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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Successful Practices and Training Initiatives to Reduce Accidents and Incidents at Transit Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24686.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Successful Practices and Training Initiatives to Reduce Accidents and Incidents at Transit Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24686.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Successful Practices and Training Initiatives to Reduce Accidents and Incidents at Transit Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24686.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Successful Practices and Training Initiatives to Reduce Accidents and Incidents at Transit Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24686.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Successful Practices and Training Initiatives to Reduce Accidents and Incidents at Transit Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24686.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Successful Practices and Training Initiatives to Reduce Accidents and Incidents at Transit Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24686.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Successful Practices and Training Initiatives to Reduce Accidents and Incidents at Transit Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24686.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Successful Practices and Training Initiatives to Reduce Accidents and Incidents at Transit Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24686.
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87+ pages; Perfect Bind with SPINE COPY = 14 pts Successful Practices and Training Initiatives to Reduce Bus Accidents and Incidents at Transit Agencies TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMTCRP SYNTHESIS 126 TCR P SYN TH ESIS 126 Successful Practices and Training Initiatives to Reduce Bus Accidents and Incidents at Transit Agencies NEED SPINE WIDTH Job No. XXXX Pantone 648 TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 500 F ifth S treet, N .W . W ashing to n, D .C . 20001 A D D R ESS SER VICE R EQ UESTED TRB A Synthesis of Transit Practice Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration

TCRP OVERSIGHT AND PROJECT SELECTION COMMITTEE* CHAIR PAUL C. JABLONSKI San Diego Metropolitan Transit System VICE CHAIR DORAN J. BARNES Foothill Transit SECRETARY TREASURER MORTIMER L. DOWNEY, III Mort Downey Consulting LLC MEMBERS JEFFREY ARNDT VIA Metropolitan Transit Authority PAUL J. BALLARD Fort Worth Transportation Authority BRENDAN DANAHER Transport Workers Union RYAN I. DANIEL St. Cloud Metro Bus KATHARINE EAGAN Hillsborough Area RTA SUZIE EDRINGTON Texas A&M University System CAROLYN FLOWERS Federal Transit Administration BETSY KACHMAR Citilink/Fort Wayne Public Transportation Corporation JOHN LEWIS Charlotte Area Transit System SHERRY LITTLE Spartan Solutions LLC KRIS LYON Lane Transit District W.H. (BILL) McCLOUD McCloud Transport Associates JONATHAN H. McDONALD CH2M E. SUSAN MEYER Spokane Transit Authority T.J. ROSS PACE VICKI L. SHOTLAND Greater Hartford Transit District GARY THOMAS Dallas Area Rapid Transit DENISE TYLER Delaware Transit Corporation ED WATT Amalgamated Transit Union EX OFFICIO MEMBERS GREGORY G. NADEAU FHWA NEIL J. PEDERSEN TRB RICHARD A. WHITE APTA FREDERICK G. (BUD) WRIGHT AASHTO TDC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR LOUIS SANDERS APTA SECRETARY CHRISTOPHER J. HEDGES TRB TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2016 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS Chair: James M. Crites, Executive Vice President of Operations, Dallas–Fort Worth International Airport, TX Vice Chair: Paul Trombino III, Director, Iowa Department of Transportation, Ames Executive Director: Neil J. Pedersen, Transportation Research Board MEMBERS VICTORIA A. ARROYO, Executive Director, Georgetown Climate Center; Assistant Dean, Centers and Institutes; and Professor and Director, Environmental Law Program, Georgetown University Law Center, Washington, DC SCOTT E. BENNETT, Director, Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department, Little Rock JENNIFER COHAN, Secretary, Delaware DOT, Dover MALCOLM DOUGHERTY, Director, California Department of Transportation, Sacramento A. STEWART FOTHERINGHAM, Professor, School of Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning, Arizona State University, Tempe JOHN S. HALIKOWSKI, Director, Arizona DOT, Phoenix SUSAN HANSON, Distinguished University Professor Emerita, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University, Worcester, MA STEVE HEMINGER, Executive Director, Metropolitan Transportation Commission, Oakland, CA CHRIS T. HENDRICKSON, Hamerschlag Professor of Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA JEFFREY D. HOLT, Managing Director, Power, Energy, and Infrastructure Group, BMO Capital Markets Corporation, New York S. JACK HU, Vice President for Research and J. Reid and Polly Anderson Professor of Manufacturing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor ROGER B. HUFF, President, HGLC, LLC, Farmington Hills, MI GERALDINE KNATZ, Professor, Sol Price School of Public Policy, Viterbi School of Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles YSELA LLORT, Consultant, Miami, FL MELINDA McGRATH, Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson JAMES P. REDEKER, Commissioner, Connecticut DOT, Newington MARK L. ROSENBERG, Executive Director, The Task Force for Global Health, Inc., Decatur, GA KUMARES C. SINHA, Olson Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN DANIEL SPERLING, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis KIRK T. STEUDLE, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing GARY C. THOMAS, President and Executive Director, Dallas Area Rapid Transit, Dallas, TX PAT THOMAS, Senior Vice President of State Government Affairs, United Parcel Service, Washington, DC KATHERINE F. TURNBULL, Executive Associate Director and Research Scientist, Texas A&M Transportation Institute, College Station DEAN WISE, Vice President of Network Strategy, Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway, Fort Worth, TX EX OFFICIO MEMBERS THOMAS P. BOSTICK (Lieutenant General, U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC JAMES C. CARD (Vice Admiral, U.S. Coast Guard, retired), Maritime Consultant, The Woodlands, Texas, and Chair, TRB Marine Board T. F. SCOTT DARLING III, Acting Administrator and Chief Counsel, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S. DOT MARIE THERESE DOMINGUEZ, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S. DOT SARAH FEINBERG, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S. DOT CAROLYN FLOWERS, Acting Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S. DOT LeROY GISHI, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC JOHN T. GRAY II, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC MICHAEL P. HUERTA, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. DOT PAUL N. JAENICHEN, SR., Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S. DOT BEVAN B. KIRLEY, Research Associate, University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center, Chapel Hill, and Chair, TRB Young Members Council GREGORY G. NADEAU, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. DOT WAYNE NASTRI, Acting Executive Officer, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, CA MARK R. ROSEKIND, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. DOT CRAIG A. RUTLAND, U.S. Air Force Pavement Engineer, U.S. Air Force Civil Engineer Center, Tyndall Air Force Base, FL REUBEN SARKAR, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Transportation, U.S. Department of Energy RICHARD A. WHITE, Acting President and CEO, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC GREGORY D. WINFREE, Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, Office of the Secretary, U.S. DOT FREDERICK G. (BUD) WRIGHT, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC PAUL F. ZUKUNFT (Admiral, U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security * Membership as of November 2016.* Membership as of November 2016.

