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72 A p p e n d i x A Notification Tools and Methods This appendix contains a summary of various notiï¬cation approaches along with some of their key attributes. Airports have diï¬erent notiï¬cation demands. There is no one-size-ï¬ts-all solution. It is expected that an airport will have to select more than one method of notiï¬cation depending on the situation. The charts in this section will provide some guidance on selecting the best method for a given situation. Considerations for Implementation Coverage â Notifying individuals vs. notifying groups (e.g., the public, employees, authorities, etc.) Airport authorities will need to decide how and when it will be necessary to notify individuals and groups during an emergency, incident or non-emergency event. Occasionally, only certain groups or individuals will need to be notiï¬ed, such as for a marketing event. These notiï¬cations are best managed via texts, emails, social media, or web-based portals. However, during an emergency or airport-wide event the airport will want all stakeholders to be informed. This can be done via multiple techniques, including PA systems, sirens, lights, and many more. In all cases, but especially during emergencies, notiï¬cations should be made accessible to children, non-English speaking stakeholders, elderly, and the physically handicapped (such as blind or deaf stakeholders). Providing multiple notiï¬cations techniques will help reduce panic and confusion during stressful situations. Speed â Quick Access Whether an airport is installing a state-of-the-art intelligent notiï¬cation system, or simply using the airport-wide PA system, it is important that the notiï¬cations can be sent out quickly and to the correct people. This might mean the ability to access the notiï¬cation system via a mobile device, or the ability to call an operator that can alert the public over the PA system or employees over two-way radios. A system that cannot be accessed quickly can result in injury or damage. Content â The amount of information that can be sent Diï¬erent tools are able to send diï¬erent amounts of information during one notiï¬cation cycle. Some tools can continually stream information, while others are limited to a few paragraphs, sentences, or characters.
73 noficaons should be sent in mulple languages depending on the demographic of the area. ADA â Disabilies access This describes how the recipient processes the noficaon, such as whether the noficaon is received visually or aurally. Dependency â Is the noficaon sent by others? Closely related to quick access and access, this describes whether the noficaon system is controlled by a third party. Redundancy and Resiliency Regardless of how technologically advanced a noficaon system is, it is important that there are several redundancies. If the PA system fails or there is a power outage, airport operators must have a secondary plan in place to nofy stakeholders of emergency and non-emergency events. The more methods of nofying stakeholders, the beÂer. Noficaon system redundancy and back-up plans can be explored when conducng a Business Impact Analysis or BIA for short. BIA is a process used to determine and evaluate the potenal effects of an interrupon to crical business operaons as a result of a disaster, accident or emergency. A BIA is the first step in the business connuity planning process and should include: â¢ Assessment of business funcons, processes, and interdependencies; â¢ Idenficaon of the potenal impact of disrupons caused by a range of emergency and other events; â¢ Idenficaon of any legal and regulatory requirements; â¢ Esmaon of maximum allowable system downme; and â¢ Esmaon of system recovery me. Business connuity planning is essenal to ensure the resiliency of the airport and availability of redundant noficaon systems to reach all potenal audiences. Style â Noficaon vs Two-way Communicaons Although this study did not go into detail about two-way communicaons, it is important to note the advantages to using them. In a one-way noficaon system, a text, email, page, etc. goes out to a set of stakeholders nofying them of an event or incident, but airport operators will not always know if the message was received or understood. With two-way Format â Audio, Visual, WriÂ en, Presence and Language Format describes how the noficaon is presented to the stakeholder. This can include audio, such as a phone call; visual, such as a flashing light; wriÂen, such as a text message; or presence, such as a runner or messenger. Some technologies limit what format the noficaon can be sent in. Phone calls cannot deliver visual noficaons and programmable signs are not likely to have audio noficaons. Also included in format is language. Some communicaon, such as a post on social media or two-way text message, the airports can
74 Secure â Is the noficaon system secure? Two types of security are examined. First, can the noficaons be intercepted (or can they someone intercept, alter, or send out false or misleading informaon? During the development process, airports must consider if there may be a need for coded noficaons. A coded noficaon is one in which only certain audiences will understand the true intent of the message. For example, at one airport, a PA announcement in the gate areas calling for an individual with a disnct name to report to a gate is in fact a call by the airline gate agent for the airport police to respond to deal with a disrupve passenger . Coded noficaons can be useful tools for airports when informaon is âneed-to-knowâ and does not need to be shared with a wider audience. Opt â Opt-in or Opt-out Some noficaon methods or tools require the receiver to sign-up to receive messages or they require the receiver to open the noficaon channel, such as text messages that require the user to agree to provider fees. Other tools allow the receivers to block or decline noficaons. Data Storage and Maintenance If an airport is using a more advanced form of noficaon system that requires usersâ personal informaon, security and maintenance should be an important factor. Securing usersâ personal informaon should be a high priority, but the system should also be easy to update informaon. Sending noficaons to an incorrect email or phone number could result in a stakeholder missing important informaon. For this reason, airports should conduct periodic audits of the contact informaon used for noficaons. Infrastructure â Physical Equipment Some methods and tools require physical equipment to send noficaons such as cables and wires that must be installed on-site. Other noficaon methods and tools require less physical infrastructure and instead rely on radio systems and other means of wireless communicaon. A combinaon of both physical and wireless noficaon systems can provide an airport with redundancy and back-up capabilies in the event one or the other becomes unavailable. Audience â Targeted audience Some methods and tools may be targeted to a specific audience while others are intended for the general public. Situaon and Category Situaon refers to when the tool or method might be used in an emergency, incident or non-emergency. Category is a sub classificaon to describe if the noficaon is an inial noficaon, follow-up, or all-clear. be overheard by people toward whom the noficaon is not directed)? Second, can receive feedback from the recipients of the noficaon. OÂen this is simply a message of receipt, but a received message can also be used to monitor the effecveness of a noficaon.
