Abid, A., D. Galuska, L. K. Khan, C. Gillespie, E. S. Ford, and M. K. Serdula. 2005. Are healthcare professionals advising obese patients to lose weight? A trend analysis. Med-scape General Medicine 7(4):10.
Action for Healthy Kids. 2004. The learning connection: The value of improving nutrition and physical activity in our schools. http://www.actionforhealthykids.org/storage/documents/AFHK_The_Learning_Connection_The_Value_of_Improving_Nutrition_and_Physical_Activity_in_our_Schools_2004_-_Full_Report_011006.pdf (accessed January 9, 2017).
Adams, K. M., M. Kohlmeier, and S. H. Zeisel. 2010. Nutrition education in U.S. medical schools: Latest update of a national survey. Academic Medicine 85(9):1537-1542.
Adams, M. A., L. D. Frank, J. Schipperijn, G. Smith, J. Chapman, L. B. Christiansen, N. Coffee, D. Salvo, L. du Toit, J. Dygryn, A. A. Hino, P. C. Lai, S. Mavoa, J. D. Pinzon, N. Van de Weghe, E. Cerin, R. Davey, D. Macfarlane, N. Owen, and J. F. Sallis. 2014. International variation in neighborhood walkability, transit, and recreation environments using geographic information systems: The IPEN adult study. International Journal of Health Geographics 13:43.
American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. 2016. Estimate of bariatric surgery numbers, 2011-2015. https://asmbs.org/resources/estimate-of-bariatric-surgery-numbers (accessed January 3, 2017).
Apovian, C. M., L. J. Aronne, D. H. Bessesen, M. H. Murad, U. Pagotto, D. H. Ryan, and C. D. Still. 2015. Pharmacological management of obesity: An Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 100(2):342-362.
Avidor, Y. C. D. Still, M. Brunner, J. N. Buchwald, and H. Buchwald. 2007. Primary care and subspecialty management of morbid obesity: Referral patterns for bariatric surgery. Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases 3(3):392-407.
Bardia, A., S. G. Holtan, J. M. Slezak, and W. G. Thompson. 2007. Diagnosis of obesity by primary care physicians and impact on obesity management. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 82(8):927-932.
Berger, M., K. Konty, S. Day, L. D. Silver, C. Nonas, B. D. Kerker, C. Greene, T. Farley, and L. Harr. 2011. Obesity in K-8 students—New York City, 2006-07 to 2010-11 school years. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 60(49):1673-1678.
Bleich, S. N., W. L. Bennett, K. A. Gudzune, and L. A. Cooper. 2012. National survey of US primary care physicians’ perspectives about causes of obesity and solutions to improve care. BMJ Open 2(6) e001871
Branum, A. M., S. E. Kirmeyer, and E. C. Gregory. 2016. Prepregnancy body mass index by maternal characteristics and state: Data from the birth certificate, 2014. National Vital Statistics Reports 65(6):1-11.
Carlson, J. A., J. F. Sallis, G. J. Norman, T. L. McKenzie, J. Kerr, E. M. Arredondo, H. Madanat, A. M. Mignano, K. L. Cain, J. P. Elder, and B. E. Saelens. 2013. Elementary school practices and children’s objectively measured physical activity during school. Preventive Medicine 57(5):591-595.
Carlson, J. A., A. M. Mignano, G. J. Norman, T. L. McKenzie, J. Kerr, E. M. Arredondo, H. Madanat, K. L. Cain, J. P. Elder, B. E. Saelens, and J. F. Sallis. 2014. Socioeconomic disparities in elementary school practices and children s physical activity during school. American Journal of Health Promotion 28(3 Suppl.):S47-S53.
CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2013. Progress on childhood obesity: Many states show declines. https://www.cdc.gov/vitalsigns/childhoodobesity/infographic-text.html (accessed November 28, 2016).
CDC. 2015. Adult obesity causes and consequences. https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/adult/causes.html (accessed December 19, 2016).
CDC. 2016a. Adult obesity prevalence maps. https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/prevalence-maps.html (accessed February 2, 2017).
CDC. 2016b. Diabetes. Working to reverse the U.S. epidemic. https://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/resources/publications/aag/pdf/2016/diabetes-aag.pdf (accessed December 8, 2016).
CDC. 2016c. Health, United States, 2015: With special feature on racial and ethnic health disparities. Hyattsville, MD: CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/hus15.pdf#053 (accessed February 2, 2017).
