Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
50 Once all program concepts, components, and requirements have been established and approved, the PPT will need to address formalizing the program document. In 2010, FAA Advisory Circular 150/5200-31C (AC 31C) adopted the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and Incident Command System (ICS) compliant approach and format for airport emergency programs. The ACRP Project 10-25 research team strongly rec- ommends that all airports, including those not required to develop AEPs, consider using the AC 31C (or current revision) format for stand-alone notification programs. This format helps ensure compliance with FARs and is important to understand. It is also important to remember that a comprehensive, stand-alone notification-specific program that includes emergency notifi- cations may be considered security sensitive. Airports are encouraged to consult with their local TSA regulatory agents as to whether SSI protocols are appropriate. This chapter presents a series of steps for writing a Basic Plan for a stand-alone notifica- tion program that is AC 31C compliant and includes the necessary functional sections and hazard-specific sections. Even though it is recommended that notification programs follow the AC 31C-compliant format, each airportâs notification program will be very specific, which means the documentation will vary greatly from airport to airport. Airports are encouraged to consider expanding their existing notification protocols to include new or additional functional sections such as incident and non-emergency notifications, social media notification manage- ment, and ADA accommodation notifications. Airports may also want to consider expanding their current emergency notifications to include notifications delivered by social media. In this guidebook, resources that airports can adapt for use as they formalize the program are labeled FP-1, FP-2, and so forth. Resources FP-1a, FP-2a, FP-4a, and FP-7 are provided at the end of this chapter. Resources FP-1b, FP-2b, FP-3, FP-4b, FP-5, and FP-6 are provided in Appendix E in the section labeled âOPDG for Formalizing the Program.â Writing a Stand-Alone Notification-Specific Program Step 1: Develop and write a Basic Plan. Chapter 5 in AC 31C defines the Basic Plan and outlines the general format. Sections required in the Basic Plan are: â¢ Purpose, â¢ Situation and Assumptions, â¢ Operations, â¢ Organization and Assignment of Responsibilities, â¢ Administration and Logistics, â¢ Plan Development and Maintenance, and â¢ Authorities and References. See Resource FP-1a C h a p t e r 6 Formalizing the Program
Formalizing the program 51 Step 2: Develop and write the two functional sections related to emergency notifications that are required by AC 31C. It is important to decide how to document emergency notification procedures. There are three options: â¢ Option 1. Supplement an existing AEP. The AC 31C-required functional sections on emer- gency notifications are included in the airportâs AEP. Information on all other notifications is developed for inclusion in a separate program document. â¢ Option 2. Create a comprehensive, stand-alone notification-specific program that incorpo- rates material from an AEP. The two required functional sections already written for the AEP are duplicated and included in the comprehensive, program document. The AEP remains intact. â¢ Option 3. Develop the functional sections on emergency notifications in the absence of an AEP. If the airport does not have an AEP, then the two emergency notification functional sections required by AC 31C need to be developed and either (a) included in a new compre- hensive, stand-alone notification-specific program or (b) included as a revision to any existing notification program the airport is using. Chapter 6 in AC 31C defines ten functional sections, two of which involve emergency notifications: â¢ Alert Notification and Warning, and â¢ Emergency Public Information. Within these functional sections, required subsections follow the same format as the Basic Plan, providing details on each sectionâs: â¢ Purpose, â¢ Situation and Assumptions, â¢ Operations, â¢ Organization and Assignment of Responsibilities, â¢ Administration and Logistics, â¢ Plan Development and Maintenance, and â¢ Reference and Authorities. Step 3: Develop and write additional functional sections, if needed. Any additional functional section must comply with the required AC 31C general format. Suggestions for additional functional sections might include: â¢ Incident notifications, â¢ Non-emergency notifications, â¢ Social media notification management, and â¢ ADA accommodation notifications. Step 4: Develop and write the event/hazard-specific sections. According to Chapter 7 in AC 31C, content for the hazard-specific section should focus on the special planning needs of the particular hazard and not duplicate the information in other functional sections. â¢ The event/hazard-specific functional section contains any unique and/or regulatory response planning details that apply to events such as security breaches, baggage system failures, and parking lot closures. See Resource FP-2a See Resource FP-3 (in Appendix E) See Resource FP-4a
