National Academies Press: OpenBook
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Manual to Improve Rail Transit Safety at Platform/Vehicle and Platform/Guideway Interfaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24690.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Manual to Improve Rail Transit Safety at Platform/Vehicle and Platform/Guideway Interfaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24690.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Manual to Improve Rail Transit Safety at Platform/Vehicle and Platform/Guideway Interfaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24690.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Manual to Improve Rail Transit Safety at Platform/Vehicle and Platform/Guideway Interfaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24690.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Manual to Improve Rail Transit Safety at Platform/Vehicle and Platform/Guideway Interfaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24690.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Manual to Improve Rail Transit Safety at Platform/Vehicle and Platform/Guideway Interfaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24690.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Manual to Improve Rail Transit Safety at Platform/Vehicle and Platform/Guideway Interfaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24690.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Manual to Improve Rail Transit Safety at Platform/Vehicle and Platform/Guideway Interfaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24690.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

2017 T R A N S I T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 189 Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation Subject Areas Public Transportation Manual to Improve Rail Transit Safety at Platform/Vehicle and Platform/Guideway Interfaces Katharine Hunter-Zaworski Dylan Anderson OregOn State UniverSity Corvallis, Oregon Uwe Rutenberg rUtenberg DeSign inc. Ottawa, Canada Ewa Tomaszewska James McConnell HDr inc. Ottawa, Canada

TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 189 Project A-40 ISSN 1073-4872 ISBN 978-0-309-44617-4 © 2017 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Transit Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM The nation’s growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Cur- rent systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating prob- lems, adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and introduce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Coopera- tive Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213—Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administration—now the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- solving research. TCRP, modeled after the successful National Coop- erative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), undertakes research and other technical activities in response to the needs of transit ser- vice providers. The scope of TCRP includes various transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was authorized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement outlining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooperating organi- zations: FTA; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research organization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identi- fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. The panels prepare project statements (requests for propos- als), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired effect if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on disseminat- ing TCRP results to the intended users of the research: transit agen- cies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for workshops, train- ing aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are imple- mented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational problems. TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Published research reports of the TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research team would like to thank the rail transit organizations and their representatives for their valuable input, assistance, and contributions to this project. CRP STAFF FOR TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 189 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Dianne S. Schwager, Senior Program Officer Daniel J. Magnolia, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Kami Cabral, Editor TCRP PROJECT A-40 PANEL Field of Operations Walt Stringer, RTD-Denver, Littleton, CO (Chair) Dennis Cannon, Synergy, LLC, Washington, DC John G. Gaul, MTA - New York City Transit, New York, NY James H. Lambert, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA Gregory L. Newmark, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS Robert S. O’Neil, Robert O’Neil and Assoc., LLC, Potomac, MD Seri Park, Villanova University, Villanova, PA Eric Petersen, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Decatur, GA James B. Webb, Project Engineering Consultants, West Jordan, UT Patrick Centolanzi, FTA Liaison Dharm Guruswamy, FTA Liaison Charles Joseph, APTA Liaison Scott J. Windley, US Access Board Liaison Bernardo Kleiner, TRB Liaison

TCRP Research Report 189: Manual to Improve Rail Transit Safety at Platform/Vehicle and Platform/Guideway Interfaces is a resource for transit agencies to improve safety at rail transit platform/guideway and platform/vehicle interfaces. The manual provides treatment strategies to prevent incidents and improve safety at platform/guideway and platform/vehicle interfaces. The research focused on rail transit systems with level or near level boarding where the vehicle floors are level or near level with the platform. The manual is based on a literature review, site visits to rail transit agencies, incident data analysis, and conversations with members of the transit industry. Although travel by public transit is one of the safest modes of transportation, incidents have resulted in injuries and sometimes fatalities at rail transit platform/guideway and platform/ vehicle interfaces. The research showed that the mode of rail transit and the height of the platform from the top of rail were the most significant factors of platform/guideway and platform/vehicle interface incidents. Consequently, TCRP Research Report 189 presents treatment strategies for safety improvements for each rail transit mode. Strategies such as plat- form cameras, public outreach, marketing, media campaigns, employee training, and public education to raise awareness and improve safety at platform/guideway and platform/vehicle interfaces are used by all modes. Other strategies are mode specific as follows: Heavy Rail Transit treatment strategies to improve safety at platform/guideway and platform/vehicle interfaces include the following: • Treatments at the edge and on the surface of the platform. These include static gap fillers that reduce the horizontal gap between the platform and the vehicle, mechanical moving platform edge sections used on extremely curved platforms with large horizontal gaps, elec- tronic systems for guideway intrusion detection (e.g., infrared guideway intrusion detection systems), and platform screen doors for guideway intrusion prevention. • Treatments at vehicle doors. This project focused on vehicles that have level boarding with no interior steps at the boarding door. The most common vehicle-based treatments include fixed door threshold extensions and mechanically deployed bridges and ramps. • Operational improvements that include additional staff on the platform. These treatments and strategies include adjusting station dwell times, providing specific door locations on plat- forms, zonal door closing schemes, and increasing staff at stations with curved platforms during peak hours and on crowded platforms. Commuter rail operators have developed treatments to reduce the impact of both hori- zontal and vertical gap between the platform and the train cars that include manually oper- ated bridges, moving platforms, platform edge extenders, hydraulically operated gangways, separate sidings, and gauntlet tracks. F O R E W O R D By Dianne S. Schwager Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

