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Guidebook for Preparing Public Notification Programs at Airports (2017)

Chapter: Chapter 5 - Developing the Program

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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Developing the Program." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Preparing Public Notification Programs at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24763.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Developing the Program." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Preparing Public Notification Programs at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24763.
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Page 42
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Developing the Program." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Preparing Public Notification Programs at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24763.
×
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Page 43
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Developing the Program." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Preparing Public Notification Programs at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24763.
×
Page 43
Page 44
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Developing the Program." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Preparing Public Notification Programs at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24763.
×
Page 44
Page 45
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Developing the Program." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Preparing Public Notification Programs at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24763.
×
Page 45
Page 46
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Developing the Program." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Preparing Public Notification Programs at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24763.
×
Page 46
Page 47
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Developing the Program." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Preparing Public Notification Programs at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24763.
×
Page 47
Page 48
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Developing the Program." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Preparing Public Notification Programs at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24763.
×
Page 48
Page 49
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Developing the Program." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Guidebook for Preparing Public Notification Programs at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24763.
×
Page 49

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40 The PPT is tasked with the complete development of the notification program. Coordination, cooperation, and communication between the various work groups are vital in order to ensure support, collaboration, and buy-in. The PPT must also strive for stakeholder acceptance and gain senior management approval. In certain situations, the PPT may also be tasked with ongo- ing oversight of the notification program following implementation. In this guidebook, resources that airports can adapt for use as they develop the program are labeled DP-1, DP-2, and so forth. Resources DP-1&2a, DP-6a, and DP-9 are provided at the end of this chapter. Resources DP-1&2b, DP-3 through DP-5, DP-6b, DP-7, and DP-8 are provided in Appendix E in the section labeled “OPDG for Developing the Program.” Steps in Developing the Program Step 1: Development of specific program goals. Program goals are general statements of what the program intends to accomplish. Although they are broad, written goal statements should include the expectations of the program, identify the desired results of the program, and address specific regulatory responsibilities. Written goals must be specific to identified recipient groups and targeted populations. See Resource DP-1&2a C h a p t e r 5 Developing the Program Goal Development • Write using broad statements, • Include long-term expectations, • Identify “desired results,” • Address specific regulatory responsibilities, and • Be specific to stakeholder/recipient groups. Step 2: Develop measurable objectives for each goal. Objectives can be process oriented or outcome oriented. Objective statements describe the results to be achieved and the manner in which they will be achieved. Usually multiple objectives are needed to address a single goal. “SMART” program objectives will be: • Specific, including details about the “who,” “what,” and “where” for each action; • Measurable, focusing on “how much” change is expected; • Achievable, giving realistic program resources and planning implementation expectations; See Resource DP-1&2a

Developing the program 41 • Relevant, relating directly to the airport’s established notification goals; and • Time-bound, focusing on “when” the objective will be achieved. To avoid issues with measuring success, it is also helpful to use only one action verb per objective. Step 3: Identify existing agreements and determine needed agreements that are applicable and should be included in the notification program. Letters of agreement may be established with: • FAA air traffic control tower (ATCT), • Agencies or personnel having responsibilities to the airport, • The surrounding community, • Neighboring businesses, • First responders and mutual aid providers, • Local government officials, • FBOs, and • Airlines (e.g., regarding the interfacing of airport emergency notifications to their gate hold area Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) systems). Step 4: Review all federal, state, and regional rules and regulations and understand which of them apply to airport notifications. Ensuring that the airport’s notification program complies with federal, state, regional, and local laws will help protect the airport during an audit or government inspection. Step 5: Determine any possibilities for notification sharing with outside agencies and add additional agreements, if possible. Outside agencies an airport might consider for notification sharing include: • The National Weather Service (NWS), • Regional emergency management agencies, • Other federal agencies, • Local government officials, • IPAWS, • Highway transportation departments, and • Transit authorities. Step 6: Establish and write program policies and procedures. Policies express intended actions—what the airport is going to do. Policies are broad state- ments that become directives, typically through the airport’s rules and regulations. An airport PMT’s steering committee often is tasked with the writing of policies—but whoever has this task is responsible for ensuring that the policies are realistic and achievable. It is advisable to spend time on collaboration to build support of all policies. Doing this helps ensure buy-in from stakeholders. Procedures describe the steps the airport will take to accomplish or meet the intent of the policy. Written procedures need to be detailed and specific; they may be found in training manu- als or in the airport’s standard operating procedures (SOPs). Each policy may have many proce- dures. The party tasked with writing the procedures (often the PPT) is responsible for ensuring that they are effective and can be followed. See Resource DP-3 (in Appendix E) See Resource DP-4 (in Appendix E) See Resource DP-5 (in Appendix E) See Resource DP-6a