52 Guidebook for preparing public Notification programs at airports â¢ Each particular event/hazard has its own subsection, which addresses the essential operational actions needed to facilitate successful event/hazard notifications. â¢ Required sections are: â Purpose, â Situation and Assumptions, â Operations, â Organization and Assignment of Responsibilities, â Administration and Logistics, â Plan Development and Maintenance, â Reference and Authorities, and â Unique SOPs and Checklists. Step 5: Develop and write the headings for the program. The headings required by AC 31C are: â¢ Cover Sheet, â¢ Promulgation Page, â¢ Record of Changes, â¢ Record of Distribution, â¢ Signature Page, â¢ Table of Contents, â¢ Acronyms, and â¢ Definitions. Considering Additions to an Existing AEP If an airport chooses not to develop a stand-alone notification-specific program, the airport might consider adding additional functional sections to the AEP. Suggestions for additional functional sections might include the management of emergency notifications through the use of: â¢ Social media, â¢ Websites, â¢ Intranets, and â¢ Multi-media communications. See Resource FP-7 Any new functional section must comply with the required AC 31C formatting. When developing a public notification program, the airportâs planning team needs to be aware of existing laws, regulations, and standards that play a part in how a program is structured or implemented. To ensure that the notification program is in compliance with and takes into consideration all necessary guidance, the following laws, standards, and regulations should be reviewed: Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part 139.325 FAR 139.325 sets the requirement for each certificated airport to have an Airport Emergency Plan (AEP).
Formalizing the program 53 Among other things, the AEP must provide for: â¢ âEmergency alarm or notification systems,â and â¢ âCoordination of airport and control tower functions relating to emergency actions, as appro- priateâ (FAR 139.325). Moreover, âthe plan required by this section must contain procedures for notifying the facili- ties, agencies, and personnel who have responsibilities under the plan of the location of an aircraft accident, the number of persons involved in that accident, or any other information necessary to carry out their responsibilities, as soon as that information becomes availableâ (FAR 139.325). FAA Advisory Circular 150/5200-31C (AC 31C) AC 31C provides guidance to the airport operator in the development and implementation of an AEP. The AEP addresses essential emergency-related and deliberate actions planned to ensure the safety of and emergency services for the airport populace and the community in which the airport is located. Within AC 31C, chapters and sections deal specifically with notifications as well as the broader issue of communications during an emergency. Recognizing the importance of efficient and effective communications and notifications in the management of an emergency, AC 31C is a key resource for airports to use when developing a public notifications program. Key Sections in AC 31C, Chapter 6 â¢ Section 2, Communications. The introduction to this section states, âThis function addresses the processes used to reliably and efficiently transfer, delineate, and disseminate information from one point to another during emergency situations. The entire communication system and process is discussed in detail.â For the purposes of this guidebook, public notifications are a subset of an airportâs communications. â¢ Section 3, Alert Notification and Warning. The introduction to this section states, âThis function addresses the processes used to notify and warn emergency response agencies, air- port employees and tenants, and the general public of potential or actual emergency situ- ations. This alert and warning process is essential for it ensures the timely notification to emergency organizations and the response of emergency forces as well as ensuring that the public has adequate time to take appropriate protective actions to avoid death, injury, and/ or damage to property.â â¢ Section 4, Emergency Public Information. The introduction to this section states, âThis function addresses the activities associated with providing timely, accurate, and useful infor- mation and instructions to the public throughout the emergency period. For most emer- gencies, the Emergency Public Information (EPI) organization will initially focus on the dissemination of information to the public at risk on the airport property. However, the EPI organization must also deal with the wider publicâs interest and desire to help or seek infor- mation about friends, family, employees, or co-workers. Quality and timely information can assist in preventing an overload of an airportâs communications network, its transportation infrastructure, and its staff.â Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Regulations Under the standards set in 29 CFR 1910, Subpart L addresses fire protection and Standard Number 1910.165 (29 CFR, Subpart L, Section 1910.165) addresses employee alarm systems. The section states, âThe employee alarm system shall provide warning for necessary emergency
