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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 12: Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, Third Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24766.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 12: Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, Third Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24766.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 12: Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, Third Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24766.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 12: Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, Third Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24766.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 12: Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, Third Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24766.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 12: Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, Third Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24766.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 12: Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, Third Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24766.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 12: Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, Third Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24766.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 12: Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, Third Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24766.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 12: Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, Third Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24766.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 12: Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, Third Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24766.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 12: Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, Third Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24766.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 12: Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, Third Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24766.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 12: Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, Third Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24766.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 12: Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, Third Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24766.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 12: Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, Third Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24766.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 12: Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, Third Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24766.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

1. User's Guide 2. Mode ond Service Concepts 3. Operations Concepts 4. Quality of Service Concepts 5. Quality of Service Methods 6. Bus Transit Copocity 7. Demond Responsive Transit 8. Roil Transit Copocity 9. Ferry Transit Copocity 10. Station Copocity 11. Glossary ond Symbols 12. Index Chapter 12/lndex Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition CHAPTER 12 INDEX When an entry has several page numbers associated with it, page numbers shown in bold indicate locations where terms are defined or concepts explained. Page numbers shown in italics indicate locations of illustrations. acceleration bus, 6-4, 6-88 commuter rail train, 8-68 access time, 4-11, 4-29 access to transit, 4-3, 5-8, 5-78 automobile, 4-23, 5-21 bicycle, 4-18,4-21, 5-20,9-4, 10-36 pedestrian, 4-18, 4-19, 4-20, 5-9, 6-53, 6-54, 9-4 special events, 8-43 stations, 10-2, 10-15 to 10-20 accessibility persons with disabilities, 10-2 activity centers, 5-72 ADA. See Americans with Disabilities Act ADA para transit, 2-7, 2-10, 2-43, 4-32, 4-37, 5-4 7, 5-55, 6-54, 7-3 advanced light rail transit, 2-15 aerial lifts, 2-25, 8-120, See also aerial ropeways cabin sizes, 8-80 capacity, 8-89 aerial ropeways, 2-24, 2-25 capacity, 8-77 capacity, calculation example, 8-120 mode-specific capacity issues, 8-8 passenger boarding, 8-40 wheelchair access, 8-40 aerial tramways, 2-25,8-120, See also aerial ropeways cabin sizes, 8-80 capacity, 8-88 AGT. See automated guideway transit air conditioning, 4-35, 4-36 alternatives analysis capacity and speed applications, 6-98 station design applications, 10-62 amenities. See stations, amenities and individual amenities Page 12-1 Americans with Disabilities Act, 1-18,2-7,2-10,4-17, 4-20,4-32,6-49,6-54,8-34,8-35,8-59,9-10,9-13, 10-6,10-17,10-19,10-27,10-63 requirements, 3-38, 5-20, 5-55, 7-3, 8-8,8-21, 8-35, 8-38, 10-2, 10-3, 10-5, 10-8, 10-17, 10-28, 10-29 Amtrak, 2-14,8-91 A PC. See automatic passenger counters appearance, 4-35, 5-38 applications bus capacity and speed, 6-98 to 6-101 quality of service, 5-71 to 5-78 rail capacity, 8-81 to 8-107 station capacity, 10-62 to 10-73 TCQSM, 1-9 art, 10-10, 10-11,10-12 auto equivalent units, 9-7, 9-29 auto service time ferry transit, calculation example, 9-32 automated guideway transit, 2-21,2-22, 2-27 automatic train operation, 8-21 capacity, 8-75 capacity, calculation example, 8-118, 8-119 linear loading levels, 8-35 minimum train separation, 8-76 mode-specific capacity issues, 8-8 off-line stations, 8-77 off-line stations, calculation example, 8-119 passenger loads, 8-77 performance, train, 8-76 platform screen doors, use of, 8-32 signaling, 8-75 stations, 10-8 train control, 8-7 5 vehicle performance differences, 8-7 5 automatic passenger counters, 3-18, 4-38, 5-40, 5-41, 5-75,5-77,5-93,6-40,6-43,6-53,6-85,6-99,6-127 automatic train control, 8-18 I

Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, 3'd Edition automatic train operation, 8-21, 8-32 capacity, impact on, 8-21 dwell times, impact on, 8-27 automatic train stops, 8-18 automatic train supervision, 8-21, 8-61 automatic vehicle location, 4-38, 5-28, 5-29, 5-33, 5-34, 5-40,5-48,5-49,5-59, 5-75,5-77,5-92,6-36,6-40, 6-43,6-53,6-54,6-67,6-96,6-97,6-100 AVL. See automatic vehicle location benches, 4-36,5-41,10-5,10-10,10-11,10-12 berth capacity calculation example, 9-33 berths, bus. See loading areas berths, ferry capacity, 9-22 defined, 9-10 parallel, 9-6 bicycles as transit access mode, 4-18, 5-20 bike sharing, 4-22, 10-37 cages, 10-36,10-37 dwell time, impact on, 6-70 integrating with transit, 4-21 interactions with curb extensions, 6-50 loading, 6-69 lockers, 10-36, 10-37 on board transit vehicles, 4-22,4-23, 10-9 parking, 10-5, 10-8, 10-9 racks, 3-24, 5-21,6-7,6-70, 10-36,10-37 space occupied, 4-22 speeds, typical, 4-22 stair channels, 10-36 storage, 4-22, 5-21 blocks, city train length constraint, 8-12 blocks, signal. See signals, train, blocks boarding passenger distribution among doors, 6-68 boarding islands, 6-12, 6-48, 6-49,8-23, 10-5 boarding lost time, 6-3, 6-5, 6-17 calculation, 6-69 body ellipse, 5-25 bollards, 10-34 budgeted wait time, 5-92 bunching, 4-31,4-33, 5-30, 5-93, 6-9 person capacity, impact on, 6-129 bus. See also bus transit acceleration, 6-4, 6-88 articulated, 2-2, 2-4, 6-4 bicycle racks, 4-22 community bus, 2-4 commuter, 2-4 door configuration. See doors, bus, configuration double-deck, 2-4 floor height, 6-6, 6-7 high-floor, 2-4 low-floor, 2-3, 2-4, 2-5 minibus, 2-2 over-the-road coach, 2-4, 6-4 passenger capacity, 6-20 percent passengers by door channel, 6-68 propulsion, 2-2 replica trolley, 2-4 seating configuration, 2-3 shoulder use, 6-31 special-purpose, 2-4, 6-33, 10-7 vehicle types, 2-5, 6-19, 6-20 bus berths. See loading areas bus bridge, 8-42 bus capacity. See capacity, vehicle bus facilities, 6-15 capacity, 6-19, 6-81 capacity, non-stop facility, 6-81 capacity, with skip-stop operation, 6-82 capacity, without skip-stop operation, 6-82 defined for capacity analysis, 6-61 defined generally, 6-15 described, 6-26 non-stop facility, 6-81 sectioning, 6-87 speed, 6-94 bus gates, 6-57 bus lanes, 2-32, 5-94, 6-32, 6-57, 6-99 bi-directional, 6-35, 6-36 bus operations, impact on, 6-39 calculation example, effect on bus capacity and speed, 6-118 capacity, 6-22 concurrent-flow, 6-34 contraflow, 6-35, 6-38, 6-80 described, 6-31 development of, 6-32 dual, 6-35, 6-39, 6-40, 6-63, 6-91 Page 12-2 Chapter 12/lndex