CDC. n.d. Spectrum of opportunities for obesity prevention in early care and education. https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/downloads/Spectrum-of-Opportunities-for-Obesity-Prevention-in-Early-Care-and-Education-Setting_TAbriefing.pdf (accessed February 2, 2017).
Chang, S. H., C. R. T. Stoll, J. Song, J. E. Varela, C. J. Eagon, and G. A. Colditz. 2014. The effectiveness and risks of bariatric surgery: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis, 2003-2012. JAMA Surgery 149(3):275-287.
Cohen, J. F., S. Richardson, E. Parker, P. J. Catalano, and E. B. Rimm. 2014. Impact of the new U.S. Department of Agriculture school meal standards on food selection, consumption, and waste. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 46(4):388-394.
CSDH (Commission on Social Determinants of Health). 2008. Closing the gap in a generation: Health equity through action on the social determinants of health. Final Report of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
Cyr, P. R., A. E. Haskins, C. Holt, and J. Hanifi. 2016. Weighty problems: Predictors of family physicians documenting overweight and obesity. Family Medicine 48(3):217-221.
Daneschvar, H. L., M. D. Aronson, and G. W. Smetana. 2016. FDA-approved anti-obesity drugs in the United States. American Journal of Medicine 129(8):879, e871-e876.
Diamant, A., J. Milner, M. Cleghorn, S. Sockalingam, A. Okrainec, T. D. Jackson, and F. A. Quereshy. 2014. Analysis of patient attrition in a publicly funded bariatric surgery program. Journal of the American College of Surgery 219(5):1047-1055.
Dietz, W. H., B. Belay, D. Bradley, S. Kahan, N. D. Muth, E. Sanchez, and L. Solomon. 2017. A model framework that integrates community and clinical systems for the prevention and management of obesity and other chronic diseases. Washington, DC: National Academy of Medicine. https://nam.edu/a-model-framework-that-integrates-community-and-clinical-systems-for-the-prevention-and-management-of-obesity-and-other-chronic-diseases (accessed February 24, 2017).
Economos, C., M. Mueller, N. Schultz, J. Gervis, G. Miller, and R. R. Pate. In press. Investigating best practices of district-wide physical activity programmatic efforts in U.S. schools—A mixed-methods approach.
ED (Department of Education). 2016. Race to the top—early learning challenge. https://www2.ed.gov/programs/racetothetop-earlylearningchallenge/index.html (accessed January 9, 2017).
Engelberg, J. K., T. L. Conway, C. Geremia, K. L. Cain, B. E. Saelens, K. Glanz, L. D. Frank, and J. F. Sallis. 2016. Socioeconomic and race/ethnic disparities in observed park quality. BMC Public Health 16(1):395.
ERS (Economic Research Service). 2016. Fruit and vegetable prices. Washington, DC: USDA. https://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/fruit-and-vegetable-prices (accessed January 5, 2017).
Fidelity Benefits Consulting and National Business Group on Health. 2016. Moving from wellness to wellbeing: Seventh Annual Employer-Sponsored Health and Wellbeing Survey. http://www.medencentive.com/Studies_Support_Files/NBGH%20Fidelity%202016%20Wellbeing%20Survey_Report_FINAL.pdf (accessed January 9, 2017).
Fink, J., G. L. Morris, M. Singh, D. Nelson, R. Walker, and R. Cisler. 2014. Obesity remains underdiagnosed: Discordant documentation of obesity body mass index and obesity diagnosis in patients’ electronic medical record. Journal of Patient-Centered Research Reviews 1:142.
FNS (Food and Nutrition Service). 2016. School meals: Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act. https://www.fns.usda.gov/school-meals/healthy-hunger-free-kids-act (accessed January 9, 2017).
Forman-Hoffman, V., A. Little, and T. Wahls. 2006. Barriers to obesity management: A pilot study of primary care clinicians. BMC Family Practice 7:35.
Fryar, C. D., M. D. Carroll, and C. L. Ogden. 2012. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity among adults: United States, trends 1960-1962 through 2009-2010. Hyattsville, MD: NCHS. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hestat/obesity_adult_09_10/obesity_adult_09_10.htm (accessed January 9, 2017).
Fryar, C. D., M. D. Carroll, and C. L. Ogden. 2014. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity among adults: United States, trends 1963-1965 through 2011-2012. Hyattsville, MD: NCHS. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hestat/obesity_child_11_12/obesity_child_11_12.htm (accessed January 9, 2017).
