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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 171 2017 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation â¢ Operations and Traffic Management â¢ Safety and Human Factors Establishing a Coordinated Local Family Assistance Program for Airports Sue Warner-Bean Sue Warner-Bean LLC Seattle, WA Ken Jenkins Ken JenKinS LLC Dallas, TX Jennifer Stansberry Miller Fishers, IN with Christina Parkins TeTraTeCh Concord, NC Rick Hoaglund Tacoma, WA
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100â Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 171 Project 06-03 ISSN 1935-9802 ISBN 978-0-309-44629-7 Library of Congress Control Number 2017935723 Â© 2017 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America Cover photo credits, clockwise from top left: Source: NTSB Flickr photos; courtesy of Lexington Herald-Leader; courtesy of Tricia Coffman; courtesy of Jennifer Stansberry Miller.
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 171 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Theresia H. Schatz, Senior Program Officer Hana Vagnerova, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Doug English, Editor ACRP PROjECT 06-03 PANEL Field of Human Resources Hilary Fletcher, Jviation Inc., St. George, UT (Chair) Andrea Chiroff, Empathia, Inc., Waukesha, WI David E. DiMaria, Wayne County Airport Authority, Detroit, MI Carlos Lopez, SkyWest Airlines, Woodland, CA David McCurdy, Tarrant County Administratorâs Office, Fort Worth, TX Trish Tucker, Reno-Tahoe Airport Authority, Reno, NV Keri Lyn Lyons, FAA Liaison Matt Cornelius, Airports Council InternationalâNorth America Liaison Michael Crook, National Transportation Safety Board Liaison AuTHOR ACkNOwLEdGMENTS This guidebook and the supporting materials were developed by a research team of experienced emergency response and aviation disas- ter family assistance professionals. Primary researchers and authors were Sue Warner-Bean, Ken Jenkins, and Jennifer Stansberry Miller. Rick Hoaglund was a contributing author, and Patrick Cameron of TetraTech and Greg Klein, an independent consultant, provided research assistance. Sue Warner-Bean was Principal Investigator, and Christina Parkins was Deputy Principal Investigator, contributing author, and project manager. The authors would like to acknowledge the research project panel- ists for their guidance, and the many airport, airline, and other agency representatives who informed this work through interviews and by providing resource materials. These organizations and individu- als are listed in Appendix 6. Special thanks to airport personnel who supported the case studies: Lee Weitz, Buffalo Niagara International Airport; Michael Nonnemacher, Fort LauderdaleâHollywood Inter- national Airport; Dave Beaver, Owatonna Degner Regional Airport; Toshia Marshall, San Francisco International Airport; and Kelly Fabrizius, Wichita Dwight D. Eisenhower National Airport. The National Transportation Safety Boardâs Transportation Disas- ter Assistance Division provided expert guidance through its panel advisory role; its insights and contributions, gleaned from 20 years of experience in aviation disaster response, were invaluable. Most importantly, this project could not have been accomplished without the support and participation of past aviation disaster victimsâ family members and survivors. We would like to gratefully acknowl- edge the assistance of two aviation disaster family associations: Fami- lies of Flight 3407 and Fondazione 8 Ottobre 2001. Special thanks to Susan Bourque, Kathy Johnston, Dave Sanderson, and Tricia Coffman for providing interviews, photos, and personal accounts of their expe- riences in support of case studies and videos. For these individuals and the many other survivors and family members who chose to partici- pate in this research project, we appreciate your courage to willingly revisit your experience to share it with us. It is by looking through your lens that we improve the process to support future victims and their families. âIn truth, grief is a great teacher when it sends us back to serve and bless the livingâ [Jewish mournerâs Kaddish (Stern et al., 1994)]. Our entire project team deeply appreciates your time and efforts.