75 Figure A-1 â IPAWS system representation. Eï¬ort - Cost of deployment and cost of maintenance When considering the cost of introducing or adding new technology, airport operators should also consider the cost of maintaining and securing the system. These maintenance costs can include hiring personnel to monitor and keep the system updated or hiring an IT security company to monitor the system for security breaches. Costs of system deployment are more obvious: the cost of integrating old and new technology, having to shut down parts of the terminal to install equipment, hiring someone to install the equipment, etc. Beneï¬t â How much does the system deliver? This is based on how much information can be sent and how ï¬exible is the tool or system. Tools and Methods Analysis In this section, several notiï¬cation tools and methods have been analyzed to identify their strengths, weaknesses, and usefulness. The information below has been designed to give airport operators the information needed to make informed decisions regarding their airportâs needs and capabilities. In viewing the individual tables regarding tools and methods, the color coding corresponds to the Eï¬orts/Beneï¬ts matrix as it pertains to level of eï¬ort and resulting beneï¬t . Green indicates a âQuick Win,â Yellow indicates a âReasonableâ tool or method, and Red indicates that âMore Justiï¬cationâ is suggested. Each tool or method has a corresponding table that describes the features it provides. Table A-1 (at the end of this appendix) shows all the tools and methods side-by-side for comparison purposes. Integrated Public Alert and Warning System (IPAWS) IPAWS is an Internet-based program funded by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The program integrates into the U.S. emergency population warning systems â Emergency Alert System (EAS), National Warning System (NAWAS), Commercial Mobile Alert System (CMAS), and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Weather Radio All Hazards â and allows federal, state, territorial, tribal, and local authorities the ability to issue critical public alerts and warnings.
76 Figure A-2 â Reverse 911 process. This system allows authorized authorities to send messages via AM, FM, and satellite radio; broadcast, satellite, and cable TV; mobile phones and other network devices; and web-based applications such as email, instant messaging and RSS feeds. This also allows for multiple types of notiï¬cation media, including audio, text, images, and videos. Because it can connect to multiple platforms in a speciï¬c geographical area (e.g., all cities in the path of a hurricane), it has great potential to warn the public of danger. It also allows for multiple ways to notify non-English speakers and persons with disabilities with minimal eï¬ort. This system is best for initial notiï¬cations and all-clear notices, but is good for updates if the emergency or incident continues for several hours or days. However, the system is designed speciï¬cally for federal, state, territorial, tribal, and local authorities, meaning that airports might not have access to the systems to send notiï¬cations. Additionally, the authorized authorities will prioritize emergency alerts that aï¬ect individuals in the area, as opposed to individuals speciï¬cally at the airport or in a speciï¬c terminal. IPAWS Type Initial Follow-up All-Clear Situation Emergency Incident Non-Emergency Audience Airlines Media Bordering Communities Passengers Infrastructure Radio Land line Airwaves Cable VoIP Printed Data Does not apply Opt No Secure Yes Style 1 Way Redundancy Yes Dependency Yes ADA Auditory Visual Access Outside Airport Only Format Audio Multiple Languages Visual Written Physical Presence Content Few sentences Quick No Coverage Outside airport, All areas Inside Airport, Speciï¬c Areas Inside Airport Reverse 911 Reverse 911 allows authorities in Canada and the United States to communicate with groups of people in a speciï¬c geographic area during emer- gency situations. The system uses a database of telephone numbers and addresses, which are associated with speciï¬c geographic areas, to deliver pre-recorded emergency notiï¬cations via telephone.
