RICHARD A. MESERVE (NAE), J.D., Harvard Law School; Ph.D. (Applied Physics) Stanford University; B.A., Tufts University, is President Emeritus of the Carnegie Institution for Science. Before assuming the Carnegie presidency in April 2003, he was Chairman of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), having served since October 1999. Before joining the NRC, Dr. Meserve was a partner in the law firm of Covington & Burling LLP, where he now serves on a part-time basis as a Senior Of Counsel. He devoted his legal practice to technical issues arising in environmental and toxic tort litigation, counseling scientific societies and high-tech companies, and nuclear licensing. Early in his career, he served as legal counsel to the President’s science advisor, and was a law clerk to Justice Harry A. Blackmun of the U.S. Supreme Court and to Judge Benjamin Kaplan of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and the American Philosophical Society; a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of Sciences, and the American Physical Society; and a Foreign Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. He currently serves as Chairman of the International Nuclear Safety Group, chartered by the International Atomic Energy Agency, and Co-Chairman of the Department of Energy’s Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee. He was formerly President of the Board of Overseers of Harvard University and now serves as a member of the Council of the National Academy of Engineering and of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He has previously served on numerous committees and boards of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, including as co-chair of the committee on Science, Technology, and Law. Dr. Meserve also serves on the boards of PG&E Corporation and TriAlpha Energy Corporation. He wrote the amicus briefs on behalf of the National Academy of Engineering in the Kumho case and on behalf of
the National Academy of Sciences in the Daubert case. These landmark cases established the basis for admitting expert testimony into court.
HAROLD E. VARMUS (NAS/NAM), M.D., co-recipient of a Nobel Prize in 1989 for studies of the genetic basis of cancer, joined the Meyer Cancer Center of Weill Cornell Medical College as the Lewis Thomas University Professor on April 1, 2015, when he also became a Senior Associate Member of the New York Genome Center. Previously, Dr. Varmus was the Director of the National Cancer Institute (2010-2015), President of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (2000-2010), and Director of the National Institutes of Health (1993-1999). A graduate of Amherst College and Harvard University in English literature and of Columbia University in medicine, he trained at Columbia University Medical Center, the National Institutes of Health, and the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) before joining the basic science faculty at UCSF, where he worked for over two decades (1971-1993). The author of more than 350 scientific papers and 5 books, including a memoir titled The Art and Politics of Science (2009), he was a co-chair of President Obama’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, co-founder and Chairman of the Board of the Public Library of Science, and chair of the Scientific Board of the Gates Foundation Grand Challenges in Global Health. He is a member of the National Academies of Sciences and Medicine and a foreign member of the Royal Society and is involved in several initiatives to promote science and health in developing countries.
ARTURO CASADEVALL (NAM) is Professor and Chair in the W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology at The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Formerly, he was Leo and Julia Forchheimer Professor of Microbiology and Immunology; Chair, Department of Microbiology and Immunology; and Professor, Department of Medicine at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. He has published more than 700 scientific papers and has co-authored a book on Cryptococcus neoformans. He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology and was elected to the American Society for Clinical Investigation, to the American Association of Physicians, and as a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Dr. Casadevall has served on numerous advisory committees to the National Institutes of Health including study sections, strategic planning for the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), and the blue ribbon panel on response to bioterrorism. He currently co-chairs the Board of Scientific Counselors for the NIAID and is a former member of the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity (NSABB). He is the founding editor of the first American Society for Microbiology general journal,
mBio, and serves on the editorial boards of several journals, and has been the recipient of numerous awards, most recently the Solomon A. Berson Medical Alumni Achievement Award in Basic Science-New York University School of Medicine, the Infectious Diseases Society of America Kass Lecturer, and the ASM William Hinton Research Training Center Award for mentoring scientists from underrepresented groups.
DENISE CHRYSLER, J.D., is director of the Mid-States Region of the Network for Public Health Law, located at the University of Michigan School of Public Health. The network assists public health practitioners to use law to improve the health of communities. She serves her local community as a member of the Ingham County (Michigan) Board of Health.