54 Guidebook for preparing public Notification programs at airports action as called for in the emergency action plan, or for reaction time for safe escape of employees from the workplace or the immediate work area, or both.â The employee alarm system referenced here is commonly referred to as a fire alarm. Specific subsections of 29 CFR, Subpart L that cover notifications include: â¢ âThe employee alarm shall be capable of being perceived above ambient noise or light levels by all employees in the affected portions of the workplace. Tactile devices may be used to alert those employees who would not otherwise be able to recognize the audible or visual alarmâ (1910.165[b]). â¢ âThe employee alarm shall be distinctive and recognizable as a signal to evacuate the work area or to perform actions designated under the emergency action planâ (1910.165[b]). â¢ âThe employer shall explain to each employee the preferred means of reporting emergencies, such as manual pull box alarms, PASs, radio or telephones. The employer shall post emer- gency telephone numbers near telephones, or employee notice boards, and other conspicuous locations when telephones serve as a means of reporting emergencies. Where a communication system also serves as the employee alarm system, all emergency messages shall have priority over all non-emergency messagesâ (1910.165[b]). â¢ âThe employer shall assure that all devices, components, combinations of devices or sys- tems constructed and installed to comply with this standard are approved. Steam whistles, air horns, strobe lights or similar lighting devices, or tactile devices meeting the requirements of this section are considered to meet this requirement for approvalâ (1910.165[c]). National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 72 â National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code NFPA 72 covers the application, installation, location, performance, inspection, testing, and maintenance of fire alarm systems (FASs), supervising station alarm systems, public emergency alarm reporting systems, fire warning equipment, emergency communications systems (ECS), and their components. First released in 1970, this document is updated on a regular schedule. The most current version of NFPA 72 was released in 2016. Specific chapters and sections of interest within NFPA 72 include: â¢ Chapter 14, Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance, Table 22.214.171.124, Number 30, Mass Notifica- tion Systems; â¢ Chapter 24, Emergency Communications Systems; â¢ Annex A, Section A.126.96.36.199, Mass Notification System; â¢ Annex D, Speech Intelligibility; and â¢ Annex G, Guidelines for Emergency Communication Strategies for Buildings and Campuses. U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, ADA The ADA prohibits discrimination and ensures equal opportunity for persons with disabili- ties in employment, state and local government services, public accommodations, commercial facilities, and transportation. The current text of the ADA includes changes made by the ADA Amendments Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-325), which became effective on January 1, 2009. The ADA was originally enacted in public law format and later rearranged and published in the United States Code. The U.S. Department of Justiceâs revised regulations for Titles II and III of the ADA were published in the Federal Register on September 15, 2010. These regulations adopted revised, enforceable accessibility standards called the 2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design, or simply the â2010 Standards.â
Formalizing the program 55 Chapters and sections of interest within the 2010 Standards include: â¢ Chapter 2, Scoping Requirements, covering transportation facilities; â¢ Chapter 7, Communication Elements and Features, covering FASs; and â¢ Chapter 8, Special Rooms, Spaces, and Elements, covering PASs. Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL) 864, Standard for Control Units and Accessories for Fire Alarm Systems This standard covers the requirements for electrical control units and accessories for FASs to be employed in accordance with various NFPA standards. Section 34, Emergency Voice/Alarm Communications and Telephone/Intercom Signaling, covers the essential elements to consider for impacts to public notification programs. UL 2572, Standard for Mass Notification Systems This standard covers the accessories for mass notification systems to be employed in accor- dance with NFPA 72. The products covered by this standard are intended to be used in combi- nation with other appliances and devices to form an emergency communication and/or mass notification system. These products are intended to communicate critical information within buildings and/or outdoor areas about emergencies including but not limited to terrorist activi- ties, hazardous chemical releases, severe weather, fire, and other situations that may endanger the safety of the occupants of an area or facility. Communication is through voice and visual instructions, as well as alert and evacuation signals. Installation documents provided with the products describe the components needed to form an emergency communication and/or mass notification system and their intended use and installation. Public Safety Answering Points (PSAPs) Public Safety Answering Points (PSAPs) are more commonly known as 911 operations cen- ters. In addition to answering 911 emergency calls and responding by dispatching police, fire, and emergency medical services, PSAPs also can send out alerts. â¢ IPAWS. One way for PSAPs to send public alerts is through FEMAâs IPAWS system. IPAWS is an integrated gateway through which authorized public safety entities, including PSAPs, can initiate alerts. The alerts may be