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Page 142
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F - Marginal External Costs of Highway Use." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guide for Conducting Benefit-Cost Analyses of Multimodal, Multijurisdictional Freight Corridor Investments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24680.
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Page 142
Page 143
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F - Marginal External Costs of Highway Use." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guide for Conducting Benefit-Cost Analyses of Multimodal, Multijurisdictional Freight Corridor Investments. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24680.
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Page 143

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142 Marginal External Costs of Highway Use A p p e n d i x F Sources: First block: reproduced in part from (1); second block: (2 ) assuming average truck load of 14.8 tons; third block (3). Marginal Costs of Highway Use (Cents per Mile) Vehicle Class/ Highway Class, Cents per Mile (2000) Pavement Congestion Crash Air Pollution Noise Total Urban 40 kip 4-axle S.U. truck/urban Interstate 3.1 24.48 0.86 4.49 1.5 34.43 60 kip 4-axle S.U. truck/urban Interstate 18.1 32.64 0.86 4.49 1.68 57.77 60 kip 5-axle combo urban Interstate 10.5 18.39 1.15 4.49 2.75 37.28 80 kip 5-axle combo urban Interstate 40.9 20.06 1.15 4.49 3.04 69.64 Rural 40 kip 4-axle S.U. truck/rural Interstate 1 2.45 0.47 3.85 0.09 7.86 60 kip 4-axle S.U. truck/rural Interstate 5.6 3.27 0.47 3.85 0.11 13.3 60 kip 5-axle combo rural Interstate 3.3 1.88 0.88 3.85 0.17 10.08 80 kip 5-axle combo rural Interstate 12.7 2.23 0.88 3.85 0.19 19.85 Note: S.U. = single unit; combo = combination. Air pollution costs are averages of costs of travel on all rural and urban highway classes, not just Interstate. Available data do not allow differences in air pollution costs for heavy-truck classes to be distinguished. Marginal Costs of Highway Use by Trucks (Cents per Ton-Mile) Vehicle Class/Highway Class, Cents per Ton-Mile (2000) Pavement Congestion Crash Air Pollution Noise Total Urban 40 kip 4-axle S.U. truck/urban Interstate 0.21 1.65 0.06 0.30 0.10 2.33 60 kip 4-axle S.U. truck/urban Interstate 1.22 2.21 0.06 0.30 0.10 3.90 60 kip 5-axle combo urban Interstate 0.71 1.24 0.08 0.30 0.21 2.52 80 kip 5-axle combo urban Interstate 2.76 1.36 0.08 0.30 0.21 4.71 Rural 40 kip 4-axle S.U. truck/rural Interstate 0.07 0.17 0.03 0.26 0.01 0.53 60 kip 4-axle S.U. truck/rural Interstate 0.38 0.22 0.03 0.26 0.01 0.90 60 kip 5-axle combo rural Interstate 0.22 0.13 0.06 0.26 0.01 0.68 80 kip 5-axle combo rural Interstate 0.86 0.15 0.06 0.26 0.01 1.34 Average Private and External Costs of Truck and Rail Freight Cents per Mile (1994) Truckload Mixed Freight Intermodal Double Stack Private vehicle and driver cost 8.42 1.20 2.68 1.06 External cost 0.86 0.24 0.25 0.24 Accidents 0.56 0.17 0.17 0.17 Air pollution 0.08 0.01 0.02 0.01 Greenhouse gases 0.15 0.02 0.02 0.02 Noise 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 Table F1. Marginal external costs of highway use (cents per mile).

Marginal external Costs of Highway Use 143 References 1. Federal Highway Administration Addendum to the 1997 Federal Highway Cost Allocation Study: Final Report, Table 13. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Dept. of Transportation, 2000. Accessed 2015. 2. Forkenbrock, D. Comparison of External Costs of Truck and Rail Freight Transportation. Transportation Research Part A 35, 2001. 3. Boston Logistics Grp. Infrastructure Investment: The Supply Chain Connection, 2008. http://www. supplychainquarterly.com/topics/Logistics/scq200804infrastructure/. Accessed 2014.

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TRB's National Cooperative Freight Research Program (NCFRP) Research Report 38: Guide for Conducting Benefit-Cost Analyses of Multimodal, Multijurisdictional Freight Corridor Investments explores how to conduct benefit-cost analyses (BCAs). A BCA is an analytical framework used to evaluate public investment decisions including transportation investments. BCA is defined as a collection of methods and rules for assessing the social costs and benefits of alternative public policies. It promotes efficiency by identifying the set of feasible projects that would yield the largest positive net benefits to society.

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