ACRP Research Report 171: Establishing a Coordinated Local Family Assistance Program for Airports shows airports how to assist victims and families affected by an aviation disaster. This guidebook incorporates best practices for planning an effective response while coor- dinating with different partners (e.g., air carriers, NTSB, NGOs, and vendors). It is adapt- able to both general aviation and commercial service airports of any size, and addresses legislated and non-legislated events while complementing federal regulatory and statutory requirements. The guidebook includes all components necessary to ensure a coordinated and compas- sionate response to survivors and families and includes a description of key terminology, fed- eral regulatory and statutory requirements, history and background of the Aviation Disaster Family Assistance Act, and development of a strategic plan for creating and implementing a local airport victim and family assistance program. It identifies tasks associated with initial response periods and subsequent response, recovery, and post-recovery periods, as well as components of a family assistance communication plan and strategies to incorporate it into the overall crisis communication plan, including impacts at origination, destination, and connecting airports, among many other elements. It also includes sample checklists, generic informational brochures and registration forms for family and survivor gathering areas, guidance on how to conduct family and survivor briefings, a crisis communications training module, and materials to support an airport family assistance exercise. Airports dedicate substantial resources to prepare and train for potential aviation inci- dents and accidents at or near their facilities. The immediate focus of every airport after an incident or accident is on the preservation of life and the protection of property. Yet these events also have complex ramifications for the airport as it works to meet the needs of both survivors and the families of victims while coordinating dissemination of information about the incident and continuing to manage the airport. In an accident resulting in a major loss of life, certain domestic and foreign airlines are federally mandated to implement specific tasks immediately as part of a formally developed, comprehensive air carrier Family Assistance Plan. These events are considered âlegislated accidents.â Although implementation of air car- rier plans happens rapidly, it may take specially trained family assistance teams hours to reach the affected airports. Airport operators normally serve as the immediate first responders to the crash site; however, they must also be prepared to address the needs of family members, provide assistance to survivors, manage the media, and ensure continued airport opera- tions during this initial period. In ânon-legislatedâ accidents, or for accidents where there is limited or no air carrier support, the airport may need to assume the primary role in support- ing victims and families throughout the entire event. This research identifies best practices, F O R E W O R D By Theresia H. Schatz Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
programs, and established procedures and training for airports to assist victims and families affected by an aviation accident, including federally mandated airline response requirements. Establishing these practices and procedures will provide a more standardized, coordinated, and compassionate response to an aviation accident. These actions ultimately benefit sur- vivors, family members, the airport, and its community. Under ACRP Project 06-03, research was conducted by TetraTech, led by Sue Warner-Bean LLC, and in association with Ken Jenkins LLC, Jennifer Stansberry Miller, and Rick Hoaglund. Christina Parkins of TetraTech was the Deputy Principal Investigator. The guidebook was developed through shared best practices, lessons learned, and interviews from a mix of types and sizes of commercial and general aviation airports and air carriers across the United States as well as from survivors, friends, and family members affected by aviation disasters. The supplemental information and tools, including forms, sample checklists, diagrams, and training and exercise materials, can be accessed at http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/175605.aspx.
xi Preface: Why Airport Family Assistance? 1 Introduction 3 Section 1 Overview 3 Approach and Structure of the Guidebook 3 Assumptions 4 Key Terms and Definitions 8 History and Background of Aviation Disaster Family Assistance 9 Federal Regulatory and Statutory Requirements 10 Guidance Documents and Recommended Practices 12 Legislated Versus Non-Legislated 15 Terrorist or Criminal Acts 16 Section 2 Family Assistance Program Development 16 Developing an Airport Family Assistance Program 18 Determine Roles and Responsibilities 21 Plan Development and Approval 22 Training and Exercises 23 After-Action Reporting 23 Section 2: Family Assistance Program Development Summary and Checklist 25 Section 3 Roles and Responsibilities 25 Airport Role in Command and Control 26 Local Government 26 State Government 27 Nongovernmental Organizations 27 Airport-to-Airport Mutual Aid 27 Other Supporting Organizations 29 Air Carriers and Aircraft Operators 38 Section 3: Roles and Responsibilities Summary and Checklist 39 Section 4 Response Phases and Tasks 39 Preparedness 40 Incident Response: Immediate Response (0 to 4 Hours) 41 Incident Response: Short-Term (4 to 12 Hours) 43 Incident Response: Extended (12 to 24 Hours) 44 Recovery (1 Day to 2 Weeks) 44 Post-Recovery (2 Weeks to Years) 45 Section 4: Incident Response Phases and Tasks Summary C O N T E N T S