sent through the Emergency Alert System (EAS) and/or via Wireless Emergency Alerts (WEAs). â¢ EAS. This national public warning system requires TV and radio broadcasters, cable television systems, wireless cable systems, satellite digital audio radio service providers, direct broadcast sat- ellite service providers, and wireline video service providers to offer to the president the commu- nications capability to address the American public during a national emergency. The system also may be used by state and local authorities to deliver important emergency information such as AMBER (missing children) alerts and emergency weather information targeted to a specific area. â¢ WEA. This public safety system allows customers who own certain cellular phones and other enabled mobile devices to receive geographically targeted, text-like messages alerting them of imminent threats to safety in their area. The technology ensures that emergency alerts will not become âstuckâ in highly congested transmission areas, which can happen with standard mobile voice and texting services. WEAâformerly known as the Commercial Mobile Alert System (CMAS) or Personal Localized Alerting Network (PLAN)âwas established pursuant to the Warning, Alert, and Response Network (WARN) Act (HR 5785). The rules, regulations, and policies to support public safety entities such as PSAPs are devel- oped and administered by the Policy and Licensing Division, Public Safety & Homeland Security Bureau of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC).
56 Guidebook for preparing public Notification programs at airports Government Resources Airports can use several existing federal government resources in the planning, implementa- tion, and ongoing management of their public notification programs. The following are exam- ples of existing resources that may prove to be of value to airports. Although each resource may not apply to all airports in every situation, airports should be able to use and customize these resources to meet their specific situations and needs. â¢ www.Ready.gov. An official website launched by the DHS in February 2003, Ready is a national public service advertising (PSA) campaign designed to educate and empower Ameri- cans to prepare for and respond to emergencies, including natural and man-made disasters. Campaign goals are to get the public involved and ultimately to increase the level of basic preparedness across the nation. â¢ Ready Business. In 2004, the DHS and FEMA launched Ready Business, an extension of the Ready campaign that focuses on business preparedness. Ready Business helps owners and managers of small- to medium-sized businesses prepare their employees, operations, and assets in the event of an emergency. The campaignâs messages are delivered through the Ready Business section of www.Ready.gov, brochures, radio, print and Internet PSAs, and key partnerships. Through a section on âImplementation,â the Ready Business webpage links to resources that include directions for developing a Crisis Communications Plan. In turn, the âCrisis Communications Planâ webpage includes sections that cover three key areas: â Understanding potential audiences; â Guidance for messaging; and â How the organization will communicate with the various audiences. Additional information can be found at https://www.ready.gov/. â¢ NIMS. FEMA developed and issued the NIMS as a systematic, proactive approach to guide departments and agencies at all levels of government, nongovernmental organizations, and the private sector to work together seamlessly and manage incidents involving all threats and hazardsâregardless of cause, size, location, or complexityâto reduce loss of life. The goal of NIMS is to enable responders at all jurisdictional levels and across all disciplines to work together more effectively and efficiently. â¢ ICS. A standardized, on-scene, all-hazards incident management system that has been used for years by firefighters, hazardous materials teams, rescuers, and emergency medical teams, ICS has been incorporated as a set of âbest practicesâ in the NIMS and established as the stan- dard organizational structure for the management of all incidents. â Various types of notifications that occur during events require the use of NIMS and ICS. â Additional information on NIMS is available online at https://www.fema.gov/national- incident-management-system. â¢ HSEEP. The Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program (HSEEP) provides guiding principles for exercise programs, and a common approach to exercise program management, design and development, conduct, evaluation, and improvement planning. â Flexible and adaptable, HSEEP can be used by stakeholders across the whole commu- nity and applied to exercises across all mission areas (prevention, protection, mitigation, response, and recovery). â The HSEEP evaluation and continuous improvement methodology can easily be adopted by an airport for use with its notification program. Using exercises based on a variety of potential scenarios, airports can identify gaps in their programs and take steps to address these gaps. HSEEP offers airports an established and proven process for notification pro- gram development, evaluation, and continuous program improvement. â Additional information on HSEEP is available at http://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/ 20130726-1914-25045-8890/hseep_apr13_.pdf.