For 27 years, Ms. Chrysler provided legal services to Michigan’s state health department regarding communicable disease, immunization, environmental public health, public health research, privacy, health information exchange, and emergency legal preparedness and response. She worked extensively on the Michigan BioTrust for Health to make newborn screening blood specimens and associated data available for health research. She served as the state health department’s public health legal director, privacy officer, freedom of information coordinator, regulatory affairs officer, and member of the institutional review board. She also represented the health department as an assistant attorney general.
ANUJ C. DESAI is the William Voss-Bascom Professor of Law at the University of Wisconsin, where he teaches in both the Law School and the School of Library and Information Studies, offering classes in copyright, the First Amendment, legislation, legislation and regulation, and cyberlaw. He is currently on leave, serving as an administrative appellate judge, as a member of the Administrative Review Board of the U.S. Department of Labor. He also serves as a part-time Commissioner of the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission, an independent, quasi-judicial agency of the U.S. Department of Justice that adjudicates claims of U.S. nationals against foreign governments.
MICHAEL ETTENBERG (NAE) is Managing Partner at DOLCE Technologies, a company that commercializes technologies invented at leading universities, such as Princeton and Columbia. Previously, he retired from Sarnoff (formerly RCA) Labs after 35 years, ending as Senior Vice President in charge of all of Sarnoff’s device research, including small silicon integrated circuit fabrication, TV displays, optoelectronics, and cameras. Dr. Ettenberg has extensive experience with III-V materials and optoelectronic devices. He developed the dielectric mirrors used on all of today’s laser diodes. Dr. Ettenberg has published 110 papers and has been awarded 35 patents, mainly in the area of
optoelectronics. He also was president of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society and a member of the Defense Science Board.
DAVID FIDLER is the James Louis Calamaras Professor of Law at the Indiana University Maurer School of Law and is one of the world’s leading experts on international law and global health. His books in this area include Biosecurity in the Global Age: Biological Weapons, Public Health, and the Rule of Law (Stanford University Press, 2008) (with Lawrence O. Gostin), SARS, Governance, and the Globalization of Disease (Palgrave Macmillan, 2004), International Law and Public Health: Materials on and Analysis of Global Health Jurisprudence (Transnational Publishers, 2000), and International Law and Infectious Diseases (Clarendon Press, 1999). He has published mote than 100 articles and chapters on global health topics in legal, public health, medical, and political science journals and books.
In addition to his teaching and scholarly activities, Professor Fidler has served as an international legal consultant to the World Health Organization and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. He has twice been appointed by the Director-General of the World Health Organization as a member of the IHR Roster of Experts, the members of which advise the Director-General on matters relating to the International Health Regulations (2005). He is an Associate Fellow with the Centre on Global Health Security at the Royal Institute of International Affairs (Chatham House).
Professor Fidler also specializes in other topics, including international law relating to cybersecurity and cyberspace. He is an Adjunct Senior Fellow for Cybersecurity with the Council on Foreign Relations and is the editor of The Snowden Reader (Indiana University Press, 2015).
CLAIRE FRASER (NAM) is Director of the Institute for Genome Sciences and a Professor of Medicine at the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore, Maryland. She was previously the President and Director of The Institute for Genomic Research in Rockville, Maryland. Dr. Fraser has played a seminal role in the sequencing and analysis of human, animal, plant, and microbial genomes to better understand the role that genes play in development, evolution, physiology, and disease. Her current research interests are focused on the structure and function of the human git microbiota. Dr. Fraser has more than 240 scientific publications and has served on committees of the National Science Foundation, Department of Energy, and National Institutes of Health. She is the recipient of numerous awards and honors including the Promega Biotechnology Award and the E.O. Lawrence Award from the Department of Energy, she is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the American Association of Microbiology, and she has been elected into the Maryland Women’s Hall of Fame and the National Academy of Medicine.
