In September 2015, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were adopted at the United Nations (UN) Development Summit to serve as a 15-year plan of action for all countries and people. The SDGs include 17 specific goals, and 169 associated targets that set out quantitative objectives across the social, economic, and environmental dimensions of sustainable development, all to be achieved by 2030 (UN, 2015). Health has been recognized as crucial for sustainable human development (Alleyne et al., 2013) and an essential contributor to the economic growth of society (Economist Intelligence Unit, 2016). Beyond the goal to “ensure healthy lives and promoting well-being for all at all ages (SDG 3),” many of the other SDGs include targets that are essential to address the environmental and social determinants of health.
While the SDGs are global goals, their implementation will be led by individual countries. National governments are creating action plans based on their own development status and associated priorities. In this process, governments are identifying opportunities to reach their goals through partnerships with other sectors, including business. Stakeholders in the business sector are assessing their interests and competen-
1 The planning committee’s role was limited to planning the workshop series. The Proceedings of a Workshop Series has been prepared by the rapporteurs as a factual account of what occurred at the workshop. Statements, recommendations, and opinions expressed are those of individual presenters and participants and are not necessarily endorsed or verified by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. They should not be construed as reflecting any group consensus.
cies, and evaluating how they can align with the goals and partner with governments.
Goal 17 of the SDGs, “Strengthen the means of implementation, and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development,” is acknowledged to be a crucial mechanism for achieving the goals (Zapatrina, 2016). Public–private partnerships (PPPs) can combine the strengths of private actors, such as innovation, technical knowledge and skills, managerial efficiency and entrepreneurial spirit, and the role of public actors, including social responsibility, social justice, public accountability, and local knowledge, to create an enabling environment for delivering high-quality health services and outcomes (Roehrich et al., 2014). PPPs have long-served as a mechanism for providing public services and goods and are currently used in a variety of sectors, with evidence indicating they are most widely established in health care, infrastructure, water supply, and agriculture (Tang et al., 2010).
While there is no universal definition, PPPs typically serve as “a mechanism for government to procure and implement public infrastructure and/or services using the resources and expertise of the private sector” (World Bank, 2016). PPPs are not turnkey public procurement contracts or, on the other side of the spectrum, outright privatization where there is a limited role for the public sector (World Bank, 2015). Rather, within PPPs, public and private parties share risks, responsibilities, and decision-making processes. Given the ambitious nature of the SDGs agenda, it has been acknowledged that PPPs that “emphasize transformation over transaction will be critical in achieving the scale and impact required to catalyze substantial change” (KPMG International, 2016). These “transformational” partnerships tap into not only the financial resources of the private sector, but also rely on private-sector expertise and innovation to design integrative approaches to achieving sustained impact and scale (KPMG International, 2016).
Despite the increased popularity of PPPs in developed and developing countries (Bouman et al., 2013; Roehrich et al., 2014) and the increased attention of PPPs in the SDGs (UN, 2015), there still exists skepticism around notions of partnerships and its forms (Hodge and Greve, 2007). Given the limited published research on some elements of PPPs, questions regarding their effectiveness, efficiency, and convenience, particularly in comparison to other intervention models, still remain (Torchia et al., 2015).
Considering this context, the Forum on Public–Private Partnerships for Global Health and Safety (PPP Forum)2 convened a workshop series to examine potential opportunities to engage the private sector and develop partnerships to advance health and the SDGs. The series explored the following topics:
- health and private-sector engagement in the context of the SDGs
- public-sector strategies and plans for sustainable development
- potential strategies and approaches for private-sector engagement in the SDGs
- the enabling environment for effective partnerships in health and the SDGs
- several lessons from developing and implementing health-focused partnerships
The first workshop of the series was held June 23–24, 2016, at The New York Academy of Medicine, and the second workshop was held October 27–28, 2016, at the Wellcome Trust in London. The workshop series statement of task is provided in Box 1-1. The statement of task served as a guide to the planning committee in shaping the workshop agendas and the selection of priority discussion topics. While most of the questions in the statement of task were addressed throughout the workshop series, two questions were not specifically addressed within the discussions and thus are not addressed in the proceedings: How can health be integrated into the advancement of the other development goals? How can the health sector be leveraged to make progress beyond goal 3?
