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145 A p p e n d i x H Tables H1 and H2 provide emission factors in grams per mile for different truck classes and in grams per ton-mile for different freight modes. Table H3 provides a summary of external costs of emissions for different pollutants. Railroad operations are typically described in terms of two different types of operation: line-haul and switching. Line-haul refers to the movement of cargo over long distances. Switching refers to the assembling and disassembling of trains at various locations in and around the terminal. EPA (2009) provides line-haul locomotives and switch emission factors useful railroad emissions (4). Emission Factors and Emission Costs Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (1). HDGV 2BHDDV LHDDV MHDDV HHDDV Exhaust PM10 0.163 0.322 0.972 1.107 1.433 Brake wear PM10 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 Tire wear PM10 0.012 0.008 0.012 0.012 0.036 SO2 322.0 412.0 0.384 0.433 0.539 HDGV = heavy-duty gasoline vehicle. 2BHDDV = Class 2 (8,501â10,000 lb) heavy-duty diesel vehicle. LHDDV = light (10,001â19,500 lb) heavy-duty diesel vehicle. MHDDV = medium (19,501â33,000 lb) heavy-duty diesel vehicle. HHDDV = heavy (>33,000 lb) heavy-duty diesel vehicle. VOC (Grams/Mile) CO (Grams/Mile) NOx (Grams/Mile) Speed HDGV HDDV HDGV HDDV HDGV HDDV 15 mph 11,726 3,162 163,533 16,063 5,875 17,192 25 mph 7,061 2,175 95,298 9,588 6,416 14,132 30 mph 5,892 1,865 79,05 7,931 6,686 13,513 35 mph 5,109 1,634 69,201 6,866 6,957 13,389 40 mph 4,579 1,464 64,040 6,220 7,227 13,745 HDGV = heavy-duty gasoline vehicle. HDDV = heavy-duty diesel vehicle. Table H1. U.S. EPA truck emission factors grams/mile. HC/VOC CO NOx PM10 CO2 Inland towing 0.014123 0.0432 0.27435 0.007955 16.41 Eastern railroad 0.018378 0.056189 0.34854 0.010351 21.35 Western railroad 0.017272 0.05280 0.32758 0.009728 20.06 Truck 0.01 0.37 1.45 0.06 171.83 Heavy unit train 0.003 0.257 0.006 Mixed freight train 0.004 0.322 0.008 Intermodal train 0.007 0.603 0.015 Double-stack train 0.005 0.400 0.010 Average train speed = 45 mph; throttle setting = notch 8 full power. Sources: 2009 cross-modal comparison (2 ); 2001 estimates (3). Table H2. Emission rates in grams per ton-mile.
146 Guide for Conducting Benefit-Cost Analyses of Multimodal, Multijurisdictional Freight Corridor investments References 1. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. The Environmental Effects of Freight. 2014. http://www.oecd.org/trade/envtrade/2386636.pdf. 2. Kruse, C. J., A. Protopapas, and L. Olson. A Modal Comparison of Domestic Freight Transportation Effects on the General Public. 2001â2009. National Waterways Foundation, 2012. http://www.nationalwaterways foundation.org/study/FinalReportTTI.pdf. 3. Forkenbrock, D. Comparison of External Costs of Truck and Rail Freight Transportation. Transportation Research Part A 35, 2001. 4. EPA. Emission factors for locomotives. http://www3.epa.gov/nonroad/locomotv/420f09025.pdf. Accessed 2015. 5. Small, K. A., Kazimi, C., On the Costs of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 29 (1), 1995. 6. USDOT Benefit Cost Resource Guidance. 2014. https://www.transportation.gov/sites/dot.gov/files/docs/ TIGER%20BCA%20Resource%20Guide%202014.pdf. 7. McCubbin, D., and M. Delucchi. Social Cost of the Health Effects of Motor-Vehicle Air Pollution, UC Davis, ITS (www.its.ucdavis.edu), 1996, www.its.ucdavis.edu/people/faculty/delucchi/index.php. Accessed 2014. 8. Muller, Z., and R. Mendelsohn. Measuring the Damages of Air Pollution in the United States. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 54, 2007. Study Region Pollutants Range Vehicle Type Small and Kazimi (5) Los Angeles (2008 $) NOx, PM10, VOC, SO2 2.12â18.28 per vehicle mile traveled (VMT) Light-duty gasoline vehiclesânot freight but cited the most. U.S. Department of Transportation BCA Resource Guide (2014) (6) National averages per short and metric ton (2014 $ values) CO2, CO, NOx, PM10, VOC, SO2 CO2: values from $40 to $70 per short ton â¢ VOC: $1,813 per short ton â¢ NOx: $7,147 per short ton â¢ PM10: $326,935 per short ton â¢ SO2: $42,240 per short ton McCubbin and Delucchi (7) United States Ox, PM10, VOC, CO 0.89â11.83 per VMT Light-duty gasoline vehiclesânot freight but also among the most cited Muller and Mendelsohn (8) APEEP model U.S. counties Marginal damages (external costs) All modes Forkenbrock (3) (rural/urban) United States (1994 $) VOC, NOx PM10, and noise pollution Marginal damages (external costs) 0.0001 to 0.02 cents per ton-mileârural areas 0.01 to 0.08 cents per ton- mileâurban areas Noise costs were estimated at 0.04 cents per ton-mile in urban areas Freight rail categories from Table H2 â¢ Table H3. Emission cost estimates for freight.