Funk, L. M., S. Jolles, L. E. Fischer, and C. I. Voils. 2015. Patient and referring practitioner characteristics associated with the likelihood of undergoing bariatric surgery: A systematic review. JAMA Surgery 150(10):999-1005.
Funk, L. M., S. A. Jolles, C. C. Greenberg, M. L. Schwarze, N. Safdar, M. A. McVay, J. C. Whittle, M. L. Maciejewski, and C. I. Voils. 2016. Primary care physician decision making regarding severe obesity treatment and bariatric surgery: A qualitative study. Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases 12(4):893-901.
Hallal, P. C., L. B. Andersen, F. C. Bull, R. Guthold, W. Haskell, U. Ekelund, and Lancet Physical Activity Series Working Group. 2012. Global physical activity levels: Surveillance progress, pitfalls, and prospects. Lancet 380(9838):247-257.
Hasson, B. R., C. Apovian, and N. Istfan. 2015. Racial/ethnic differences in insulin resistance and beta cell function: Relationship to racial disparities in type 2 diabetes among African Americans versus Caucasians. Current Obesity Reports 4(2):241-249.
Healthy Weight Commitment Foundation. 2016. 2016 annual report. http://www.healthyweightcommit.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/HWCF_2016_Annual_Report.pdf (accessed January 9, 2017).
HHS (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). 2001. The surgeon general’s call to action to prevent and decrease overweight and obesity. Rockville, MD: HHS, Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General.
HHS. 2015. Step it up!: The surgeon general’s call to action to promote walking and walkable communities. Washington, DC: HHS, Office of the Surgeon General.
Howe, M., A. Leidel, S. M. Krishnan, A. Weber, M. Rubenfire, and E. A. Jackson. 2010. Patient-related diet and exercise counseling: Do providers’ own lifestyle habits matter? Preventive Cardiology 13(4):180-185.
HRSA (Health Resources and Services Administration). n.d. National outcome measures. https://mchb.tvisdata.hrsa.gov/PrioritiesAndMeasures/NationalOutcomeMeasures (accessed February 9, 2017).
Imaz, I., C. Martinez-Cervell, E. E. Garcia-Alvarez, J. M. Sendra-Gutierrez, and J. GonzalezEnriquez. 2008. Safety and effectiveness of the intragastric balloon for obesity. A meta-analysis. Obesity Surgery 18(7):841-846.
IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2005. Preventing childhood obesity: Health in the balance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
IOM. 2007. Progress in preventing childhood obesity: How do we measure up? Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
IOM. 2013. Educating the student body: Taking physical activity and physical education to school. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
Jensen, M. D., D. H. Ryan, C. M. Apovian, J. D. Ard, A. G. Comuzzie, K. A. Donato, F. B. Hu, V. S. Hubbard, J. M. Jakicic, R. F. Kushner, C. M. Loria, B. E. Millen, C. A. Nonas, F. X. Pi-Sunyer, J. Stevens, V. J. Stevens, T. A. Wadden, B. M. Wolfe, and S. Z. Yanovski. 2014. 2013 AHA/ACC/TOS guideline for the management of overweight and obesity in adults: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and The Obesity Society. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 63(25 Pt. B):2985-3023.
Kanters, M. A., J. N. Bocarro, M. B. Edwards, J. M. Casper, and M. F. Floyd. 2013. School sport participation under two school sport policies: Comparisons by race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 45(Suppl. 1):S113-S121.
Kashyap, S. R., P. Gatmaitan, S. Brethauer, and P. Schauer. 2010. Bariatric surgery for type 2 diabetes: Weighing the impact for obese patients. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine 77(7):468-476.
King, M. A., F. L. Nkoy, C. G. Maloney, and N. L. Mihalopoulos. 2015. Physicians and physician trainees rarely identify or address overweight/obesity in hospitalized children. Journal of Pediatrics 167(4):816-820.
Ko, J. Y., D. R. Brown, D. A. Galuska, J. Zhang, H. M. Blanck, and B. E. Ainsworth. 2008. Weight loss advice U.S. obese adults receive from health care professionals. Preventive Medicine 47(6):587-592.
Korber, K. E. 2011. Barriers to obesity treatment: Developing management strategies that work. http://nurse-practitioners-and-physician-assistants.advanceweb.com/Features/Articles/Barriers-to-Obesity-Treatment.aspx (accessed January 3, 2017).