TRANS IT COOPERAT IVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP SYNTHESIS 126 Research Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in Cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation Subject AreAS Education and Training • Passenger Transportation • Public Transportation • Safety and Human Factors Successful Practices and Training Initiatives to Reduce Bus Accidents and Incidents at Transit Agencies A Synthesis of Transit Practice conSultAntS Lisa Staes Jodi Godfrey Jennifer Flynn and Roberta Yegidis Center for Urban Transportation Research University of South Florida Tampa 2017

TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM The nation’s growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Current systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating prob- lems, adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and introduce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Coopera- tive Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213—Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administration—now the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- solving research. TCRP, modeled after the longstanding and successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), under- takes research and other technical activities in response to the needs of transit service providers. The scope of TCRP includes vari-ous transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equip- ment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was authorized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement outlining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooperating organizations: FTA; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research organization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsi- bility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. The panels prepare project statements (requests for propos-als), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem state- ments and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in manag- ing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activi- ties, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired effect if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on disseminating TCRP results to the intended users of the research: transit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational problems. TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. TCRP SYNTHESIS 126 Project J-7, Topic SA-38 ISSN 1073-4880 ISBN 978-0-309-38989-1 Library of Congress Control Number 2016959807 © 2017 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to repro- duce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not- for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publi- cation according to procedures established and overseen by the Trans- portation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not neces- sarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Acade- mies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Transit Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufactur- ers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published reports of the TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/ Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