Formalizing the program 57 (Basic PlanâAC 31C, general format description) This summary, based on the information in AC 31C Chapter 5 (Basic Plan), describes speciï¬c requirements to be addressed when drafting the airportâs notiï¬cation program. Each subsection must be included in the airport notiï¬cation programâs Basic Plan functional section. 1. Purpose This subsection contains the general statements of what the notiï¬cations plan is meant to do and provides a brief synopsis of the Basic Plan, the functional sections, and the hazard-speciï¬c section and subsections. 2. Situation and Assumptions This subsection narrowly describes the scope of the program by outlining what notiï¬cations are addressed, as drawn from the needs assessment analysis. It also describes what characteristics of the airport may aï¬ect notiï¬cations, how and what information was used in preparing the program, and what information must be based on assumptions rather than fact. 3. Operations This subsection provides the overall sequence and scope of the planned notiï¬cation response. It details the airportâs overall concept of operations for notiï¬cations (i.e., what should happen, when it should happen, and at whose direction, to include multi-agency responsibilities and/or jurisdictions). 4. Organization and Assignment of Responsibilities This subsection establishes the organization that must be in place to initiate notiï¬cations. It also should list, by position, who is responsible for what organizational responsibilities and who performs what tasks. 5. Administration and Logistics This subsection covers general support considerations (e.g., availability of service and support for all types of notiï¬cations; general policies for managing resources and materials; and agreements for notiï¬cations). 6. Plan Development and Maintenance This subsection covers the personnel policies and procedures that relate to information needed for the program, and training that covers changes in policy, procedures, resources, and so forth. It also prescribes a schedule for reviews, training, drills, and exercises. 7. Authorities and References This subsection indicates the legal basis for the program, providing references to any laws, statutes, ordinances, regulations, and formal agreements relative to the program. Resource FP-1a
58 Guidebook for preparing public Notification programs at airports (Alert Notiï¬cation and WarningâAC 31C 6-3, general format description) The summary on this page is based on AC 31C Chapter 6, Section 3 (Alert Notiï¬cation and Warning), and describes speciï¬c requirements to be addressed in relation to alerts and warning notiï¬cations. Each subsection must be included in the airport notiï¬cation programâs Alert Notiï¬cation and Warning functional section. 1. Purpose This subsection identiï¬es the methods and sequences to be used in notifying the appropriate airport personnel and stakeholders of an emergency on or oï¬ the airport. 2. Situation and Assumptions This subsection describes the general conditions that trigger alerts/warning notiï¬cations. It also describes any situation in which coordination with oï¬-airport agencies will be necessary and beneï¬cial. It also addresses the needs of special groups, such as ADA populations. 3. Operations This subsection describes the processes of how the alerts/warning notiï¬cations systems/methods/tools will be used. 4. Organization and Assignment of Responsibilities This subsection describes the speciï¬c responsibilities associated with the alert/warning notiï¬cation functions and who will perform the related tasks. 5. Administration and Logistics This subsection addresses the administrative and logistical support required to send the notiï¬cations. 6. Plan Development and Maintenance This subsection deï¬nes who is responsible for coordinating development of this part of the notiï¬cation program, including revisions that may be needed to this subsection over time. This section covers how changes to alerts and warning notiï¬cations are requested, developed, and approved. It also includes training and communications required for any changes or revisions to the section. 7. Authorities and References This subsection includes references to local government emergency statutes, ordinances, or agreements, along with any federal laws or regulations that pertain to alerts and warning notiï¬cations. (continued on next page) Resource FP-2a