MICHAEL HOPMEIER is the President, Unconventional Concepts, Inc. and has been a technical advisor and operational consultant to numerous governmental agencies including the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Defense Sciences Office, U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, U.S. Surgeon General, and the Deputy Assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Chemical and Biological Defense. He was one of the primary developers of the Bioterrorism Preparedness Program at the U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention, served as the Science and Technology Advisor to the U.S. Air Force Surgeon General, as well as the first S&T Advisor to the U.S. Marine Corps Chem/Bio Incident Response Force.
Mr. Hopmeier has been a member and/or task force chair for numerous senior advisory panels including the Defense Science Board and the National Academy of Sciences and served on the Senior Policy and Strategy Panel for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. He is a founding member and current member of the Executive Board of the International Counter-Terrorism Academic Community and an Associate Researcher of the Institute for Counter-Terrorism.
Mr. Hopmeier is an internationally recognized expert on countering suicide terrorism, disaster/crisis response. and emergency management and preparedness. He is a founder of a number of different start-up companies and sits on the board of several high-technology firms. He has been involved in numerous international programs as a manager or advisor and has supported a number of efforts in the UK, Greece, and Israel and has authored numerous papers and presentations on topics ranging from biological model development and biotechnology research to emergency response training and suicide bombing.
Mr. Hopmeier’s project areas include training and preparedness, chemical/ biological incident response, combat casualty care and medical support, crisis response and management, unconventional pathogen countermeasure programs, federal agency protective measures, counter-terrorism, and integrated federal/civilian disaster response.
JAMES LE DUC is Professor in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine and Director of the Galveston National Laboratory at the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) in Galveston, Texas, where he holds the John Sealy Distinguished University Chair in Tropical and Emerging Virology. The Galveston National Laboratory is a biocontainment facility involved in basic and applied research into highly pathogenic infectious diseases, including Ebola virus. Work under way includes investigations into the development of vaccines, therapeutics and diagnostics for emerging infectious diseases, and agents of potential use in bioterrorism. Prior to joining UTMB, Dr. Le Duc worked at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention where he served in various leadership roles, including director of the division of viral and rickettsial diseases, associate director for global health,
and coordinator for pandemic influenza preparedness. He had a 23-year career as an Officer in the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command with assignments at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, and several overseas duty stations. Dr. Le Duc is an expert in public health, specifically in infectious diseases caused by viruses. Dr. Le Duc is a Fellow of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, a current member of the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity, and a member of several other professional societies. Dr. Le Duc was a medical officer in communicable diseases at the World Health Organization (WHO) from 1992 to 1996, was instrumental in implementing the WHO program in emerging infectious diseases, and currently serves as a member of the WHO Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network steering committee. He is a National Associate of the National Research Council.
W. IAN LIPKIN, M.D., the John Snow Professor of Epidemiology and Professor of Neurology and Pathology at Columbia University, is internationally recognized for the development of genetic methods for microbial surveillance and discovery. Dr. Lipkin directs the Center for Infection and Immunity at Columbia University and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Center for Research in Diagnostics and Discovery, is a member of the Advisory Committee to the Director of the NIH, and Scientific Director of the Joint Research Laboratory for Pathogen Discovery in the Chinese Centers for Disease Control.
A graduate of the University of Chicago Laboratory School and Sarah Lawrence College, Dr. Lipkin obtained his M.D. at Rush Medical College, Medicine Residency at the University of Washington, Neurology, Residency at the University of California San Francisco, and Fellowship in Microbiology and Neuroscience at The Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California. His contributions include the first use of genetic methods to identify an infectious agent; implication of West Nile virus as the cause of the encephalitis in North America in 1999; invention of MassTag PCR and the first panmicrobial microarray; first use of deep sequencing in pathogen discovery; and molecular characterization of more than 900 viruses.