TOPIC PANEL SA-38 CHARLES L. KAMP, Metro Transit, Madison, WI PAUL J. LARROUSSE, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick YUKO J. NAKANISHI, Nakanishi Research and Consulting, LLC, Forest Hills, NY MICHAEL H. PERRY, Sound Transit, Seattle, WA ROBERT A. SCHNEIDER, Central Midlands Transit, Columbia, SC VICTOR BERNARD WILEY, Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee FAITH HALL, Federal Transit Administration (Liaison) SYNTHESIS STUDIES STAFF STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies and Special Programs JON M. WILLIAMS, Program Director, IDEA and Synthesis Studies MARIELA GARCIA-COLBERG, Senior Program Officer JO ALLEN GAUSE, Senior Program Officer GAIL R. STABA, Senior Program Officer TANYA M. ZWAHLEN, Consultant DON TIPPMAN, Senior Editor CHERYL KEITH, Senior Program Assistant DEMISHA WILLIAMS, Senior Program Assistant DEBBIE IRVIN, Program Associate COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF CHRISTOPHER J. HEDGES, Director, Cooperative Research Programs GWEN CHISHOLM SMITH, Senior Program Officer EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications TCRP COMMITTEE FOR PROJECT J-7 CHAIR BRAD J. MILLER, Pinellas Suncoast Transit Authority, St. Petersburg, FL MEMBERS DONNA DeMARTINO, San Joaquin Regional Transit District, Stockton, CA MICHAEL FORD, The Regional Transit Authority of Southeast Michigan, Detroit, MI BOBBY J. GRIFFIN, Griffin and Associates, Flower Mound, TX ROBERT H. IRWIN, Consultant, Sooke, BC, Canada JEANNE KRIEG, Eastern Contra Costa Transit Authority, Antioch, CA PAUL J. LARROUSSE, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick DAVID A. LEE, Connecticut Transit, Hartford ELIZABETH PRESUTTI, Des Moines Area Regional Transit Authority–DART ROBERT H. PRINCE, JR, AECOM Consulting Transportation Group, Inc., Boston, MA JARRETT W. STOLTZFUS, Foothill Transit, West Covina, CA FTA LIAISONS FAITH HALL Federal Transit Administration APTA LIAISON PAMELA BOSWELL American Public Transportation Association TRB LIAISON STEPHEN J. ANDRLE Transportation Research Board Cover figure: Collage of a moving bus, pedestrian warning technology, and bus simulator. Photos courtesy of: istockphoto.com; Steve Berry, LYNX; and Ned Ahrens, King County Department of Transportation.

Transit administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which infor- mation already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and prac- tice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviat- ing the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to the transit industry. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful information and to make it available to the entire transit community, the Transit Cooperative Research Program Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing study. This study, TCRP Project J-7, “Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems,” searches out and synthesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute a TCRP report series, Synthesis of Transit Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. This Synthesis documents current practices and training initiatives, including bus opera- tor training and retraining programs that have been effective in reducing accidents and inci- dents at transit agencies. The study also focuses on other system approaches that have been implemented to address safety hazards. These approaches include various technology appli- cations, infrastructure modifications, and programs and initiatives such as driver incentive programs and close call/near miss reporting. The synthesis is intended for transit operators. A literature review and detailed survey responses from 37 of 42 transit agencies sur- veyed, yielding a response rate of 88%, are provided. Detailed case examples of 11 differ- ent systems are also included in the report and provide additional insights on the state of the practice, including lessons learned, challenges, and gaps in information. Lisa Staes, Jodi Godfrey, Jennifer Flynn, and Roberta Yegidis, Center for Urban Trans- portation Research, University of South Florida, Tampa, collected and synthesized the information and wrote the report, under the guidance of a panel of experts in the subject area. The members of the topic panel are acknowledged on the preceding page. This syn- thesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand. FOREWORD PREFACE By Mariela Garcia-Colberg Senior Program Officer Transportation Research Board

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TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 126: Successful Practices and Training Initiatives to Reduce Accidents and Incidents at Transit Agencies documents current practices and training initiatives, including bus operator training and retraining programs that have been effective in reducing accidents and incidents at transit agencies. The study also focuses on other system approaches that have been implemented to address safety hazards. These approaches include various technology applications, infrastructure modifications, and programs and initiatives such as driver incentive programs and close call/near miss reporting.

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