46 Section 5 Information Management and Communications 46 Communications Plan 48 Family Assistance Communications 50 Public and Media Relations Considerations 54 Section 5: Information Management and Communications Summary and Checklist 56 Section 6 Communicating with Affected Families, Friends, and Survivors 56 Four Fundamental Concerns of Family Members 56 Responsibility for Initial Notification of Involvement 57 Providing Information 58 Communications Guidance 61 Recommended Training and Additional Resources 61 Section 6: Communicating with Affected Friends, Families, and Survivors Summary and Checklist 62 Section 7 Operations and Logistics 62 Activation: When to Activate the Airport Family Assistance Program 63 Who Needs to Be Notified 65 Victim Accounting 67 Security 68 Family Assistance Facilities 74 Additional Considerations 75 Section 7: Operations and Logistics Summary and Checklist 78 Section 8 Transition to the Family Assistance Center 78 Coordination with Family Assistance Center Operator 78 Documentation/Tracking/Badging 78 Transportation 79 Assisting Arriving Families and Friends 79 Assisting Air Carrier Go-Teams 79 Closing the FRC, PGA, and Reunification Location 79 Returning Facilities to Normal Operations 80 Section 8: Transition to the Family Assistance Center Summary and Checklist 81 Section 9 Recovery and Post-Response Considerations 81 Closure of the Family Assistance Center/Families in Transit 81 Recovery of Vehicles Belonging to Passengers and Crew 82 Crash Site Activities: Investigation and Recovery of Remains and Personal Effects 82 Crash Site Visit for Families, Friends, and Survivors 84 Crash Site Visits for VIPs and Officials 84 Memorial Service 84 Long-Term Implications 87 Special Considerations 88 Responder Readiness and Recovery: Psychological Resilience for Employees and Responders 89 Recommended Training and Additional Resources 89 Section 9: Recovery and Post-Response Issues Summary and Checklist
92 Section 10 Case Studies 92 San Francisco International Airport 95 Buffalo Niagara International Airport 99 Fort LauderdaleâHollywood International Airport 105 Wichita Dwight D. Eisenhower National Airport 112 Owatonna Degner Regional Airport 116 Works Cited 117 Appendix 1 Abbreviations 119 Appendix 2 Key Terms and Definitions 124 Appendix 3 Planning Aids, Forms, and Checklists 130 Appendix 4 Training Materials 131 Appendix 5 Exercise Development and Facilitation Tools 133 Appendix 6 Research Results 143 Endnotes Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.
P R E F a C E To the person reading this guidebook, I went to an airport like yours once, looking for information. You see, I received word there was a crash and people were killed, so I came as quickly as I could. I was searching for answers; I was looking for my loved one. Crashes happen to other people, other families. I came to the airport desperately hoping we were wrongâto prove we were wrong, the news was wrong, our friends were wrong. They werenât wrong. When I learned the truth, it was like a part of me died too. I met people like you that night. They were kind and tried to help me, but my questions and needs were bigger than what they could assist me with. To this day, there is so much I donât understand. Why couldnât the airport give me information? Why did I have to call the air carrier? Why did I have to wait for the NTSB? Why . . . Why did this have to happen to me? To our family? None of this makes sense, even today. But people like you, though nervous, were so kind. They answered our questions over and over again and never lost patience. And yes, I did get mad because they could not provide the information I so desperately wanted, but I know they tried. I recall hear- ing âI donât know, but let me check.â I remember they told us about rescue efforts and about some of the ways they were trying to help. They brought us some water while we waitedâwaited for what seemed like forever. I think someone at the airport arranged transportation for me and my husband to a nearby hotelâyou see, we just were not fit to drive, even that short of a distance. Iâm sorry, I wish I could share more details, but I just cannot remember. The details are a blur. What I can share is that the airport provided us with people who wanted to help, and that made all the difference for our family. I am writing today to say thank you. Thank you for understanding why we needed sup- port on what was the worst day of our lives. Thank you for understanding that although the details are important, our long-lasting impressions are based upon how you treated us. How you cared. How you tried. What we remember most is that the airport had kind people trying to do the right thing under the worst circumstances. Why Airport Family Assistance?
As the late Maya Angelou said, âIâve learned that people will forget what you said, people will forget what you did, but people will never forget how you made them feel.â Thank you for making us feel like our family and our loved one mattered. Sincerely, A family member