At the height of the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak, Dr. Lipkin traveled to the People’s Republic of China at the invitation of the World Health Organization, the Chinese Minister of Science and Technology, Xu Guanhua, and the Vice President of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Chen Zhu, hand-carrying 10,000 test kits to Beijing. After training clinical microbiologists in their use, he returned to New York, became ill, and was placed into quarantine. He nonetheless continued to co-direct SARS research efforts within CAS as Special Advisor through 2004. More recently, he was the sole external investigator to be invited by the Ministry of Health in Saudi Arabia to assist in identifying reservoirs and vectors for transmission of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.
Dr. Lipkin has been active in translating science to the public through print and digital media. He acted as chief scientific consultant for the Hollywood film Contagion, has been featured in dozens of news publications including The New York Times, BBC, and the Wall Street Journal. He has appeared on CNN, CBS, ABC, Nova, Charlie Rose, and Through the Wormhole with Morgan Freeman. In 2012, Dr. Lipkin was named “the world’s most celebrated virus hunter” by Discover Magazine. His honors include the following: Pew Scholar in the Biomedical Sciences, Japanese Human Science Foundation Visiting Professor, Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons Visiting Bruenn Professor, American Society of Microbiology Foundation Lecturer, Ellison Medical Foundation Senior Scholar in Global Infectious Disease, Fellow of the New York Academy of Sciences, Distinguished Lecturer of the National Center for Infectious Diseases, Fellow of the American Society for Microbiology, John Courage Professor National University of Singapore, Kinyoun Lecturer National Institutes of Health, Fellow of the Wildlife Conservation Society, Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, member of the Association of American Physicians, Oxford University Simonyi Lecturer, and recipient of the Villanova University Mendel Medal. In 2016 he received the International Science and Technology Cooperation Award, the top science honor in China for his contributions to the advancement of science in the country.
STEPHEN S. MORSE is Professor of Epidemiology and Director, Infectious Disease Epidemiology Certificate Program, Columbia University Medical Center Mailman School of Public Health. Dr. Morse’s interests focus on epidemiology and risk assessment of infectious diseases (particularly emerging infections, including influenza), and improving disease early warning systems.
In 2000, he returned to Columbia after 4 years in government as program manager for biodefense at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, where he co-directed the Pathogen Countermeasures program and subsequently directed the Advanced Diagnostics program. Before joining Columbia, he was assistant professor of virology at The Rockefeller University in New York and remains an adjunct faculty member. His book, Emerging Viruses (Oxford University Press) was selected by “American Scientist” for its list of “100 Top Science Books of the 20th Century.” Dr. Morse was chair and principal organizer of the 1989 National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases/National Institutes of Health Conference on Emerging Viruses, for which he originated the term and concept of emerging viruses/infections; served as a member of the Institute of Medicine/National Academy of Sciences’ Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health (and chaired its Task Force on Viruses) and was a contributor to its report, Emerging Infections (1992). He subsequently served on the Steering Committee of the Institute of Medicine’s Forum on Microbial Threats and the National Academy of Sciences’ committees on biowarfare threats, and as an adviser to numerous government and international organi-
zations. He was the founding chair of ProMED (the nonprofit international Program to Monitor Emerging Diseases) and was an originator of ProMED-mail, an international network inaugurated by ProMED in 1994 for outbreak reporting and disease monitoring using the Internet. Dr. Morse is a current member of the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity.
ANNE-MARIE MAZZA, Ph.D., is the senior director of the Committee on Science, Technology, and Law. Dr. Mazza joined the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in 1995. In 1999 she was named the first director of the Committee on Science, Technology, and Law. Dr. Mazza has been the study director on numerous Academy reports including Optimizing the Nation’s Investment in Academic Research (2016); International Summit on Human Gene Editing: A Global Discussion (2015); Identifying the Culprit: Assessing Eyewitness Identification (2014); Positioning Synthetic Biology to Meet the Challenges of the 21st Century (2013); Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence, 3rd Edition (2011); Review of the Scientific Approaches Used During the FBI’s Investigation of the 2001 Anthrax Letters (2011); Managing University Intellectual Property in the Public Interest (2010); Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward (2009); Science and Security in a Post 9/11 World (2007); Reaping the Benefits of Genomic and Proteomic Research: Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation, and Public Health (2005); and Intentional Human Dosing Studies for EPA Regulatory Purposes: Scientific and Ethical Issues (2004). Between October 1999 and October 2000, Dr. Mazza divided her time between the National Academies and the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, where she served as a senior policy analyst responsible for issues associated with a Presidential Review Directive on the government-university research partnership. Before joining the National Academies, Dr. Mazza was a senior consultant with Resource Planning Corporation. She is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Dr. Mazza was awarded a B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. from George Washington University.