Chapter 12/lndex Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, 3'd Edition bus lanes (continued) enforcement, 2-33 interior, 6-34, 6-38 intermittent, 6-36 observed travel time savings, 6-39 offset, 6-34, 6-38 planning guidelines, 6-37, 6-38 reliability, impact on, 6-40 service volumes, 6-21 travel time, impact on, 6-39 types, 6-34, 6-35, 6-62, 6-63, 6-80 use of parking restrictions to create, 6-58 bus operations bus lanes, impact of, 6-39 bus stop consolidation, impact of, 6-55 bus stop relocation, impact on, 6-54 busways, impact of, 6-28 curb extensions, impact of, 6-51 left-side running, 10-7 managed lanes, impact of, 6-28 median busways, impact of, 6-39 movement restriction exemptions, 6-57, 6-58 operational tools, 6-53 to 6-59 parking restrictions, 6-58 passing opportunities, 2-38, 6-5, 6-14, 6-22, 6-33, 6- 56,6-63,6-81,6-91, 10-7 queue jumps, impact of, 6-48 transit signal priority, impact of, 6-44 bus rapid transit, 2-5, 4-39, 6-47 facility sizing, 6-98, 6-100 fare collection, 10-19 stations, 10-7 bus stop consolidation impact on, 6-55 bus stop failure, 6-3,6-5,6-7,6-18,6-63 design values, 6-61,6-64 loading area capacity, relationship to, 6-66 Z values, 6-65 bus stop position. See on-line stops and off-line stops bus stop relocation, 6-53 bus stop relocation bus operations, impact on, 6-54 bus stop spacing, 3-23, 3-39, 6-10 speed, impact on, 3-42, 3-43 Page 12-3 bus stops, 6-15, 10-5, See also stations capacity, 6-16, 6-77 consolidation, 6-54 critical. See critical stop defined, 6-15 design, 6-62 freeway, 6-14 location, 6-12, 6-62 location, impact on capacity, 6-80 off-street, 6-14, 10-31 on-street, 10-34 passenger arrival patterns, 4-28 relocation, 6-53 spacing, 6-58, 6-87,6-91 bus streets, 6-32 bus transit. See also bus bus mode, 2-5 bus rapid transit. See bus rapid transit capacity, 6-60 to 6-85 capacity, illustrative, 3-10 commuter bus. See commuter bus electric trolleybus. See electric trolleybus overview, 2-2 planning-level capacities, 6-20 shoulder use, 6-30 speeds, illustrative, 3-12 submodes, 2-5 vehicle types, 2-2 bus tunnels, 6-27 bus volumes speed, impact on, 3-36, 6-14, 6-92 bus-bus interference, 3-35,6-14,6-87,6-93 busways, 6-11, 6-19, 6-26, 6-81 at-grade, 6-26, 6-27 bus operations, impact on, 6-28, 6-39 downtown bus distribution, 6-27 grade-separated, 6-26, 6-80 impact on bus operations, 6-28 median, 6-26, 6-27, 6-32, 6-33 planning guidelines, 6-29 speed, 6-11 stations, 10-7 stations, multiple platform, 6-79 busways, median, 6-80 cable cars, 2-26, 8-78 I

Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, 3'd Edition capacity, 1-6 adjacent lane, 6-83 aerial lifts, 8-89 aerial ropeways, 8-8, 8-77 aerial ropeways, calculation example, 8-120 aerial tramways, 8-88 airport transit systems, 2-21, 8-77 automated guideway transit, 8-8, 8-75 automated guideway transit, calculation example, 8- 118,8-119 automatic train operation, impact of, 8-21 availability, 4-31 BRT facility sizing applications, 6-100 bus facilities, 6-19, 6-81 bus lanes, 6-22 bus method, input data, 6-61 bus stop, 6-16,6-77 bus stop location, impact of, 6-80 bus transit, 6-60 to 6-85 calculation example, bus, 6-103 city block length as capacity constraint, 8-12 commuter rail, 8-8,8-14,8-67,8-70,8-72 commuter rail, calculation example, 8-117 commuter rail, means of increasing, 8-72 concepts, 3-4 constraints, 2-10 consumers of track capacity, commuter rail, 8-68 demand-responsive transit, 7-1,7-3,7-6 to 7-8 design, 1-7,3-6,6-15,6-64,6-66,8-9,8-13,8-15,8- 24,8-30,9-29, 10-51, 10-59 designing for future growth, 8-81 diagnosing and treating capacity issues, 6-100 dock, 9-27 dock exit, 9-24 doors, impact of, 3-40 doorway, 10-17,10-39,10-40 dwell time variability, impact of, 3-25 dwell time, impact of, 3-25, 3-26 elevators, 10-28, 10-53, 10-54 escalators, 10-27, 10-51 evaluating fare collection technology changes, 6-98 facility selection applications, 6-98 factors influencing, 3-6 faregates, 10-19, 10-42 faregates, emergency evacuation, 10-43 ferry auto-deck, 9-7 ferry berth, 9-22 capacity (continued) ferry berth, calculation example, 9-33 ferry transit concepts, 9-3 grade, impact of, 3-33 heavy rail, calculation example, 8-108,8-112 illustrative by mode, 3-8 inclined planes, 8-88 junction, calculation example, 8-111 junctions, 8-70 light rail, 8-8, 8-55 light rail, in exclusive lanes, 8-87 loading area type, impact of, 3-41 loading areas, 6-15, 6-64,6-70, 10-32 maximum, 3-5,3-6,6-15,6-64,6-87,6-91,6-93,8-9, 8-79,9-29, 10-51, 10-59 mixed-traffic operation, 6-23 mode selection applications, 6-98 moving walkways, 10-4 7 number of loading areas, 6-18 number of loading areas, impact of, 3-41 operating environment, impact of, 3-30, 3-33, 3-34 operating margin, impact of, 3-26 operation at, 3-8 overview, 3-3 passenger, 1-7,3-7,6-19,6-20 passenger service time, impact of, 3-39, 3-40 passenger, calculated based on railcar length, 8-66 pedestrian, 10-13, 10-22, 10-38, 10-40 person, 1-7,3-4,3-8,6-19,6-84,6-85,6-129,8-9,8- 12,8-65,8-74,8-80,9-28 platform exit, 10-3 power supply as constraint, 4-41,8-12,8-61 productive, 3-8 rail system design, impact of, 8-40 rail transit, 8-44 to 8-80 rail transit, general methodology, 8-44 railcar supply constraints, 8-9, 8-12 ramps, 10-54 reliability, balancing with, 8-54 right-turn, 6-80 ropeways, 8-8, 8-77 single-track, calculation example, 8-115 skip-stop operation, impact of, 6-56, 8-31 stairways, 10-24, 10-26, 10-48, 10-50 station approach speed, impact of, 8-15 terminal stations, 8-6,8-70 theoretical. See capacity, maximum Page 12-4 Chapter 12/lndex