LaRowe, T. L., E. J. Tomayko, A. M. Meinen, J. Hoiting, C. Saxler, B. Cullen, and the Wisconsin Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Initiative (WECOPI). 2016. Active early: One-year policy intervention to increase physical activity among early care and education programs in Wisconsin. BMC Public Health 16(1):607.
Lewis, K. H., and K. A. Gudzune. 2014. Overcoming challenges to obesity counseling: Suggestions for the primary care provider. Journal of Clinical Outcomes Management 21(3):123-133.
Lewis, K. H., S. A. Edwards-Hampton, and J. D. Ard. 2016. Disparities in treatment uptake and outcomes of patients with obesity in the USA. Current Obesity Reports 5(2):282-290.
Ma, J., L. Xiao, and R. S. Stafford. 2009. Underdiagnosis of obesity in adults in U.S. outpatient settings. Archives of Internal Medicine 169(3):313-314.
McAlpine, D. D., and A. R. Wilson. 2007. Trends in obesity-related counseling in primary care: 1995-2004. Medical Care 45(4):322-329.
Mokdad, A. H., M. K. Serdula, W. H. Dietz, B. A. Bowman, J. S. Marks, and J. P. Koplan. 1999. The Spread of the obesity epidemic in the United States, 1991-1998. Journal of the American Medical Association 282(16):1519-1522.
NASEM (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine). 2016. Obesity in the early childhood years: State of the science and implementation of promising solutions: Workshop summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
National Business Group on Health. 2017. About the Business Group. https://www.businessgrouphealth.org/about/index.cfm (accessed January 9, 2017).
NCHS (National Center for Health Statistics). 2016. Early release of selected estimates based on data from the National Health Interview Survey, 2015. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhis/earlyrelease/earlyrelease201605_07.pdf (accessed January 4, 2017).
Ng, S. W., M. M. Slining, and B. M. Popkin. 2014. The Healthy Weight Commitment Foundation pledge: Calories sold from U.S. consumer packaged goods, 2007-2012. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 47(4):508-519.
Office of Child Care. 2016. CCDF reauthorization. https://www.acf.hhs.gov/occ/ccdf-reauthorization (accessed January 9, 2017).
Office of Smoking and Health. 2001. Women and smoking: A report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: CDC. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK44303 (accessed January 9, 2017).
Ogden, C. L., M. D. Carroll, C. D. Fryar, and K. M. Flegal. 2015. Prevalence of obesity among adults and youth: United States, 2011-2014. NCHS data brief no. 219. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db219.htm (accessed January 9, 2017).
Ogden, C. L., M. D. Carroll, H. G. Lawman, C. D. Fryar, D. Kruszon-Moran, B. K. Kit, and K. M. Flegal. 2016. Trends in obesity prevalence among children and adolescents in the United States, 1988-1994 through 2013-2014. Journal of the American Medical Association 315(21):2292-2299.
Pan, L., L. C. McGuire, H. M. Blanck, A. L. May-Murriel, and L. M. Grummer-Strawn. 2015. Racial/ethnic differences in obesity trends among low-income children. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 48(5):570-574.
Partnership for a Healthier America. 2015. 2014 annual progress report. http://ahealthieramerica.org/about/annual-progress-reports (accessed January 9, 2017).
Patel, D. 2015. Pharmacotherapy for the management of obesity. Metabolism 64(11):1376-1385.
Paul, P., S. A. Carlson, D. D. Carroll, D. Berrigan, and J. E. Fulton. 2015. Walking for transportation and leisure among U.S. adults—National Health Interview Survey 2010. Journal of Physical Activity and Health 12(Suppl. 1):S62-S69.
Perlman, S. E., R. B. Reinhold, and G. S. Nadzam. 2007. How do family practitioners perceive surgery for the morbidly obese? Surgery of Obesity Related Diseases 3(4):428-433.
Petrin, C., K. Prakash, S. Kahan, and C. Gallagher. 2014. Medicaid fee-for service treatment of obesity interventions. 50 state and District of Columbia survey. http://stopobesityalliance.org/wp-content/themes/stopobesityalliance/pdfs/Medicaid%20FFS%20Treatment%20of%20Obesity%20Interventions%202014.pdf (accessed December 8, 2016).