77 These notiï¬cations are excellent for location-speciï¬c emergency situations, such as evacuation notices, but also good for city and county advisories, such as boil water advisories. It also allows for templates and pre-recorded messages that can be vetted and reviewed long before the notiï¬cation goes live. This system, as it is currently set up for cities and counties, is not especially useful for airports. â¢ Users must register for the service. Stakeholders in the area are not likely to opt-in to the service unless they are residents or they often spend time in the area. â¢ This system is designed for local Emergency 911 Dispatch Centers and might not allow airports to send notiï¬cations through the system unless the emergency aï¬ects the surrounding area. However, airports can use a similar system that would notify passengers and employees with the associated app on their mobile device within the airport terminal(s). Beacon technology uses the Bluetooth technology in the userâs mobile device to locate each user within the terminal. Push notiï¬cations through the app would allow for location-based notiï¬cations for speciï¬c areas in the airport. Beacon technology is in testing stages at some pilot airports. Reverse 911 Type Initial Follow-up All-Clear Situation Emergency Incident Non-Emergency Audience Airlines Media Bordering Communities Concessionaires Infrastructure Radio Land line Airwaves Cable VoIP Printed Data Maintenance Personal Information Opt Yes Secure Yes Style 1 Way Redundancy Yes Dependency Yes ADA Auditory Visual Access Outside airport only Format Audio Visual Multiple Languages Physical Presence Written Content Up to few paragraphs Quick No Coverage Single Recipient
78 Direct Circuits Direct circuits include notiï¬cation systems that can run independently of any other system. These can include direct activated systems such as Fire Alarm Systems (FAS), lightning detection systems and spill alarms, and ring-down phones. (A ring-down phone is one that is connected to another phone and does not require dialing.) These systems only allow for a single activity or alarm trigger, but can be useful for redundancy. In the case of the ring- down phones, there is a requirement that someone be on the other end of the line to answer. However, these systems allow for a quick connection, and therefore a quick notiï¬cation for emergencies and incidents, and they are often supported with back-up generators in case of power outage. Direct Circuits Type Initial Follow-up All-Clear Situation Emergency Incident Non-Emergency Audience Airlines Concessionaires TSA State Oï¬cials 1st Responders Local Govât. Oï¬cials Emergency Mgmt. Groups Federal Oï¬cials Infrastructure Radio Land line Airwaves Cable VoIP Printed Data Does not apply Opt Yes Secure No Style 2 Way Redundancy No Dependency No ADA Auditory Visual Access Emergency Operations Center, Local Operator Format Audio Multiple Languages Visual Written Physical Presence Content Unlimited Streaming Quick Yes Coverage Single Recipient, Speciï¬c Areas Inside Airport Social Media Social media encompasses applications that allow for the creation and exchange of user- generated content and allows for communication between businesses, organizations, communities, and individuals. As of the publication of this guidebook, the most common platforms used by organizations like airports include Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, YouTube, and Instagram, although the popularity of each platform waxes and wanes with the invention of new social media applications.
79 There are several beneï¬ts for airports to use social media. It allows for all types of notiï¬cations, from non-emergencies such as promotional advertisements, to extreme emergencies such as an active shooter. Although social media can be extremely eï¬ective during all types of notiï¬cation events including emergencies it should not be counted on as the primary tool for initial notiï¬cations. The connected public will turn to social media almost immediately once they know something is happening. However, when they are unaware of a situation they may miss or ignore a critical message. Because most people own at least one mobile device, social media posts can reach their audience almost as soon as they are uploaded and, because of the nature of the application, they only reach the individuals that would be interested in the posts. Posts on social media can be uploaded in nearly any notiï¬cation type (text, images, audio, and multiple languages) which allows the message to reach a wider audience. Social media does not come without its disadvantages. Creating and maintaining social media accounts may require more staï¬ng than an airport can expend. Employees with access to the account need to monitor posts from followers, answer posts, and constantly ensure account posts are aligned with the brand and its message. Some organizations have departments dedicated to social media marketing with employees with degrees speciï¬cally for the job. There is also the risk of account hacking and even fake accounts that could create problems for the airport. Standing out in news feeds on social media is no easy task. Most social media users are subscribed to or follow many