Formalizing the program 59 (Emergency Public InformationâAC 31C 6-4, general format description) The summary on this page is based on AC 31C Chapter 6, Section 4 (Emergency Public Information), and helps describe the speciï¬c requirements to be addressed in relation to emergency public information. Each of the subsections must be included in the airport notiï¬cation planâs Emergency Public Information functional section. 1. Purpose This subsection identifies the methods or sequences to be used in notifying the appropriate airport personnel and stakeholders of an emergency on or oï¬ the airport. It describes: â¢ Notiï¬cation, alert, and warning systems/methods/tools; â¢ How they are used; â¢ Under what condition(s) they are used; â¢ Who is responsible to activate and deactivate emergency notiï¬cations; and â¢ Who is responsible for testing and maintenance of the systems/tools/methods. 2. Situation and Assumptions This subsection describes the overall planning environment and shows what uncertainties have been treated as fact. 3. Operations This subsection provides general information about how emergency information will be shared with the public and with employee work groups on the airport. It also describes policies, protocols, and a sequence of activities. 4. Organization and Assignment of Responsibilities This subsection includes organizational charts depicting lines of responsibility and communications. It also includes considerations for: â¢ Information gathering, â¢ Production monitoring, â¢ Rumor control, â¢ Public inquiries, and â¢ Media relations. 5. Administration and Logistics This subsection addresses the administrative and general support required to provide emergency public information. 6. Plan Development and Maintenance This subsection deï¬nes who is responsible for coordinating development and/or revisions to this section. 7. Authorities and References This subsection may include local government emergency management statutes or ordinances that pertain to emergency public notiï¬cations. Resource FP-2a (Continued).
60 Guidebook for preparing public Notification programs at airports (HazardsâAC 31C 7, general format description) This summary, based on AC 31C Chapter 7 (Hazards), describes speciï¬c requirements to be addressed in all hazard-speciï¬c subsections of the airportâs notiï¬cation program. A subsection should be developed for each hazard/event that has been determined to warrant planning through the airportâs all-hazard/ event needs assessment process. Each subsection in the airport notiï¬cation planâs hazard-speciï¬c functional section should include the following information: 1. Purpose This subsection supplements the Basic Plan and functional sections and deï¬nes the responsibilities and actions to be taken for the speciï¬ed hazard/event or triggering situation. 2. Situation and Assumptions This subsection includes staï¬ng levels and hours of operations for personnel with notiï¬cation responsibilities. It should clearly deï¬ne the responsible personâs duties at any given point in time. 3. Operations This subsection describes actions to be taken for the speciï¬ed hazard/event or triggering situation. 4. Organization and Assignment of Responsibilities This subsection describes the responsibilities of individuals or groups tasked with taking action given the speciï¬ed hazard/event or triggering situation. 5. Administrative and Logistical Support This subsection describes general support requirements speciï¬c to the hazard/event or triggering situation. It should also cover the specialized resources, policies, procedures, and agreements unique to the speciï¬ed hazard/event or triggering situation. 6. Plan Development This subsection identiï¬es which agency/department/section is responsible for coordinating any needed revisions or changes to this part of the airportâs notiï¬cation program, and for keeping attachments current and ensuring that SOPs and checklists are developed and maintained. 7. Authorities and References This subsection identiï¬es any speciï¬c statutes, regulations, rules, and regulations and/or SOPs that apply to the speciï¬ed hazard/event or triggering situation. Given the complexity and range of potential hazard/event situations, it is suggested that checklists also be included. Resource FP-4a
Formalizing the program 61 (Formalizing the ProgramâPPT Checklist) (Customize table/add rows as necessary) FORMALIZING THE PROGRAM Yes No Not Sure Not Applicable Writing a stand-alone notiï¬cation-speciï¬c program? A Basic Plan is included in the stand-alone program document. The two AC 31C-required functional sections are included in the stand-alone program document. All required sections are written in NIMS/AC 31C format. Additional functional sections have been identiï¬ed and included in the stand-alone program document (as needed). Any additional hazard-speciï¬c subsections have been identiï¬ed and are included in the stand-alone program document (as needed). The required AC 31C headings have been included in the stand- alone program document. Other Other Resource FP-7