This Proceedings of a Workshop Series provides an account of the presentations and discussions at the two workshops. To present a more compelling record of the content shared over the total of 4 days of meetings, it is organized around the major topics that are listed above rather than presented in chronological order.
The content of this Proceedings of a Workshop Series is complemented by a background paper that was prepared in advance of the second workshop in the series and is included in Appendix A. The agendas
2 The PPP Forum was launched in late 2013 with the objective to foster a collaborative community of multisectoral health and safety leaders to leverage the strengths of multiple sectors and disciplines to yield benefits for global health and safety. PPP Forum workshops are an opportunity to share lessons learned and promising approaches, and to discuss how to improve future efforts in areas of global health and safety promotion that have been prioritized by PPP Forum members.
Opinions expressed within this proceedings are not those of the National Academies, the PPP Forum, or their agents, but rather of the presenters themselves. Such statements are the views of the speakers and do not reflect conclusions or recommendations of a formally appointed committee. This Proceedings of a Workshop Series was authored by designated rapporteurs based on the workshop presentations and discussions and does not represent the views of the institution, nor does it constitute a full or exhaustive overview of the field.
Alleyne, G., A. Binagwaho, A. Haines, S. Jahan, R. Nugent, A. Rojhani, D. Stuckler, and Lancet NCD Action Group. 2013. Embedding non-communicable diseases in the post-2015 development agenda. The Lancet 381(9866):566-574.
Bouman, S., R. Friperson, M. Gielen, and P. Wilms. 2013. Public-Private Partnerships in Developing Countries: A Systematic Literature Review, IOB Study No. 378. The Hague, Netherlands: Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands.
Economist Intelligence Unit. 2016. Economic growth and healthy populations in developing countries: A summary of recent literature. London: The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited.
Hodge, G. A., and C. Greve. 2007. Public–private partnerships: An international performance review. Public Administration Review 67(3):545-558.
KPMG International Cooperative. 2016. Unlocking the power of partnership. https://home.kpmg.com/content/dam/kpmg/pdf/2016/01/unlocking-power-of-partnership.pdf (accessed August 9, 2017).
Roehrich, J. R., M. A. Lewis, and G. George. 2014. Are public–private partnerships a healthy option? A systematic literature review. Social Science and Medicine 113:110-119.
Tang, L., Q. Shen, and E. W. Cheng. 2010. A review of studies on public–private partnership projects in the construction industry. International Journal of Project Management 28(7):683-694.
Torchia, M., A. Calabrò, and M. Morner. 2015. Public–Private Partnerships in the Health Care Sector: A systematic review of the literature. Public Management Review 17(2):236-261.
UN (United Nations). 2015. Transforming our world: The 2030 agenda for sustainable development: A/RES/70/1. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015/transformingourworld (accessed August 9, 2017).
UN News Centre. 2015. Remarks at the United Nations Private Sector Forum. http://www.un.org/apps/news/infocus/sgspeeches/print_full.asp?statID=2760 (accessed May 5, 2017).
World Bank. 2015. What Are Public-Private Partnerships? http://ppp.worldbank.org/public-private-partnership/overview/what-are-public-private-partnerships (accessed April 28, 2017). Updated on October 3, 2015.
World Bank. 2016. About public-private partnerships. https://ppp.worldbank.org/public-private-partnership/node/335 (accessed April 28, 2017). Updated on August 18, 2016.
Zapatrina, I. 2016. Sustainable Development Goals for developing economies and public-private partnership. European Procurement & Public Private Partnership Law Review 11(1):39-45.
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