users and organizations. Standing out in the crowd can be daunting. Social Media Type Initial Follow-up All-Clear Situation Emergency Incident Non-Emergency Audience Airlines Media Bordering Communities Local Govât. Oï¬cials State Oï¬cials Federal Oï¬cials Passengers Infrastructure Radio Land line Airwaves Cable VoIP Printed Data Does not apply Opt Yes Secure Cyber Security Exposure Style 2 Way Redundancy No Dependency No ADA Auditory Visual Access Multiple Access Options Format Audio Multiple Languages Visual Written Physical Presence Content Up to a Few Paragraphs Quick No Coverage Outside Airport, All Areas Inside Airport, Speciï¬c Areas Inside Airport, Single Recipient Press Releases Press releases are useful tools that can be used to spread a speciï¬cally crafted message about all types of notiï¬cations, from non-emergencies to emergencies. These documents often go through a stringent review process to establish branding and minimize confusion before being
80 sent to the press for distribution. These messages are not eï¬ective at delivering initial notiï¬cations because of the time-consuming review process they must go through. However, they are eï¬ective at follow-up notiï¬cations if the event takes place over a long period of time, as well as all-clear notiï¬cations. To some extent, the information distributed in press releases can be crafted in such a way that need-to-know information can be minimized or eliminated. However, there is always a chance that the press will skew the information. Press releases are also not ideal for initial notiï¬cations, but are great for setting facts straight after the event. Press Releases Type Initial Follow-up All-Clear Situation Emergency Incident Non-Emergency Audience Airlines Media Bordering Communities Local Govât. Oï¬cials State Oï¬cials Passengers Federal Oï¬cials Infrastructure Radio Land line Airwaves Cable VoIP Printed Data Does not apply Opt Yes Secure No Style 1 Way Redundancy No Dependency Yes ADA Auditory Visual Access Emergency Operations Center Format Audio Multiple Languages Visual Written Physical Presence Content Up to a Few Paragraphs Quick No Coverage Outside Airport, All Areas Inside Airport Printed Communications Printed communications encompass ï¬yers, letters, newsletters, and monthly and quarterly publications. Printed communications beneï¬t from the review process. Depending on the size of the airport, an entire department might be in charge of printed material, or a single employee. Regardless, the material is seen, or should be seen, by many people before being sent to the printer. This ensures branding and message as well as grammar and spelling. Many organizations use a standard template when writing their material, which helps with the branding and message. Because of the time it takes to create, review, print, and distribute, printed material is not good for initial notiï¬cations for emergencies and incidents, although they can be used to some extent for follow-up notiï¬cations. Most printed communications are used for non-emergency and promotional notiï¬cations.
81 Many organizations have decided to go paperless for their notiï¬cations; magazines, newsletters, and other printed material can now be accessed online, saving the company money and reducing the impact printing has on the environment. Printed Communication Type Initial Follow-up All-Clear Situation Emergency Incident Non-Emergency Audience Airlines Media Bordering Communities Local Govât. Oï¬cials State Oï¬cials Passengers Federal Oï¬cials Infrastructure Radio Land line Airwaves Cable VoIP Printed Data Does not apply Opt Yes Secure Yes Style 1 Way Redundancy No Dependency No ADA Auditory Visual Access Multiple Access Options Format Audio Multiple Languages Visual Written Physical Presence Content Up to a Few Paragraphs Quick No Coverage Outside Airport, All Areas Inside Airport Organization Websites, Online Portals, and Forums Most organizations and companies these days have a website â somewhere to market to their customers online, promote the brand, and spread the company message. For airports, this might also include features like airline information, ï¬ight schedules and parking information. The biggest beneï¬t to having a website for the airport is the ability to update the site with the most up-to-date information regarding emergencies, incidents, construction, promotions, etc. Customers and potential customers will usually look to the website for important information before venturing to another site. Many organization websites have employee portal components; that is, a portion of the website that only individuals with login credentials can access. These areas are an excellent way to update employees and other authorized personnel of events happening at the airport. Occasionally, websites will also have a forum or message board where customers or potential customers can hold conversations and discussions with other customers or employees. Like social media platforms, forums are a great place for people to comment on airport events or receive answers to questions. Airports that do not monitor forums, even outside of their own website, may ï¬nd false information circulating on the message boards that could damage the airportâs image.
