accessible design for the blind Asheville, NC Subscriber Categories Design  •  Highways  •  Operations and Traffic Management  Pedestrians and Bicyclists  •  Safety and Human Factors  •  Society Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration 2016

NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing highway administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation results in increasingly complex problems of wide inter- est to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 ini- tiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniques—the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of Transportation. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was requested by AASHTO to administer the research program because of TRB’s recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. TRB is uniquely suited for this purpose for many reasons: TRB maintains an extensive com- mittee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; TRB possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, univer- sities, and industry; TRB’s relationship to the Academies is an insurance of objectivity; and TRB maintains a full-time staff of specialists in high- way transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified by chief administrators and other staff of the highway and transporta- tion departments and by committees of AASHTO. Topics of the highest merit are selected by the AASHTO Standing Committee on Research (SCOR), and each year SCOR’s recommendations are proposed to the AASHTO Board of Directors and the Academies. Research projects to address these topics are defined by NCHRP, and qualified research agencies are selected from submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the Acad- emies and TRB. The needs for highway research are many, and NCHRP can make significant contributions to solving highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement, rather than to substitute for or duplicate, other highway research programs. Published research reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 834 Project 03-78B ISSN 0077-5614 ISBN 978-0-309-44610-5 Library of Congress Control Number 2016960581 © 2016 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 834 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Stephan A. Parker, Senior Program Officer Megan Chamberlain, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Sreyashi Roy, Editor NCHRP PROJECT 03-78B PANEL Field of Traffic—Area of Operations and Control Howard M. McCulloch, New York State DOT, Albany, NY (Chair) Dennis Cannon, Synergy, LLC, Washington, DC Julie Carroll, National Council on Disability, Washington, DC James H. Dunlop, North Carolina DOT, Garner, NC Lukas Franck, The Seeing Eye, Inc., Morristown, NJ Gary Piotrowicz, Oakland County (MI) Roads Commission, Beverly Hills, MI Eugene R. Russell, Sr., Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS Jeffrey Shaw, FHWA Liaison Philip J. Caruso, Institute of Transportation Engineers Liaison Donna Smith, Easter Seals Project ACTION Liaison Scott J. Windley, U.S. Access Board Liaison Richard A. Cunard, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to acknowledge the contributions made by Nagui Rouphail and Jeff Chang of the Institute for Transportation Research and Education at North Carolina State University and Richard Long and David Guth of the Accessible Design for the Blind.

F O R E W O R D By Stephan A. Parker Staff Officer Transportation Research Board NCHRP Research Report 834 presents guidance for the application of crossing solutions at roundabouts and channelized turn lanes (CTLs) at signalized intersections for pedestrians with vision disabilities, including individuals with total blindness. The guidebook provides an accessibility assessment framework and a methodology for evaluating treatment alterna- tives for a proposed crossing, as well as wayfinding accommodations. Guidance is provided based on the feasible range of geometric and traffic operational conditions under which similar treatments have been demonstrated to enhance accessibility. The guidebook and final report are targeted to an audience of practicing professionals who in some cases may have little or no background in design for accessibility. The guidelines are therefore written in a way that is consistent with other engineering guidebooks, and they are consistent with existing guidance on accessible design of pedestrian facilities and public rights of way. The audience for these products extends well beyond the engineer tasked with designing a particular site, including planners and decision makers at the municipal and state government levels; FHWA; and the U.S. Access Board, which is tasked with writing technical specifications for implementing the American with Disabilities Act, and which has published proposed guidelines in the form of the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Acces- sible Pedestrian Facilities in the Public Right-of-Way. This project also has a broad public interest component, including professionals and researchers in the field of orientation and mobility, as well as private citizens with and without vision impairments. Accessibility of modern roundabouts and channelized turn lanes to pedestrians with vision disabilities has been a focus of recent and ongoing research. Initial research results document- ing the crossing challenges for pedestrians with vision disabilities at these facility types moti- vated the original NCHRP Project 03-78A research effort (published as NCHRP Report 674) and had an influence on language in the Proposed Accessibility Guidelines for Pedestrian Facilities in the Public Right-of-Way (draft PROWAG) published by the U.S. Access Board in 2011. With the impending publication of the final PROWAG and its expected adoption by the U.S. Department of Justice and U.S. Department of Transportation, municipalities and state DOTs need more specific guidance on what may constitute equivalent facilitation to pedestrians with vision disabilities at these facility types. Under NCHRP Project 03-78B, the research team led by the Institute for Transportation Research and Education (ITRE) at North Carolina State University (NCSU) was tasked with exploring crossing solutions for single-lane and multi-lane crossings at roundabouts and channelized turn lanes. The research was based on the premise that other treatments exist besides an APS-equipped signal that can establish access to these facilities to pedestrians who are blind, while reducing installation cost and impact to vehicular traffic.

C O N T E N T S 1 Chapter 1  Introduction 1 1.1 Purpose and Scope 2 1.2 Accessibility Versus Safety 2 1.3 Minimum Specifications and Equivalent Facilitation 3 1.4 Four Components of the Crossing Task 5 1.5 Outline of the Document 6 Chapter 2  Design Process 6 2.1 Roundabouts 8 2.2 Channelized Turn Lanes 10 Chapter 3   General Principles for Pedestrian Wayfinding  and Crossing Tasks 10 3.1 Wayfinding Tasks 18 3.2 Crossing Tasks 21 Chapter 4   Design Principles for Pedestrian Access  at Roundabouts 21 4.1 Geometric Design 39 4.2 Traffic Control Device Applications 48 Chapter 5   Design Principles for Pedestrian Access  at Channelized Turn Lanes 49 5.1 Geometric Design 58 5.2 Traffic Control Device Applications 68 Chapter 6  Wayfinding Assessment 68 6.1 Determining the Appropriate Crossing Location 71 6.2 Aligning to Cross and Establishing the Correct Heading 74 6.3 Maintaining the Correct Heading While Crossing 75 6.4 Crossing from Channelization and Splitter Islands 78 Chapter 7  Crossing Assessment 78 7.1 Assessment of Pedestrians Crossing at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes 81 7.2 Methodology 81 7.3 Methodological Steps

98 References 101 Appendix A   Discussion of Audible Environment  and Noise Effects 104 Appendix B  Summary of Crossing Treatments Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.

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TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Research Report 834: Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities: A Guidebook presents guidance on the application of crossing solutions at roundabouts and channelized turn lanes at signalized intersections for pedestrians with vision disabilities. This publication will be of interest to engineers tasked with designing a particular site, planners and decision makers at the municipal and state government levels, and others.

NCHRP Research Report 834 is supplemented by NCHRP Web-Only Document 222, which includes additional documentation and background information on project research. The research presented in NCHRP Web-Only 222 and NCHRP Research Report 834 builds on previous work on crossing challenges for pedestrians with vision disabilities presented in NCHRP Report 674.

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