Light rail and streetcar operators report passenger intrusions into the guideway and between cars. Some treatments for between-car intrusions include warning placards; platform- based bollards; and between-car flexible paddles, belts, or chains. TCRP Research Report 189 findings determined that the gender and age of passengers contribute to reported platform/guideway and platform/vehicle interface incidents. Female passengers, older passengers, and young children are more highly impacted by gaps. The major passenger behaviors reported in the literature and incident data that contribute to incidents are disruptive behavior, distracted behavior, and trespassing.

1 Summary 5 Chapter 1 Introduction 5 Background 5 Project Objective 5 Factors That Affect Safety at the Platform/Guideway and Platform/ Vehicle Interfaces 7 Organization of the Manual 8 Chapter 2 Rail Transit Issues That Impact Platform/Guideway and Platform/Vehicle Interface Safety 8 Introduction 8 Transit Modes 12 Regulations and Standards 16 Railroad Track, Station, and Train Car Maintenance 17 Chapter 3 Platform/Guideway and Platform/Vehicle Interface Incident Characteristics and Rail Safety Programs 17 Introduction 17 Incident Characteristics 18 Rail Safety Programs 20 Evaluating the Success of Treatment Strategies 22 Chapter 4 Factors That Impact Safety at Rail Transit Platform/ Guideway and Platform/Vehicle Interfaces 22 Introduction 22 Platform Design 22 Platform Height from Top of Rail 25 Platform Surface 26 Track Infrastructure and Geometry 27 Platform/Vehicle Interface Characteristics 28 Vehicle Characteristics 31 Chapter 5 Passenger Characteristics and Human Behavior That Impact Safety at Platform/Guideway and Platform/Vehicle Interfaces 31 Introduction 31 Passenger Characteristics 33 Passenger Behavior 36 Chapter 6 Treatment Strategies to Improve Safety at the Platform/Guideway Interface 36 Introduction 36 Platform-Based Treatments C O N T E N T S

38 Platform Edge Treatments: Gap Fillers 41 Vertical Gap Treatment 42 Special Treatments for Curved Platforms 44 Treatments for Shared Use High Height Platforms 46 Electronic Systems for Guideway Intrusion Detection 50 Guideway Intrusion Prevention 53 Other Platform Treatments 57 Track Geometry Treatments 59 Chapter 7 Vehicle-Based Treatments to Improve Safety at the Platform/Vehicle Interface 59 Introduction 59 Door Threshold Extensions 59 Movable Vehicle-Based Gap Fillers 59 Vehicle-Based Ramps and Bridging Plates 61 Vehicle-Based Between-Car Barriers 62 Door Closure Detection Technologies 64 Chapter 8 Operational Treatments and Modifications of Passenger Behavior to Improve Safety at Platform/ Guideway and Platform/Vehicle Interfaces 64 Introduction 64 Operational Treatments for Curved Platforms 66 Public Relations, Outreach, and Marketing 72 Chapter 9 Key Findings and Suggestions 72 Key Findings 74 Conclusions 74 Suggestions for Possible Improvements and Further Research 76 References 79 Glossary of Terms

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TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Research Report 189: Manual to Improve Rail Transit Safety at Platform/Vehicle and Platform/Guideway Interfaces provides treatment strategies to prevent incidents and improve safety at platform/guideway and platform/vehicle interfaces. The research focused on rail transit systems with level or near level boarding where the vehicle floors are level or near level with the platform.

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