82 Figure A-3 â Example of an internal network alert. All of these online options have similar disadvantages. â¢ They should be monitored regularly for out-of-date information or damaging posts. â¢ Maintaining any one of these options is resource intensive. â¢ There is always a chance for cyber security attacks. Despite these disadvantages, a website is an excellent tool to operate in conjunction with other notiï¬cation systems. Social media, press releases, printed communications, emails, texts and phone calls, and signs can all refer back to the website address for more information. Websites / Online Portals Type Initial Follow-up All-Clear Situation Emergency Incident Non-Emergency Audience Airlines Media Bordering Communities Local Govât. Oï¬cials State Oï¬cials Passengers Federal Oï¬cials Infrastructure Radio Land line Airwaves Cable VoIP Printed Data Personal Information, Maintenance Opt Yes Secure Cyber Security Exposure Style 2 Way Redundancy No Dependency Yes ADA Auditory Visual Access Multiple Access Options Format Audio Multiple Languages Visual Written Physical Presence Content Up to a Few Paragraphs Quick No Coverage Outside airport, All areas Inside Airport, Speciï¬c Areas Inside Airport, Single Recipient Internal Networks Private networks are common in organizations and are used to link computing devices with each other to exchange data. Most often, these networks tend to have a central data location and are not open to the Internet for security reasons. Private networks are rarely open to the Internet, which can make it diï¬cult for authorized personnel to access the network oï¬ the company premisesâalthough there are some ways around this. Private networks typically also limit the number of people that can access information on the network to authorized personnel, which is good for security, but restricts the target audience. Organizations with servers have the ability to send notiï¬cations to all devices that are connected to the network. This is an excellent way to notify employees and authorized personnel of emergencies and incidents with minimal downtime. However, if an employee does not have access to his or her connected device, that employee will not receive this message. Unfortunately, private networks can go down due to power outages and cyber-attacks.
83 Emails and Enterprise Instant Messaging Email has been a primary messaging platform in the business world for over two decades. While it may take some time to compose a clear and concise email, it allows for large amounts of information to be shared with many people at the same time. Templates can also be used to cut down on the message composing time. One big beneï¬t to the use of emails is the ability to contact individuals outside of the airport and create distribution lists. Distribution lists allow you to save a large number of email addresses as a group so that when a message needs to be sent, no one is left oï¬ the email and individuals that do not need to be sent the message will be left oï¬. This will signiï¬cantly cut down on message composing time. Multiple distribution groups for diï¬erent message types can be created before they are needed and stored for future use. The mail server can also succumb to power outages and cyber security attacks, causing the loss of email access. Enterprise Instant Messaging, instant messaging for businesses, is similar to email, but allows for quicker response times. Groups can be created to send the message out to multiple people at once. Internal Networks / Emails Type Initial Follow-up All-Clear Situation Emergency Incident Non-Emergency Audience Employees Airlines Concessionaires TSA 1st Responders Emergency Mgmt. Groups Infrastructure Radio Land line Airwaves Cable VoIP Printed Data Personal Information, Maintenance Opt No Secure Cyber Security Exposure Style 2 Way Redundancy No Dependency No ADA Auditory Visual Access Multiple Access Options Format Audio Multiple Languages Visual Written Physical Presence Content Up to a Few Paragraphs Quick No Coverage Outside Airport, All Areas Inside Airport, Speciï¬c Areas Inside Airport, Single Recipient
84 PASs and FASs PAS is one of the most common ways to notify customers and employees within a building. It has several beneï¬ts and few disadvantages; plus, it is often integrated with the buildingâs FAS for large groups of people. Generally, the PAS will be set up with pre-recorded messages in multiple languages for common emergencies and incidents. When paired with the FAS siren and strobe or ï¬ashing lights, the message can reach nearly every individual, regardless of ADA status or language. Because the FAS is a federal requirement in all commercial buildings, the local Fire Department will stop by occasionally to check and test the system, minimizing the amount of maintenance an airport has to perform. One major downfall of the PA system is the quality of the audio message. Speakers are placed throughout the terminal in optimal areas, but passengers standing closer to the speaker may overwhelmed by the volume of the announcement, while passengers between speakers may have a hard time hearing the message. Personnel outside of the terminal also may have a hard time hearing or understanding the message with hearing protection on and airplane engine noise. Public Address Systems / Fire Alarm Systems Type Initial Follow-up All-Clear Situation Emergency Incident Non-Emergency Audience Employees Airlines Concessionaires TSA 1st Responders Passengers Emergency Mgmt. Groups R Infrastructure Radio Land line Airwaves Cable VoIP Printed Data Maintenance Opt No Secure Yes Style 1 Way Redundancy Yes Dependency No ADA Auditory Visual Access Emergency Operations Center, Multiple Access Options, Local Operator Format Audio Multiple Languages Visual Written Physical Presence Content Few sentences Quick Yes Coverage Speciï¬c Areas Inside Airport