42 Guidebook for preparing public Notification programs at airports A well-designed integration of policies and procedures will help in a timely execution of the airport’s notification program. Step 7: Establish and write standardized pre-scripted notification message templates. Pre-scripted message templates can be customized and sent to stakeholders via text and email, and can be used to make announcements over a PA system. Message templates are important to have and should be used when possible to control tone and ensure the clarity of the messages. Step 8: Establish and write procedures for an ongoing continuous improvement cycle. The continuous improvement cycle needs to begin during the rollout strategy phase of pro- gram implementation. An ongoing continuous improvement cycle is essential to any notification program as a way to ensure continued improved performance and proficiency (see Figure 5-1). Notifications for Diverse Audiences ADA Accommodations Signed into law July 26, 1990, The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) had the intent of making American society more accessible to people with disabilities. People with disabilities are a protected class; that is, they are protected from discrimination as defined by federal civil rights laws such as ADA and by state civil rights protections that detail the right to equal participation to enjoy and use services. Civil rights definitions protect broad groups of people who meet spe- cific criteria for participation in the class. Airport notification messaging needs to be provided in multiple languages whenever pos- sible. The selection of languages will be based primarily on the demographics of the populations using the airport or even specific areas of the airport. An example of language selection might be use of Spanish messaging in international gate areas where flights primarily service Latin American countries. Audible messaging is the most widely used method for public notifica- tions. Audible messaging is widely recognized as being an effective means of notification of the visually impaired population, whereas the use of strobe lights and visual messaging (signs) are commonly used as an effective means to deliver notifications to the hearing impaired. Airports also train staff to identify those needing assistance and accommodate when necessary. For airports to be truly inclusive, reaching the widest possible audience, airport public noti- fications must be sent in a way that accommodates the diversity of the traveling public and all potential notification recipients. Broadly defined, people with disabilities can include a wide range of individuals in all age groups, including but not limited to people with: • Vision loss, • Hearing loss, See Resource DP-7 (in Appendix E) See Resource DP-8 (in Appendix E) Design & Develop Train Conduct & Exercise Evaluate Plan Improvements Repeat Figure 5-1. Continuous improvement.

Developing the program 43 • Physical disabilities, • Mental health disabilities, • Developmental disabilities, • Intellectual or other cognitive disabilities, • Behavioral health issues, • Learning, understanding, memory, and speaking limitations. Diverse populations also have other access and functional needs (e.g., people from diverse cultures, including those who have limited English-language proficiency or are non-English speakers). When planning notifications for diverse audiences, it is helpful to recognize that any indi- vidual could deal with one or more of these issues simultaneously. Public notification planning must consider all potential audiences and make accommodations for them as required under federal, state, and local laws. Message Scripting and Templates Airports are advised to develop scripts or templates that can be used as necessary for the types of notifications that are most likely to be made. Message scripts and templates can be most valu- able in an emergency, as the rapid and unexpected onset of an emergency leaves little time for drafting a notification. A script will not likely contain all the details necessary for a complete notification, but it can be used as a starting point; that is, content can be added to customize the notification with the pertinent details that recipients will need. Research indicates that an effective emergency notification contains five pieces of information: 1. Who is sending the notification? 2. What actions should recipients take? 3. When should the actions be taken? 4. Where is the emergency? 5. Why are the actions necessary? Scripts and templates must be specific to the notification method to be used. For example, a script for a PA announcement will be different from (and probably longer than) a script for an email, a text, or Twitter message with character limits. In an emergency, if the airport is using a notification tool that limits message length, templates should at least provide information on what actions recipients should take and why these actions are necessary. For this reason, it is recommended that message and template scripting take place during the planning process after the selection of notification tools, techniques, and procedures. Appendix C provides example notification templates and scripts Coded Notifications During the development process, airports must consider if there may be a need for coded notifications. A coded notification is designed so that only certain audiences will understand the true intent of the message. For example, at one airport, a PA announcement in the gate areas calling for an individual with a distinct name (e.g., “Mr. Romulus, please come to Gate 13”) is in fact a call by the airline gate agent for the airport police to respond to Gate 13 to deal with a disruptive passenger. Coded notifications can be useful tools for airports when “need-to-know” information must be sent but does not need to be shared with a wider audience.