Chapter 12/lndex Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, 3'd Edition capacity (continued) three or four tracks, impact of, 8-31 track ownership and usage as constraint, 8-68 traffic blockage at traffic signals, 6-79 traffic volumes, impact of, 3-32 train signaling, impact of, 3-32 turn backs as capacity constraint, 8-6 vehicle, 1-7,3-6,8-3,8-4,8-5,8-7,8-8,8-9,8-41,8- 44,8-64,9-5,9-21,9-27, 10-7 vehicle floor height, impact of, 3-40 vehicle-platform interface, impact of, 3-38 volume-to-capacity ratio check, 6-84 walkways, 10-20, 10-21, 10-45 captive riders, 4-3 cars, rail. See railcars catamarans. See ferry transit, vessel types choice riders, 4-2, 4-24 circulation area. See platform, circulation area clearance time bus, 6-8,6-16,6-70 bus, estimating, 6-71 ferry departure, 9-16,9-21,9-22,9-23,9-28 light rail, 8-58 platform. See platforms, clearance time clearing time, 8-13 close-in time, 8-21,8-51 comfort, 4-35 commuter bus, 2-5 commuter rail, 2-18,2-19 capacity, 8-14,8-67,8-70,8-72 capacity methodology, lines not shared with other trains, 8-44 capacity, calculation example, 8-117 comfort, 2-20 consumers of track capacity, 8-68 defined, 2-18 dwell times, 8-71 fare collection, 10-19 freight railroad relationships, 8-68 infrastructure improvements, 8-73 mode-specific capacity issues, 8-8 passenger flows, 8-71 passenger loads, 2-20 person capacity, 8-7 4 positive train control, 8-16 ridership response to changes in headway, 4-38 scheduling, 2-19 Page 12-5 commuter rail (continued) seating capacities, 8-75 speed, 8-74 stations, 10-9 track ownership and usage as capacity constraint, 8- 68 train length, 2-20, 8-7 5 wheelchair access, 8-39, 8-40 complaint and compliment tracking, 5-37 complementary para transit. See ADA paratransit comprehensive operational analysis, 5-75 comprehensive planning, 5-71 constraining headway. See headway, minimum corridor planning, 5-77 cost analysis, 8-105, 10-63, 10-64, 10-69 automobile usage, 4-35 capital, 2-16,2-29,2-34,3-3,3-16,3-19,4-21,4-40, 4-41, 5-3, 5-22, 5-94, 6-25,6-28, 6-33, 6-37, 6-44, 6-45,6-48, 6-51, 6-98, 6-119,8-6,8-16, 8-19, 8- 35,8-42,8-44,8-55,8-59,8-72,8-80,8-90,8-100, 8-102,9-4,9-11, 10-11, 10-13, 10-30, 10-32, 10- 34, 10-35, 10-36, 10-37, 10-58, 10-62 generalized, 4-9, 10-71 operating, 2-2,2-8,2-30,2-36,3-3,3-10,3-13,3-16, 3-19, 3-39, 4-20, 4-32, 4-34, 4-40, 4-41, 5-3, 5-6, 5-20, 5-22, 5-24, 5-30, 5-53, 5-54, 5-58, 5-60, 5- 64,5-65,5-67,5-73,5-78,5-84,5-94,6-3,6-31,6- 33,6-45,6-51,6-99,6-130,7-3,7-6,7-7, 7-8,8- 19,8-21,8-31,8-67,8-90,8-102,9-4,9-18,10-13, 10-24, 10-28, 10-32, 10-37 operations, 9-11 out-of-pocket, 4-15,4-35 parking, 6-24 ridership, relationship to, 4-37 critical station, 8-44 critical stop, 6-19, 6-22, 6-54,6-81, 6-82,6-87 crossing, rail line. See junctions crossovers, 8-6,8-99,8-101 crush loading, 8-9 curb extensions, 6-49,6-50,6-100,8-23 bus operations, impact on, 6-51 calculation example, effect on bus capacity and speed, 6-11 7 planning guidelines, 6-50 customer relations, 4-36 customer satisfaction research, 4-7 customer satisfaction surveys, 5-37 customer service as quality of service factor, 5-36 dark territory, 8-73 I

Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, 3'd Edition deceleration time, bus, 6-88 delay acceleration. See delay, deceleration deceleration, 3-11, 3-23, 3-28, 6-3, 6-4, 6-10, 8-7 harbor traffic, 9-16, 9-17, 9-22 pedestrian, 5-16 pedestrian, street crossing, 5-15 person, 6-25, 8-9 queue service, 6-7 5 reentry, 6-3,6-9,6-16,6-58,6-72,6-73,6-76,6-77 roadway traffic at grade crossings, 8-59 sources of, in mixed traffic, 6-32 speed, impact on, 3-11 traffic, 3-28 traffic signal, 6-3, 6-8 demand-responsive transit, 2-6 ADA requirements, 2-7, 2-10,2-45 capacity, 7-6 to 7-8 capacity factors, 7-3 capacity issues, 7-1 capacity, illustrative, 3-10 coordinated transportation, 2-12 development as a mode, 2-6 dwell time, 7-4 flexible transit, 2-7 general public DRT, 2-8 human service transportation, 2-12 jitneys, 2-13 limited eligibility DRT, 2-9 passenger demand, 7-3, 7-8 passenger demand, peak-period, 7-4 premium service, 2-11 quality of service applications, 5-78 quality of service framework, 4-17,5-47 service area characteristics, 7-5 service area size, 7-4 service patterns, 2-42 speeds, illustrative, 3-12 transitioning to more or less flexibility, 2-46 trip patterns, 7-5 vehicle types, 2-6 density, land use, 2-15, 3-19, 5-17 density, pedestrian, 10-20, 10-21, 10-38, 10-43 design load. See passenger loads, design dial-a-ride, 2-6, See also demand-responsive transit diesel light rail. See hybrid rail diverge, rail line. See junctions docks, 9-5,9-21 doors, bus configuration, 6-6 door channels, impact on dwell time, 6-67 dwell time, impact on, 3-38 opening and closing time, 6-6, 6-69 doors, train, 8-4 adjustable door height, 8-35, 8-36 car-mounted lifts, 8-38, 8-39 dwell time, impact on, 8-32 number of, impact on capacity, 3-40 opening and closing times, 8-31 passenger flow rates, 8-24, 8-25, 8-26 passenger-actuated, 8-31 steps, 8-26 doorways, station, 10-17 as part of an accessible route, 10-17 capacity, 10-17, 10-39, 10-40 capacity, emergency evacuation, 10-40 determining required number, 10-40 level of service, 10-39 overview, 10-17 pedestrian flow, 10-17 pedestrian headways, 10-40 revolving, 10-17 driver, train minimum headway, impact on, 8-19 dwell time, 3-3,3-7,3-23 to 3-27,3-23, 6-3,6-61,6-70, 6-87,8-24,8-112 bicycles, impact of, 6-70 bus, 6-6, 6-67 capacity, impact on, 3-24, 3-25, 3-26 commuter rail, 8-71 critical, 8-5,8-19, 8-44, 8-59 data collection procedure, 6-126 data collection sheet, 6-128 default values, bus, 6-67 demand-responsive transit, 7-4 doors, impact of, 8-32 estimating, bus, 6-66,6-70 factors, 3-23, 8-7 fare collection, impact of, 3-39 field measurement, 6-66 number of door channels, impact of, 6-67 number of door channels, impact on, 3-38 platform-mounted lifts, impact of, 8-39 Page 12-6 Chapter 12/lndex

Chapter 12/lndex Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, 3'd Edition dwell time (continued) port, 9-14 rail transit, 8-3, 8-5, 8-7, 8-27, 8-96 rail transit, default values, 8-52 rail transit, estimating, 8-52 rail transit, estimating from passenger flows, 8-53 rail transit, estimating from similar systems, 8-52 rail transit, estimating from the same system, 8-53 rail transit, factors, 8-4 rail transit, observations, 8-28, 8-29, 8-53 ropeways, 8-79 speed, impact on, 3-27 timepoint holding, impact of, 6-70 transfers, impact of, 8-31 variability, 3-24,3-25,6-7,6-61,6-64,6-69,6-70,8- 4 wheelchairs, impact of, 6-70, 8-34 elasticity concept, 4-37 fare changes, 4-39 headway delay variation, 4-38 service "streamlining", 4-39 service expansion, 4-38 service frequency, 4-37, 4-38 unplanned service loss, 4-38 electric trolleybus, 2-5, 8-59 elevators, 8-40, 10-28 availability, 10-16 boarding and alighting time, 10-53 capacity, 10-28, 10-53, 10-54 emergency evacuation, 10-54 inclined planes, use for access, 8-40 level of service, 10-53 location, 10-28 maintenance, 10-28 number of, 8-8 operating characteristics, 10-53 out-of-service, 4-30,4-31, 10-28 pedestrian space, 10-53, 10-54 public, 2-24 travel time, 10-53 wait time, 10-53 embarking and disembarking time, 9-23, 9-25, 9-26, 9- 28 autos, 9-26 parameters, 9-25 Page 12-7 emergency evacuation, 10-3, 10-46, 10-47, 10-51, 10- 52, 10-54, 10-57 capacity, doorways, 10-40 consideration alongside daily circulation needs, 10- 3 faregates, 10-43 stairways, calculation example, 10-79 environmental justice analysis, 5-75, 5-76 escalators, 10-27 capacity, 10-27, 10-51 destermining required number, 10-52 emergency evacuation, 10-3, 10-4, 10-52 number of, 8-8 platform clearance, role in, 8-33 public, 2-24 queuing area, 10-27, 10-52 queuing area, calculation example, 10-82 speed, 10-27 stairways, supplement to, 10-26, 10-49 usage, 10-26 wait time, 10-52 width, 10-27 excess platform wait time, 5-28, 5-32 excess wait time, 4-38, 5-28, 5-31, 5-40, 5-92, 5-93, 5- 95 exclusive lanes bus, 6-12,6-34 defined, 3-28 light rail, 8-13, 8-57,8-87 express service commuter rail, 8-69,8-70 rail transit, 8-31 failure rate. See bus stop failure fare collection, 3-3, 3-39, 3-41,6-6, 6-7, 6-67,6-98, 8- 26 bus, 6-7, 6-8 bus rapid transit, 10-19 commuter rail, 10-19 dwell time, impact on, 3-39 ferry transit, 9-9,9-15,9-23,9-24,9-26, 10-10 ferry transit, vehicles, 9-8 heavy rail, 10-9, 10-19 light rail, 10-19 proof-of-payment, 3-39,8-32,9-15, 10-7, 10-8, 10-9 rail transit, on-board, 8-32 speed, impact on, 3-41, 3-42 ticket validators, 10-42 I

Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition fare collection method change calculation example, bus capacity and speed, 6-113 fare purchase, 9-8, 9-15 addfare, 10-19 commuter rail, 10-9 complexity, 10-18 heavy rail, 10-9 rail transit, on-board, 8-32 service times, ticket machines, 10-41 stations, 10-18 ticket booths, 10-18 ticket machines, 10-18 fare box recovery, 3-19, 5-17 faregates, 10-19 capacity, 10-19, 10-42 capacity, emergency evacuation, 10-43 contributors to lower flow rates, 10-43 described, 10-19 determining number of, 10-43 headway, 10-42 maintenance, 10-43 pedestrian flow, 10-19 types, 10-19 fares, 2-10 ridership, impact on, 4-39 far-side stop. See bus stops, location ferries. See also ferry transit auto,9-4,9-5,9-6 auto equivalent units, 9-7 capacity, auto, 9-7 capacity, passenger, 9-29 capacity, vehicle, 9-29 en route stops, 9-29 headway, entering/exiting vehicles, 9-26 loading, 9-7 operating costs, 9-4 speed, entering/exiting vehicles, 9-26 terminals. See terminals, ferry travel time, 9-4 vessels. See ferry transit, vessel types ferry transit. See also ferries capacity concepts, 9-3 capacity, illustrative, 3-10 capacity, regulatory, 9-3 dock capacity, 9-27 fare collection, 9-9, 9-15, 9-23, 9-24, 9-26 fare collection, vehicles, 9-8 ferry transit (continued) integration with other transit services, 9-4 overview, 2-27 person capacity, 9-28 role of, 9-1 security screening, 9-9 service planning, 9-18 service types, 2-28 speed concepts, 9-4 speeds, illustrative, 3-12 terminal examples, 9-11 terminal siting, 9-11 terminals. See terminals, ferry travel time, 9-22 use in emergencies, 2-28 vessel capacity, 9-21 vessel types,2-29,9-3 flexible route segments, 2-45 flexible transit service, 2-7 flow pedestrian, 10-25, 10-38, 10-43, 10-65 pedestrian, relationship to space, 10-22, 10-26 stairways, 10-48 freeboard, 9-5,9-6,9-10,9-13 frequency, 4-28,4-31, S-3, 5-40,5-71,5-72,5-73,5-75, 5-76 costs associated with changes, 4-40, 5-3 ferry, 9-29 land use density capable of supporting, 3-19 quality of service. See quality of service, frequency ridership, impact on, 4-37 funicular railways. See inclined planes funitels, 2-25, See also aerial ropeways g/C ratio, 6-8,6-16,6-62,6-71,6-79,6-83 illustrative values, 3-30 gangways, 9-10,9-16,9-17,9-21,9-22,9-24,9-25 gondolas, 2-25, See also aerial lifts grade crossings, 8-58,8-69,8-72,8-88 grades, 5-14 capacity, impact on, 3-33 minimum headway, impact on, 8-48, 8-49, 8-50 service coverage, impact on, 5-14 walking speed, impact on, 4-19 grade-separated busways. See busways, grade- separated green extension, 6-99 HCM. See Highway Capacity Manual Page 12-8 Chapter 12/lndex