85 Telephone-Based Systems Telephone-based systems can be placed into two broad categories: â¢ Mobile phones â¢ Landlines/Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) Each category has its advantages and disadvantages, but both options allow for two-way communication. Mobile phones are one of the most common devices used in the country and very few people leave home without them. Mobile phones oï¬er the ability to reach an individual quickly, send voicemails or text messages, and often allows for notiï¬cation based on geography. Web-enabled mobile phones and devices oï¬er the beneï¬t of connecting to web- based notiï¬cation platforms, such as social media and websites. While they are sometimes small enough to ï¬t in a pocket, not everyone has their mobile phone on them at all times, especially if company policy prohibits it. Mobile phones can have short battery life and a dead battery means missed calls. In addition, mobile phones rely on nearby towers for reception, which can quickly become overloaded during an emergency. Alternatively, the carrier or tower could fail for an unrelated reason, causing temporary reception âdead zones.â Landlines are great tools for redundancy purposes. Because most departments have at least one landline, this could be a quick way to contact another department. Many landlines are designed to function even when the power goes down, as long as the phone network has not failed. However, the biggest drawback to the landline is the fact that someone needs to be on the other end of the line to answer the call. VoIP is a type of phone service that uses the public Internet and local servers to connect to someone to answer the call on the other end, but also rely on the local servers to maintain connectivity. If local servers fail, the VoIP system will be unavailable. another telephone, as opposed to the wired phone network. VoIP phone systems also require
86 Telephone-Based Systems / Commonalities Type Initial Follow-up All-Clear Situation Emergency Incident Non-Emergency Audience Airlines Media Concessionaires TSA Local Govât. Oï¬cials State Oï¬cials 1st Responders Emergency Mgmt. Groups Federal Oï¬cials Data Personal Information Opt Yes Style 2 Way Redundancy No Dependency No Access Multiple Access Options, Emergency Operations Center, Local Operator Quick Yes Coverage Single Recipient Telephone - Land Line / VoIP Infrastructure Radio Land line Airwaves Cable VoIP Printed Secure No ADA Auditory Visual Format Audio Multiple Languages Visual Written Physical Presence Content Unlimited Streaming Mobile Phone - Voice Infrastructure Radio Land line Airwaves Cable VoIP Printed Secure No ADA Auditory Visual Format Audio Multiple Languages Visual Written Physical Presence Content Unlimited Streaming Mobile Phone - Text Infrastructure Radio Land line Airwaves Cable VoIP Printed Secure No ADA Auditory Visual Format Audio Multiple Languages Visual Written Physical Presence Content Up to a Few Sentences Web-Enabled Mobile Devices Infrastructure Radio Land line Airwaves Cable VoIP Printed Secure Cyber Security Exposure ADA Auditory Visual Format Audio Multiple Languages Visual Written Physical Presence Content Up to a Few Paragraphs
87 Two-Way Radios Radios are one of the most commonly used tools in airports. They are fairly mobile, they donât require the reliance on a provider for signal quality, and they have a single purpose: to contact someone on the same frequency. This oï¬ers a back-up tool in case of communication disruptions. Some of the higher-end radios oï¬er a geolocation option. Unfortunately, radios come with many disadvantages. It is an additional piece of equipment for employees to carry around and it is not as light or small as a mobile phone. Conversations over radios can become quite diï¬cult, with possible dead zones, compromised quality and clarity other), overlapping conversations, and diï¬culties hearing in noisy areas. Additionally, radios are not always secure; in some cases, people in the nearby area can overhear both sides of the conversation, and individuals outside of the airport can tune into the frequency to overhear conversations. Radios/Walkie-Talkies Type Initial Follow-up All-Clear Situation Emergency Incident Non-Emergency Audience Employee Airlines TSA 1st Responder Emergency Mgmt. Group Infrastructure Radio Land line Airwaves Cable VoIP Printed Data Does not apply Opt Yes Secure No Style 2 Way Redundancy No Dependency No ADA Auditory Access Multiple Access Options Format Audio Multiple Languages Visual Written Physical Presence Content Unlimited streaming Quick Yes Coverage Single Recipient Runners and Messengers Some smaller airports and organizations use runners and messengers to convey information to a small area. This allows the passengers and employees to ask clarifying questions and receive an immediate response. It also allows more information to be conveyed, although there is sometimes a signiï¬cant delay in the messenger reaching the intended audience. from static and co-channel interference (i.e., crosstalk from multiple frequencies close to each