44 Guidebook for preparing public Notification programs at airports (Examples of goals and objectives for airport public notification program) Goal: Airport notification programs should be compliant with federal, state, and local laws/rules/regulations. Objectives: The proposed notification program will: 1. Conform to applicable federal rules and regulations 2. Conform to applicable state rules and regulations 3. Conform to applicable local rules and regulations 4. Conform to current legal requirements as assessed by a legal review Goal: Airport notification systems should be accessible. Objectives: The proposed notification system will: 1. Provide complete accessibility to all departments/divisions/sections of the airport 2. Provide remote access capabilities 3. Provide access quickly Goal: Airport notification programs should be resilient. Objectives: The proposed notification system will: 1. Provide for system reliability 2. Provide for system redundancy 3. Allow for multiple sending points 4. Recognize and plan for system dependencies Goal: Airport notification programs should be based on a continual cycle of improvement. Objectives: The proposed notification system will: 1. Provide for initial training of personnel 2. Provide for recurrent training of personnel 3. Facilitate regular program reviews 4. Include a process for evaluating all exercises 5. Include a process for evaluating all significant events 6. Incorporate improvements as needed based on reviews and evaluation feedback Goal: It is important to have sufficient means to deliver public notifications. Objectives: The notification program will be able to: 1. Verify receipt of a message 2. Maintain current, updatable contact lists, preferably using an electronic database 3. Develop and utilize clear message templates/scripts as appropriate 4. Determine ways social media can be used to identify opportunities for improvement 5. Develop ways to ensure that emergency notifications are delivered in a timely manner 6. Plan for system/method/tool maintenance needs (continued on next page) Resource DP-1&2a

Developing the program 45 Resource DP-1&2a (Continued). Goal (cont.): It is important to have sufficient means to deliver public notifications. Objectives: The notification program will be able to: 7. Plan for program capabilities to be continually ready and responsive to the public's needs for information 8. Add emergency messaging capabilities to visual display boards 9. Provide appropriate volume levels for all airport areas 10. Compensate for ambient noise levels that may be relevant to notifications Goal: The airport's notification program will have obtainable and reasonable performance standards. Objectives: The notification program will ensure that: 1. Personal information is kept secure at all times 2. Detailed and complete information will be given to authorities at all times 3. A review of the entire program is conducted annually 4. Needed training is provided to contractors 5. General notification notices (e.g., construction notices and facility closures) are provided in a timely manner Goal: The airport will develop a stand-alone notification-specific program. Objectives: The airport’s PMT/PPT will: 1. Use the Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program (HSEEP) model as a road map for continual program improvement 2. Develop a Basic Plan 3. Add the two AC 31C-required functional sections related to emergency notifications 4. Add a functional section to include social media notification management 5. Add a functional section to include web-posting notifications 6. Add appropriate hazard-specific section and subsections as needed Goal: The airport will commit to identifying and addressing challenges that arise concerning a notification program. Objectives: The airport’s PMT/PPT will: 1. Address funding concerns in a timely manner Goal: The airport will commit to identifying and addressing challenges that arise concerning a notification program. Objectives: The airport’s PMT/PPT will: 1. Determine the best way to guarantee customer involvement 2. Assess essential functions for any new systems 3. Develop a plan to maintain emergency functionalities as a priority for the program 4. Develop a plan for system sharing functionality