Phillips, E., J. Ponce, S. A. Cunneen, S. Bhoyrul, E. Gomez, S. Ikramuddin, M. Jacobs, M. Kipnes, L. Martin, R. T. Marema, J. Pilcher, R. Rosenthal, R. Rubenstein, J. Teixeira, T. Trus, and N. Zundel. 2009. Safety and effectiveness of realize adjustable gastric band: 3-year prospective study in the United States. Surgery of Obesity and Related Disorders 5(5):588-597.
Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans Midcourse Report Subcommittee of the President’s Council on Fitness, Sports, & Nutrition. 2012. Physical activity guidelines for Americans midcourse report: Strategies to increase physical activity among youth. Washington, DC: HHS.
Ribaric, G., J. N. Buchwald, and T. W. McGlennon. 2014. Diabetes and weight in comparative studies of bariatric surgery vs. conventional medical therapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Obesity Surgery 24(3):437-455.
Sallis, J. F., K. L. Cain, T. L. Conway, K. A. Gavand, R. A. Millstein, C. M. Geremia, L. D. Frank, B. E. Saelens, K. Glanz, and A. C. King. 2015. Is your neighborhood designed to support physical activity? A brief streetscape audit tool. Preventing Chronic Disease 12:E141.
Samaranayake, N. R., K. L. Ong, R. Y. Leung, and B. M. Cheung. 2012. Management of obesity in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2008. Annals of Epidemiology 22(5):349-353.
Schroeder, S. A. 2007. Shattuck lecture. We can do better—improving the health of the American people. New England Journal of Medicine 357(12):1221-1228.
Taylor, V. H., R. S. McIntyre, G. Remington, R. D. Levitan, B. Stonehocker, and A. M. Sharma. 2012. Beyond pharmacotherapy: Understanding the links between obesity and chronic mental illness. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 57(1):5-12.
Thompson, C. C., B. K. Abu Dayyeh, R. Kushner, S. Sullivan, A. B. Schorr, A. Amaro, C. M. Apovian, T. Fullum, A. Zarrinpar, M. D. Jensen, A. C. Stein, S. Edmundowicz, M. Kahaleh, M. Ryou, J. M. Bohning, G. Ginsberg, C. Huang, D. D. Tran, J. P. Glaser, J. A. Martin, D. L. Jaffe, F. A. Farraye, S. B. Ho, N. Kumar, D. Harakal, M. Young, C. E. Thomas, A. P. Shukla, M. B. Ryan, M. Haas, H. Goldsmith, J. McCrea, and L. J. Aronne. 2016. Percutaneous gastrostomy device for the treatment of class II and class III obesity: Results of a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Gastroenterology [Epub ahead of print].
Thornton, C. M., T. L. Conway, K. L. Cain, K. A. Gavand, B. E. Saelens, L. D. Frank, C. M. Geremia, K. Glanz, A. C. King, and J. F. Sallis. 2016. Disparities in pedestrian streetscape environments by income and race/ethnicity. SSM-Population Health 2:206-216.
USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). 2014. Evaluation of the Healthy Incentives Pilot (HIP). Final report. http://www.fns.usda.gov/sites/default/files/HIP-Final.pdf (accessed December 9, 2016).
USDA. 2015. Secretary Vilsack announces additional progress in addressing childhood hunger, applauds pediatricians for their commitment. USDA release no. 0297.15 https://www.fns.usda.gov/pressrelease/2015/029715 (accessed January 5, 2017).
Wadden, T. A., and E. Didie. 2003. What’s in a name?: Patients’ preferred terms for describing obesity. Obesity Research 11(9):1140-1146.
Ward, D. S., E. Welker, A. Choate, K. E. Henderson, M. Lott, A. Tovar, A. Wilson, and J. F. Sallis. 2016. Strength of obesity prevention interventions in early care and education settings: A systematic review. Preventive Medicine [Epub ahead of print].
Westerveld, D., and D. Yang. 2016. Through thick and thin: Identifying barriers to bariatric surgery, weight loss maintenance, and tailoring obesity treatment for the future. Surgery Research and Practice Article ID 8616581.
Wisconsin Council on Children and Families. 2013. Race to equity: A baseline report on the state of social disparities in Dane County. http://racetoequity.net/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/WCCF-R2E-Report.pdf (accessed November 23, 2016).
Xia, Y., C. M. Kelton, J. J. Guo, B. Bian, and P. C. Heaton. 2015. Treatment of obesity: Pharmacotherapy trends in the United States from 1999 to 2010. Obesity 23(8):1721-1728.
This page intentionally left blank.