88 Runners and messengers should be used as a last resort method of notifying individuals for several reasons. If the runner is looking for a speciï¬c person, ï¬nding that person could prove to be a challenge. Information could be misinterpreted by the runner, resulting in inaccurate information being passed on, although delivering text-based messages (e.g., Post-it notes or typed messages) can circumvent this risk to an extent. Most importantly, sending a runner or messenger can possibly put that individual into harmâs way. Runners / Messengers Type Initial Follow-up All-Clear Situation Emergency Incident Non-Emergency Audience Employees Airlines Concessionaires TSA 1st Responders Passengers Emergency Mgmt. Groups Infrastructure Radio Land line Airwaves Cable VoIP Printed Data Does not apply Opt No Secure Yes Style 2 Way Redundancy No Dependency No ADA Auditory Visual Access Local Operator Format Audio Multiple Languages Visual Written Physical Presence Content Up to a Few Paragraphs Quick No Coverage Speciï¬c Areas Inside Airport, Single Recipient Programmable Signs Programmable signs are a great way to communicate information to many individuals over a long period of time. There are several types of programmable signs, including generator powered, solar powered, ï¬xed, portable, indoor, outdoor, and several other types. Generally, these are not used as initial notiï¬cations during emergencies, although some can be programmed to switch to prewritten text with instructions and lights. However, a roadway programmable sign might be the ï¬rst notiï¬cation a passenger receives of a problem while driving to the airport. Most of these signs are good for non-emergencies and promotional material, especially if the message does not change for an extended period of time. These signs have several disadvantages; they are not visible to everyone at the airport at all times. Also, as passengers and personnel walk by all the signs in the terminal, they stop reading and acknowledging the message, an eï¬ect sometimes called âsign blindness.â To understand the message fully, the target audience must be able not only to read the message but also to
89 comprehend it. This may require a high level of reading comprehension, and messages in English may not reach non-English readers. Electronic signs also tend to have scrolling instructions or advertisements; this requires passers- by to have the ability to read the messages quickly, or wait for the information to cycle back through. If a sign scrolls through the same instructions in several languages, individuals will have to wait while the message scrolls through the other languages before they can read the message again. This can lead to misinterpreted or incomplete information. Programmable Signs Type Initial Follow-up All-Clear Situation Emergency Incident Non-Emergency Audience Employees Airlines Concessionaires Passengers Infrastructure Radio Land line Airwaves Cable VoIP Printed Data Does not apply Opt No Secure Cyber Security Exposure Style 1 Way Redundancy No Dependency No ADA Auditory Visual Access Local Operator Format Audio Multiple Languages Visual Written Physical Presence Content Up to a Few Sentences Quick Yes Coverage All Areas Inside Airport, Speciï¬c Areas Inside Airport, Single Recipient Bullhorns and Megaphones Bullhorns and megaphones often are used in conjunction with runners and messengers, and they carry additional advantages and disadvantages. Generally, bullhorns and megaphones are inexpensive devices. They can communicate the information to a larger audience than the messenger could without such a tool. Many bullhorns and megaphones do not require electricity, but having back-up batteries nearby is a simple solution for when electrically powered devices run out of power. The volume of the announcement is sure to grab the attention of nearby passers-by. Even though bullhorns and megaphones are loud, the quality of the sound is not always reliable and the message can become garbled. They also have a limited range, so these tools are best for smaller areas or terminals. Because the bullhorn or megaphone requires a person to operate it, the messenger could be put in harmâs way during an emergency or security incident.
90 Bullhorns / Megaphones Type Initial Follow-up All-Clear Situation Emergency Incident Non-Emergency Audience Employees Airlines Concessionaires Passengers Infrastructure Radio Land line Airwaves Cable VoIP Printed Data Does not apply Opt No Secure Yes Style 2 Way Redundancy No Dependency No ADA Auditory Visual Access Local Operator Format Audio Multiple Languages Visual Written Physical Presence Content Unlimited Streaming Quick Yes Coverage Speciï¬c Areas Inside Airport Integrated Communications Platforms (ICPs) Integrated Communication Platforms take nearly all of the above tools and methods and integrates them into a single system that, generally, can be accessed from any device with Internet access. Sometimes referred to as a mass notiï¬cation system (MNS), the ICP inherently takes on all the advantages of the tools and methods integrated, as well as all of the disadvantages. In addition to the advantages for each tool or method integrated into the system, ICP equipment and systems are generally maintained, for a fee, by the vendor that sells the system, as well as 24/7 monitoring and updating the software. The main equipment is located oï¬ -site so that power outages or communication disruptions on the airport premise will not aï¬ect the equipment. ICPs oï¬er remote access. If an authorized user has access to the Internet, the system can be turned on from anywhere. This allows the system to initialize almost immediately and notify outside resources, such as ï¬re and police, with a single âgoâ signal. Use of templates is the most eï¬ective way to ensure the system is ready to go as soon as it is needed. The biggest disadvantages to an ICP are the cost and the infrastructure changes that may be needed. ICPs are easily the most expensive tool on this list. It may also require replacing and/or adding additional cables and power lines. The implementation of the system will most likely take some time to install and set up and will require a long-term commitment on the part of the airport.