46 Guidebook for preparing public Notification programs at airports (Examples of effective policies and procedures—list) POLICY PROCEDURES What you are going to do? How you are going to do it? 1. Policy: Opt-in/opt-out Procedures: a. Provide auto enroll, opt-in, opt-out b. Determine to whom the opt-in/opt-out policy applies 2. Policy: System accessibility Procedures: a. Determine recipient accessibility b. Guarantee that the system/method/tool will be accessible to senders when needed 3. Policy: Protect personal information Procedures: a. Control access to system data b. Require log-ins with password protection c. Limit system access d. Use data encryption 4. Policy: Provide training to specific work groups & stakeholders Procedures: a. Establish initial, annual, recurrent training b. Retrain as changes happen c. Retrain after a major event 5. Policy: Provide program outreach Procedures: a. Develop initial & recurrent program education and communication tools b. Follow-up/provide updates as needed 6. Policy: Issue follow-up notifications for emergency and incident notifications Procedures: a. Determine who has responsibility for follow- up notifications b. Determine what systems/methods/tools will be used for follow-up notifications c. Determine applicable measurement standards for follow-up notifications (continued on next page) Resource DP-6a

Developing the program 47 Resource DP-6a (Continued). POLICY PROCEDURES What you are going to do? How you are going to do it? 7. Policy: Determine by whom, how, and why notifications will be made Procedures: a. Determine responsibilities for each type of notification b. Determine systems/methods/tools to be used for each type of notification 8. Policy: Use of standard notification message templates Procedures: a. Develop a process and templates for sending standardized messages b. Develop a process for making updates or changes to message templates 9. Policy: Provide for resiliency within the program Procedures: a. Plan for backups (the system should not depend on a single sending point and the system/method/tools should have multiple secure access points) b. Include delegation and devolution contingencies (If you can't send the notice, who can? If you can't access the system, who can?) c. Provide a back-up plan d. Identify lines of succession for the execution of notifications 10. Policy: Ensure continuous improvement Procedures: a. Document and evaluate after every significant event b. Exercise procedures regularly; evaluate and adjust as needed c. Establish achievable immediate and long- term goals; continually re-evaluate for effectiveness d. Establish measurable immediate and long- term objectives; continually re-evaluate for effectiveness (continued on next page)

48 Guidebook for preparing public Notification programs at airports POLICY PROCEDURES What you are going to do? How you are going to do it? 11. Policy: Support the needs of ADA populations Procedures: a. Address wayfinding technologies b. Provide visual messaging c. Address hearing loop devices 12. Policy: Have a single, standardized, comprehensive notification program Procedure is to include all airport: a. Develop a Basic Plan b. Develop the two functional sections related to emergency notifications that are required by AC 31C c. Add additional functional sections d. Add additional hazard-specific sections e. Incorporate the stand-alone program as an appendix to the AEP Resource DP-6a (Continued).

Developing the program 49 (PPT checklist) (Customize table/add rows as necessary) DEVELOPING THE PROGRAM Yes No Not Sure Not Applicable Developed program goals Developed measurable program objectives In compliance with all applicable rules and regulations Completed a legal review Developed policies and procedures Incorporated existing agreements Added new agreements, if needed Met all airport notification needs Resolved all obstacles Resolved all concerns Developed plan to integrate existing systems/methods/tools Developed procedures for resiliency Developed procedures for continuity of operations Committed to continuous improvement cycle approach Other Other Resource DP-9

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TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Prorgram (ACRP) Research Report 170: Guidebook for Preparing Public Notification Programs at Airports offers standards and practices to help airport industry practitioners develop and implement effective programs for delivering both routine notifications as well as incident and emergency-related notifications. The guidance provides readers with the ability to customize their programs to match their unique circumstances.

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