JO L. HUSBANDS, Ph.D., is a Scholar/Senior Project Director with the Board on Life Sciences, where she manages studies and projects to help mitigate the risks of the misuse of scientific research for biological weapons or bioterrorism. She represents the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine on the Biosecurity Working Group of IAP: The Global Network of Science Academies, which also includes the academies of Australia, China, Cuba, Egypt, India, Nigeria, Poland (chair), and the United Kingdom. From 1991 to 2005 she was Director of the National Academies’ Committee on International Security and Arms Control and its Working Group on Biological Weapons
Control. Before joining the National Academies, she worked for several Washington, DC-based nongovernmental organizations focused on international security. Dr. Husbands is currently an adjunct professor in the Security Studies Program at Georgetown University, where she teaches a course on the International Arms Trade. She is a member of the Honor Roll of Women in International Security, the International Institute for Strategic Studies, and the Global Agenda Council on Nuclear, Chemical, and Biological Weapons of the World Economic Forum. She is also a fellow of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. She holds a Ph.D. in political science from the University of Minnesota and a master’s degree in international public policy (international economics) from The Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies.
STEVEN KENDALL, Ph.D., is program officer for the Committee on Science, Technology, and Law. Dr. Kendall has contributed to numerous National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine reports, including Optimizing the Nation’s Investment in Academic Research (2016); International Summit on Human Gene Editing: A Global Discussion (2015); Identifying the Culprit: Assessing Eyewitness Identification (2014); Positioning Synthetic Biology to Meet the Challenges of the 21st Century (2013); the Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence, 3rd Edition (2011); Review of the Scientific Approaches Used During the FBI’s Investigation of the 2001 Anthrax Mailings (2011); Managing University Intellectual Property in the Public Interest (2010); and Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward (2009). Dr. Kendall completed his Ph.D. in the Department of the History of Art and Architecture at the University of California, Santa Barbara, where he wrote a dissertation on 19th century British painting. Dr. Kendall received his M.A. in Victorian art and architecture at the University of London. Prior to joining the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in 2007, he worked at the Smithsonian American Art Museum and The Huntington in San Marino, California.
KAROLINA KONARZEWSKA is program coordinator for the Committee on Science, Technology, and Law. She is a master’s student of economics at George Mason University. She holds a master’s degree in international relations from New York University and a bachelor’s degree in political science from the College of Staten Island, City University of New York. Prior to joining the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Ms. Konarzewska worked at various research institutions in Washington, D.C., where she covered political and economic issues pertaining to Europe, Russia, and Eurasia.
KARIN MATCHETT, Ph.D., is a freelance writing consultant who works on topics in science, technology, and environment. Her work spans all phases of a document’s development—from sharp outline to first draft to polished product.
Dr. Matchett has done developmental evaluations and substantive editing for more than 200 research grants in academic settings and written strategic visioning documents, summaries of expert panels in academia, and proposals for academic program development and research. She also works with nonprofit organizations to develop reports, proposals, and web content.
Dr. Matchett has a Ph.D. in the history of science from the University of Minnesota, with an emphasis on 20th century life sciences and agriculture in the United States and Mexico. She completed a post-doctoral fellowship under the mentorship of Daniel Kevles at Yale University in which she did research and writing on topics at the intersection of the life sciences and law. Her current research focus is in energy and climate issues as they relate to human psychology, world history, and American society and culture.