91 Integrated Communication Platforms Type Initial Follow-up All-Clear Situation Emergency Incident Non-Emergency Audience Employees Airlines Media Concessionaires 1st Responders State Oï¬cials Bordering Communities TSA Local Govât. Ofï¬cials Emergency Mgmt. Groups Passengers Federal Oï¬cials Infrastructure Radio Land line Airwaves Cable VoIP Printed Data Personal Information, Maintenance Opt No Secure Cyber Security Exposure Style 2 Way Redundancy Yes Dependency Yes ADA Auditory Visual Access Multiple Access Options Format Audio Multiple Languages Visual Written Physical Presence Content Unlimited Streaming Quick Yes Coverage Outside Airport, All Areas Inside Airport, Speciï¬c Areas Inside Airport, Single Recipient
92 Table A-1. Tools and methods analysis chart. Tools and Methods Analysis Chart The chart below is based on the identiï¬cation of strengths, weaknesses, and usefulness of each tool or method described above. The chart is designed to give airport operators an idea of how their current notiï¬cation methods compare to other types of methods. Style Secure O pt Infrastructure Situati on N Coverage Content Form at A ccess A D A D ependency Tem plates Redundancy I, F, AEA, M, B, PY R1YYYA, VOS A, LO, A, L Q uick N Type A udience D ata 1) IPA WS 2) Rev erse 9 11 3) Dir ect Ci rcuits 4) Soc ial Me dia 5) Pre ss Rel eases 6) Prin ted Co mmun icatio ns 7) We bsite/ Onlin e Port als 8) Inte rnal N etwor ks/Em ails 9) PAS /FAS 10) Te lepho ne-La nd Lin e / Vo IP 11) M obile Phone - Voic e 12) M obile Phone - Text 13) W eb En abled Mobi le Dev ices 14) Ra dios/W alkie- Talkie s 15) Ru nners /Mess enger s 16) Pr ogram mable Signs 17) Bu llhorn s/Meg aphon es 18) In tegrat ed Co mmun icatio n Platfo rms I, F, A I, F, A I, F, A E, I, N E, I, N E, I, N E, I, N E, I A, M, C, T, L, S, G, F, E W, A, T, F, E W, A, C, T, F, P, E W, A, C, P W, A, C, P Y Y A, M, B, L, S, G, P E, I, N I, F, A I, F, A I, F, A I, F, A I, F, A I, F, A I, F, A F, A I, F F, A F, A I I, F, A I E, I, N E, I, N E E, I, N E, I, N E, I, N E E, I E, I, N E, I, N E, I, N W, A, C, T, F, E W, A, C, T, F, P, E A, M, C, T, L, S, G, F, E A, M, C, T, L, S, G, F, E A, M, C, T, L, S, G, F, E A, M , B, C A, C, T, S, F, L, E, G A, M, B, L, S, G, P A, M, B, L, S, G, P A, M, B, L, S, G, P A R, L, C, A L, V R R R R P W, A, M, C, F, S, B, T, L, E, G, P Y N C N Y P P L, C C C A R, L, C L R, L, C Y Y Y Y Y N N N N N N 1 2 2 1 1 YY Y Y Y Y Y N N Y N A A V, A V V A,L A, V, W, L A, W, P, L W, L O E, L M E M P, S U P, S P P A, L U A, V A, L S P U P T, S U, P P P S U U N N Y C Y C Y N N Y Y Y Y N N N C N C C 2 2 2 1 2 2 N N N Y N N 2 2 1 2 2 2 Y N N N N N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N N N Y Y N N N N N V A A V A V, A L L L M V, A V V, A A A V A, P, L A, V, W, L M M E, M, L E, M, L E, M, L E, M, L E, M, L M A, L W, L A, V, W, L A, L A, P, L A, V, W, L A, V, W, L V, W, A, L O, A, L, S S S, L O, A, L, S O, A O, A S S S L, S A, L, S L O, A, L, S O, A, L, S L S S Y Y Y Y Y N Y Y N Y N N N N N Y P, M P, M P, M M P P P P P, M Y Abbreviations Deï¬ned: O- Outside airport only U - Unlimited streaming A - Audio O - Outside airport only V - Visual Y- Yes 1 - One way Y- Yes P - Personal Information W - Employee E - Emergency A - All areas inside airport P - Few paragraphs V - Visual L - Local operator A - Auditory N - No 2 - Two way N - No M - Maintenance F - First Responders N - Non Emergency L - Local area inside airport S - Few Sentences W - Written E - EOC Y- Yes Y- Yes R - Radio L - Local Government Oï¬cials I - Incident S - Single recipient T - One sentence P - Physical presence M - Multiple access options N - No N - No C - Cable A - Airlines I - Initial Y- Yes L - Multiple languages V - VoIP S - State Oï¬cials A - All Clear N - No Y- Yes L - Land line E - Emergency Management Groups F - Follow-up N - No A - Airwaves M - Media / Press P - Printed B - Bordering Communities G - Federal Oï¬cials C - Concessionaires T - TSA P - Passengers C - Cyber security exposure