Chapter 12/lndex Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, 3'd Edition headway adherence, 5-28, 5-31, 8-27 components, 8-27, 8-29, 8-30 impact of voltage drops, 8-48 junctions, 8-60 minimum, 8-3,8-4,8-6,8-13,8-14,8-19,8-47,8-48, 8-50,8-51, 8-56, 8-57, 8-59, 8-61 minimum, impact of grades, 8-48, 8-49, 8-50 minimum, impact of voltage drops, 8-49, 8-50 minimum, on-street operation, 8-57 minimum, single-track two-way operation, 8-55 minimum, station departures adjacent to grade crossings, 8-58 non-interference, 8-5, 8-59 pedestrian, 10-40 rail transit, 8-41 rail transit observations, 8-28, 8-29 headway adherence, 4-32, 5-30, 6-130, 8-29 example calculation, 5-31, 5-91 heating, 4-35,4-36, 10-7, 10-11 heavy rail, 2-14 capacity methodology, 8-44 capacity, calculation example, 8-108,8-112 capacity, planning-level, 8-82 fare collection, 10-19 linear loading levels, 8-35 passenger boarding, 8-25 platform screen doors, use of, 8-32 stations, 10-8 high-speed rail, 2-14 Highway Capacity Manual, 1-18,3-4,4-1,4-6,5-2,5-16, 5-20,5-34,5-39,5-40, 5-41,5-95,6-72,6-74,6-79, 6-81,6-83, 6-86, 6-90, 6-99, 10-44 hours of service, 5-72, 5-73, 5-75, 5-76, See also service span calculation, 5-8 quality of service. See quality of service, hours of service hovercraft. See ferry transit, vessel types hybrid rail, 2-17 inclined elevators, 2-23, 2-24 inclined planes, Z-23, See also ropeways cabin sizes, 8-80 capacity, 8-78, 8-88 wheelchair access, 8-40 inclines. See inclined planes Page 12-9 information, 4-30,4-36,5-38, 10-9, 10-15,10-16 audible, 10-16 elevator availability, 10-16 for persons with disabilities, 10-16 public address systems, 10-17 real-time, 4-31,4-35,10-5,10-7,10-9,10-11,10-16 real-time, impact on value of time, 4-14 stations, 10-15 wayfinding. See stations, wayfinding interlockings. See switches intermodal terminals. See terminals, intermodal international use of the manual, 1-11 in-vehicle time, 4-9, 4-29 jerk limitation time, 8-55 jitneys, 2-13 junctions, 8-3,8-18,8-44,8-74,8-91,8-100,8-105 capacity, 8-70 capacity, calculation example, 8-111 described, 8-6,8-7 flat, 8-7,8-60,8-61 minimum headway, 8-7, 8-60 operation, 8-7 kiss-and-ride, 8-33, 10-6, 10-8, 10-9, 10-35, 10-36 landscaping, 10-10 layover, terminal, 8-63 lean bars, 10-11, 10-30 level of service, 1-15, 5-1, 5-39 design, use in, 10-13 doorways, 10-39 elevators, 10-53 headway adherence, 5-31 managed lanes, 6-81 multimodal, 5-39 multimodal, calculation example, 5-93 passenger waiting areas, 10-14 pedestrian, 10-2, 10-13 pedestrian, use in station design, 10-13 platforms, 10-55 queuing areas, 10-14, 10-55 ramps, 10-54 stairways, 10-48 waiting areas, 9-9, 10-14, 10-55 walkways, 10-14, 10-44, 10-45 lifts, platform dwell time, impact on, 8-39 I

Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, 3'd Edition light rail, 2-16,2-17 capacity, 8-44, 8-55 capacity, exclusive lane operation, 8-87 capacity, planning-level, 8-82, 8-83 capacity, single-track, 8-86 clearance time, 8-58 exclusive lanes. See exclusive lanes, light rail fare collection, 10-19 low-floor, 8-24, 8-34, 8-35, 8-36 mode-specific capacity issues, 8-8 on-demand stops, 8-31 single-track operation, 8-86 stations, 10-8 lighting, 4-36, 10-10, 10-11,10-12 line capacity. See capacity, vehicle load factor, 5-22, 5-41 loading areas, 6-15 angle, 6-16,10-33 capacity, 6-15,6-64,6-70, 10-32 defined, 6-15 designs, 6-16 drive-through, 6-16, 10-33 effectiveness, 6-16,6-22,6-77,6-78 linear, 3-41,6-16,6-17,6-18,6-77,6-78, 10-32,10- 33 non-linear, 3-41,6-16,6-78 number of, impact on capacity, 3-41 off-line, 3-41 on-line, 3-41 sawtooth, 6-16,6-78, 10-32,10-33 stations, 10-31 types, 10-3 2 types, impact on capacity, 3-41 utilization, 6-17 loading diversity, 8-10, 8-65, 8-77, 8-79 commuter rail, 8-75 load-unload conflict point, 9-9,9-10,9-14,9-15 local data use of, 1-8, 10-39, 10-40 long-range transportation planning, 5-71, 5-83 LRT. See rail transit, light rail maintenance, 3-13,3-37,4-5,4-21,4-30,4-33,4-35,4- 40,5-6,5-28,5-52,6-26,6-95,8-12,8-19,8-31,8- 41, 8-42, 8-68, 8-90, 8-93, 8-101, 8-102, 8-116, 10- 11,10-24,10-28,10-43,10-49,10-59,10-79 managed lanes, 6-11,6-19,6-26,6-29,6-30,6-81 bus operations, impact on, 6-28 impact on bus operations, 6-28 planning guidelines, 6-28 maneuvering time, 9-16, 9-17 Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices, 6-47, 6-57 maps, 5-71, 10-11, 10-71 maximum design load, 6-129,8-9,8-65 measurement units, 1-11 median busways. See busways, median merge, rail line. See junctions mid-block stop. See bus stops, location missed trips, 5-28 mixed-traffic operation, 6-24, 6-31 capacity, 6-23 monohulls . See ferry transit, vessel types monorail, 2-22 mooring, 9-16,9-17 movement restriction exemptions. See bus operations, movement restriction exemptions moving walkways, 10-23 capacity, 10-4 7 described, 10-23 design factors, 10-24 queuing, 10-47 speed, 10-23, 10-47 multimodallevel of service, 5-39 to 5-46 calculation example, 5-93 National Fire Prevention Association (NFPA) 130 standard. See NFPA 130 National Household Transportation Survey, 3-18 National Transit Database, 2-1, 2-21, 3-19, 4-1, 4-5, 5-6, 5-8,5-9, 5-41,5-75,5-76 near-side stop. See bus stops, location NFPA 130, 1-18,8-33, 10-2, 10-3, 10-40, 10-43, 10-46, 10-47, 10-51, 10-52, 10-54, 10-57, 10-63 non-interference headway calculation, 8-54 no-shows, 5-67 off-line stops, 3-38, 6-9, 6-62, 6-91 on-line stops, 3-38, 6-9, 6-62 on-time performance, 4-32, 5-28, 5-57 calculation example, 5-90 defined, 5-29 operating costs, 6-24, 6-39 Page 12-10 Chapter 12/lndex

Chapter 12/lndex Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, 3'd Edition operating environment, 3-28 to 3-37, 6-11 automated guideway transit, 2-21 capacity, impact on, 3-30, 3-33, 3-34 exclusive, 2-34, 3-29 grade-separated, 2-35, 3-29 mixed-traffic, 2-31, 2-32, 3-29 overview, 2-31 reliability, impact on, 3-37 semi-exclusive, 2-32, 3-29 speed, impact on, 3-35, 3-36, 3-37 operating margin, 3-6, 3-24, 6-7, 6-16, 6-64, 6-65, 6-70, 8-4,8-15,8-24,8-27,8-29,8-35,8-44,8-53,8-61,8- 77, 9-17, 9-23 balancing capacity and reliability, 8-54 capacity, impact on, 3-26 default values, 8-30 estimating, 8-30 selecting, 8-54 operating policies. See service standards organization of the manual, 1-2 to 1-5 para transit, 2-7, See also ADA paratransit and demand- responsive transit park-and-ride lots, 4-18,6-26,8-33,9-4, 10-7, 10-8, 10- 9, 10-34 characteristics of successful facilities, 4-24 demand management, 4-27 market area, 4-26,4-27, 5-21 overview, 10-34 parking garages, 10-34 sizing, 10-35 transit-oriented development, 10-34 types, 4-25 user characteristics, 4-24 parking, 6-12,6-49,6-95 restrictions, 6-58 passenger boarding, 6-6, 6-7, 8-8, 8-32, 8-35, See also passenger service time aerial ropeways, 8-40 boarding lost time, 6-5,6-17, 6-69 bus,2-3 busways, 6-26, 10-7 commuter rail, 2-20,8-72 dwell time, impact on, 6-66 ferries, 9-15 heavy rail, 8-35 light rail, 2-18 loading height, 8-35, 8-36 passenger capacity. See capacity, passenger Page 12-11 passenger circulation. See also pedestrians, circulation vessels, 9-10 passenger circulation area. See platform, circulation passenger demand amenities, impact of, 10-10 demand-responsive transit, 7-3, 7-4, 7-8 demographics, relationship to, 3-18 estimating, 4-37, See passenger demand, estimating fares, impact of, 4-39 ferry operations, impact on, 9-21 land use, relationship to, 3-18 peak-hour demand variation, 3-17 quality of service, impact of, 4-3,4-37 reliability, impact of, 4-38 response to packages of improvements, 4-39 service expansion, impact of, 4-38 service frequency, impact of, 4-37 time-of-day variation, 3-15 transportation demand management, relationship to, 3-21 travel time, impact of, 4-38, 6-39 passenger environment surveys, 5-38 passenger holding area, 9-6, 9-9 passenger loads, 3-3, 5-41,5-72,5-73,5-75,5-76, 5-77, 5-78,6-6,6-7, 8-4, 8-9,8-105 as quality of service factor, 4-32, 5-22 automated guideway transit, 8-77 bicycles, space occupied by, 4-22 body ellipse, 5-25 costs associated with changes, 4-40 crush loading, 8-66 design. See maximum design load ferry transit, 9-3, 10-10 load control, 9-9 on-board fare machines, access to, 8-32 policy, 6-84 quality of service. See quality of service, passenger loads real-time information, effect of, 4-31 service disruptions, effect of, 8-11 special events, 8-27, 8-43 standing passenger area, 5-27 value of time, impact on, 4-12,4-13 worn and carried objects, space occupied by, 5-26 passenger queuing area. See platform, queuing area passenger rail service intercity, 2-14 I

Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition passenger service time. See also passenger boarding and embarking and disembarking time bus transit, 6-3,6-6,6-7,6-16,6-68,6-98 capacity, impact on, 3-39, 3-40 data collection procedure, 6-126 data collection sheet, 6-127 ferry transit, calculation example, 9-30 rail transit, 8-4, 8-24, 8-32 special events, 8-26, 8-43 speed, impact on, 3-11 wheelchair, 8-34, 8-38 passenger traffic density, 3-9 passenger value of time, 4-9 to 4-14 access, transfer, and wait time, 4-11 bus stop amenities, impact of, 4-13 in-vehicle, 4-9 passenger loads, impact of, 4-12,4-13 platform crowding, impact of, 4-12 real-time arrival information, impact of, 4-14 reliability, impact of, 4-13 trip duration, 4-11 trip purpose and mode, 4-10 passenger waiting areas, 6-49, 9-15, 9-25 amenities, space used by, 10-12 level of service, 10-14 sizing at bus stops, 10-5 pass-ups, 3-5, 4-31, 5-21, 6-19, 6-129, 8-9 peak-hour factor, 6-21,6-61,6-100,8-33,8-65,8-74, 8-77,8-79,9-29 default values, 6-85, 8-66 rail transit, observed, 8-66 pedestrian crossings, 6-49, 6-62, 6-90 impact on capacity, 6-80 pedestrian environment, 4-20,5-41,6-11,6-54 pedestrian flow. See pedestrians, flow pedestrian level of service. See level of service, pedestrian pedestrian space elevators, 10-53 pedestrian time-space. See pedestrians, time-space pedestrians access to transit, 5-11 buffer area, 10-38, 10-45, 10-56 buffer width, 10-21, 10-45 capacity, 10-22, 10-38, 10-40 circulation, 8-96, 10-19, 10-20, 10-59, 10-65 circulation areas, multi-activity, 10-22, 10-46 pedestrians (continued) circulation areas, multi-activity, application example, 10-86 circulation areas, multi-activity, calculation example, 10-84 conflicts, 10-20, 10-24 crossing volumes, 6-22 demand, 10-45 density, 10-20, 10-21, 10-38, 10-43 flow, 10-17,10-38,10-43,10-48 flow, relationship to space, 10-22,10-26 spac~9-2~ 10-1~ 10-21,10-25,10-26,10-38,10- 44,10-48,10-52,10-54,10-55 space, relationship to speed, 10-21 speed, 9-25, 10-20, 10-21, 10-25, 10-38, 10-43, 10- 54 time-space, 10-23, 10-38, 10-46, 10-47 peer reviews, 5-76 performance measures. See also service measures and quality of service pedestrian circulation, 10-70 peer reviews. See also service measures and quality of service person capacity. See capacity, person PHF. See peak-hour factor platform screen doors, 6-26, 8-32, 10-8 platform-mounted lifts, 8-39 platforms clearance time, 8-33, 10-59 configuration, 8-6, 8-96 crowding, 8-9,8-32, 8-41 crowding, impact on value of time, 4-12 crowding, value of time, impact on, 4-12 dead areas, 10-56 design, 6-6,8-7, 10-29, 10-55, 10-56 design, impact on line capacity, 8-33 dual-faced, 8-63 elements, 10-55, 10-56 emergency evacuation, 8-33, 10-52, 10-57 entrance and exit locations, 8-10 exit capacity, 10-3 height, 3-38, 8-35, 10-8, 10-9 height, impact on capacity, 3-40 high-level, 8-35, 8-36, 8-39 length, 8-12,8-81, 10-8,10-9, 10-55 level of service, 10-14,10-29,10-55 location, 10-3, 10-15, 10-29 location options at grade crossings, 8-58 maximum slopes, ADA, 8-38 Page 12-12 Chapter 12/lndex

Chapter 12/lndex Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, 3'd Edition platforms (continued) mini-high, 8-34, 8-35, 8-37, 8-39 passenger distribution, 6-5,8-10,8-33, 10-9, 10-29, 10-56 position, 3-38 profiled, 8-35, 8-37, 8-38 queuing area, 10-27, 10-29, 10-55, 10-56 separate unloading, 8-63 sizing, 10-56 sizing for special events, 8-43 sizing to accommodate loads from disabled trains, 8- 41 sizing, calculation example, 10-80 vehicle-platform interface. See vehicle-platform interface waiting areas, 10-29 wheelchair loading, 8-39 width, 8-33, 10-55 platooning, 6-15,6-56,6-62,6-64,6-78,6-82 point deviation service, 2-44 population characteristics service coverage, impact on, 5-14 positive train control, 8-16 power supply as capacity constraint, 4-41, 8-12, 8-44, 8-61 PowerPoint presentations, 1-5 power-to-weight ratio, 8-67, 8-74 preemption traffic signal, 6-40, 8-22, 8-59 productive capacity, 3-8 proof-of-payment. See fare collection, proof-of- payment Public Transportation Fact Book, 2-1 publico, 2-13 quality of service access to transit, 5-8 activity center analysis applications, 5-72 amenities, 4-35, 10-10 appearance and comfort, 4-35 capacity availability, 4-31 comprehensive operational analysis applications, 5- 75 comprehensive planning applications, 5-71 corridor analysis applications, 5-73 corridor planning applications, 5-77 cost, 4-35 customer relations, 4-36 customer satisfaction research, 4-7 Page 12-13 quality of service (continued) customer service, 5-36 days of service QOS, demand-responsive, 5-52 defined, 4-6 demand-responsive transit, 5-75 demand-responsive transit operations applications, 5-78 factors, 4-7, 4-15, 4-17 to 4-36, See also individual factors framework, demand-responsive transit, 4-17, 5-47 framework, fixed-route transit, 4-17, 5-3 frequency, 5-3 frequency QOS, fixed-route, 5-4 headway adherence QOS, fixed-route, 5-31 hours of service QOS, demand-responsive, 5-54 hours of service QOS, fixed-route, 5-7 impact on service costs, 4-40 information availability, 4-30 long-range transportation planning applications, 5- 71 multimodallevel of service, 5-39 no-show QOS, demand-responsive, 5-69 no-shows, 5-67 on-time performance QOS, demand-responsive, 5-58 on-time performance QOS, fixed-route, 5-30 overview, 1-6 passenger demand, impact on, 4-3 passenger load QOS, vehicles designed for mostly seated passengers, 5-23 passenger load QOS, vehicles designed for mostly standing passengers, 5-24 passengerloads,4-32,5-22,6-19,8-67 performance measures applicable to peer reviews, 5-77 reliability, 4-32, 5-28, 5-56 response time, 5-47 response time QOS, demand-responsive, 5-48 ridership, impact on, 4-37 safety, 5-77 service coverage, 5-7 4 service coverage QOS, fixed-route, 5-10 service planning applications, 5-77 service span, 5-6, 5-51 spatial availability, 4-17 statewide transportation planning applications, 5- 75 temporal availability, 4-28 transit development plan applications, 5-7 6 transit preferential treatments, effect of, 6-24 I

Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, 3'd Edition quality of service (continued) transit-auto travel time ratio QOS, fixed-route, 5-35 travel time, 4-34, 5-33, 5-63 travel time QOS, demand-responsive, 5-64 trips not served, 4-31 trips turned down QOS, demand-responsve, 5-62 walking access, 5-9 queue bypass freeway ramp, 6-30 queue jumps, 6-9, 6-25, 6-46, 6-58, 6-99, 8-23 bus operations, impact on, 6-48 described, 6-46 planning guidelines, 6-48 transit signal priority, in conjunction with, 6-47 queuing areas. See also platforms, queuing areas escalators, calculation example, 10-82 queue analysis, 10-61 queuing corridor, 9-9 rail operations accommodating track maintenance, 8-101 analytic needs, 8-89 control and scheduling measures, impact on reliability, 4-34 disabled trains, accommodating, 8-41,8-42 disabled trains, impact of, 8-41 single-track, 8-42, 8-44 sketch-planning tools, 8-102 terminals, 8-105 track maintenance, accommodating, 8-42 rail transit advanced light rail transit, 2-15 aerial ropeways. See aerial ropeways automated guideway transit. See automated guideway transit cable cars. See cable cars capacity, general methodology, 8-44 capacity, illustrative, 3-10 commuter rail. See commuter rail designing for future growth, 8-81 heavy rail. See heavy rail hybrid rail. See hybrid rail inclined planes. See inclined planes junctions. See junctions light rail. See light rail line merges, diverges, and crossings. See junctions mixed freight and passenger operations, 8-2, 8-8, 8- 14,8-39,8-68,8-69,8-70 monorail. See monorail rail transit (continued) operations planning, 8-90,8-100,8-105 overview, 2-13 planning-level capacity analysis, 8-81 to 8-89 regional rail, 2-18 scheduling, 2-19 service planning, 8-90 signaling systems. See signals, train sketch-planning tools, 8-102 speed restrictions, 8-3 speeds, illustrative, 3-12 streetcars. See streetcars turn backs. See turn backs vintage trolleys. See vintage trolleys wheelchair access, 2-18, 2-20, 8-35, 8-34 to 8-40 railcars availability, constraint on rail capacity, 8-9, 8-12 hi-level, 8-72 gallery, 8-72 passenger loading diversity, 8-10 ramps, 8-40, 10-3, 10-27 capacity, 10-54 emergency evacuation, 10-54 level of service, 10-54 number of, 8-8 real-time information. See also information, real-time passenger loads, impact on, 4-31 red truncation, 6-99 reentry delay. See delay, reentry reference speed, 8-19 reliability, 4-33, 5-56, 5-73, 5-75, 5-76, 5-77, 6-24, 6- 25, 6-39, 6-84, 8-44, 9-17 as quality of service factor, 4-32, 5-28 at maximum capacity, 6-63 bus, 6-5, 6-95 to 6-97 bus lanes, impact of, 6-40 calculation example, 5-89 capacity, balancing with, 8-54 capacity, relationship to, 3-3 concepts, 3-13 conceptual reliability-throughput relationship, 8-17 control and scheduling measures, impact on, 4-34 costs associated with changes, 4-41 factors, 3-13,6-95 headway adherence, 5-31 importance of, 1-7,3-3 operating environment, impact of, 3-37 Page 12-14 Chapter 12/lndex

Chapter 12/lndex Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, 3'd Edition reliability (continued) quality of service. See quality of service, reliability rail transit, 8-5, 8-16, 8-17, 8-29, 8-54 ridership, impact on, 4-38 scheduling and holding strategies, 6-96 service characteristics, relationship to, 6-96 use of AVL data, 6-97 value of time, impact on, 4-13 request stops, 2-45 response time, 2-10, 5-4 7 restrooms, 10-8, 10-9 ridership. See passenger demand ridership estimation. See passenger demand, estimating right turns, 6-12, 6-18, 6-22, 6-50, 6-51, 6-54, 6-62, 6- 79 adjustment factor, 6-80 capacity, 6-80 rights-of-way. See operating environments roles of transit, 4-2 ropeways capacity, 8-77 described, 2-25 mode-specific capacity issues, 8-8 person capacity, 8-80 types, 2-25 route cycle time, 6-8 route deviation service, 2-44 route network designs, 2-37 ruling headway. See headway, minimum running time speed, impact on, 3-11 safety, 4-20, 5-35, 5-94, 6-13, 6-48, 6-58, 8-3, 8-18, 8- 20,8-32,8-50,8-63,9-6,9-13, 10-15, 10-25, 10-34, 10-58 as quality of service factor, 4-34, 5-35 performance measures, 5-77 saturation flow rate, 6-79 default values, 6-75 sawtooth loading areas. See loading areas, sawtooth schedule inconvenience time, 4-30 schedule recovery time, 8-24, 8-27,8-30, 8-35, 8-41, 8- 63, 10-31 security, 4-20,4-21,4-36,9-9,9-14,9-15, 10-4, 10-7, 10-8,10-9,10-10,10-11,10-20 as quality of service factor, 4-34, 5-35 Page 12-15 service coverage, 2-10,4-18,5-11,5-55,5-71,5-74,5- 75,5-76,5-77 calculation example, 5-18, 5-79, 5-85 costs associated with changes, 4-40 coverage area, 5-11,5-12 grades, impact of, 5-14 measuring, 5-10 population characteristics, impact on, 5-14 quality of service. See quality of service, service coverage ridership, impact on, 4-38 street connectivity, impact of, 5-12 street crossing difficulty, 5-14 service denials, 4-31 service measures, 5-1 service patterns demand-responsive transit, 2-42 fixed-route transit, 2-36, 6-54, 6-55 service planning, 5-77,9-18 service span, 2-10,4-30,5-6,5-51,5-71, See also hours of service costs associated with changes, 4-40 quality of service. See quality of service, hours of service service standards, 4-35, 5-1, 5-4, 5-22, 5-60, 5-75, 6-58, 7-3,7-5,8-9,8-65 shelters, 4-36,5-41,6-49, 10-5, 10-10, 10-11,10-12, 10-29, 10-57 short turns, 8-41 shoulder use. See bus transit, shoulder use sidings, 8-72,8-73,8-74,8-102 signals, traffic, 8-57 cycle length, 6-8, 8-87 preemption. See preemption, traffic signal priority. See transit signal priority speed, impact on, 3-35 transit, 6-4 7 signals, train, 8-3,8-18 to 8-23 accommodating wrong-side running, 8-42 basic operation, 8-4 blocks, 8-3, 8-19, 8-41, 8-70, 8-72, 8-73 blocks, shortening, 8-73 cab signaling, 8-13,8-15,8-19,8-45,8-47,8-50,8- 51,8-83,8-108 cab signaling, planning-level capacity, 8-84 capacity, impact on, 3-32 fixed-block, 8-13,8-15,8-18,8-45,8-47,8-50,8-51, 8-83,8-95 hybrid systems, 8-20 I

Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition signals, train (continued) minimum headway, effect on, 8-7 moving-block, 8-19, 8-21,8-45, 8-50, 8-51,8-61, 8- 83,8-108,8-111 moving-block, planning-level capacity, 8-85 railroad signaling, 8-70 safety, 8-20 signal aspects, 8-4, 8-18 simulation, pedestrian, 10-2, 10-9, 10-10 application example, 10-89 interpreting results, 10-73 model inputs, 10-69 model outputs, 10-70 multi-activity passenger circulation area analysis, 10-23 overview, 10-68 performance measure calculation, 10-58 simulation, rail transit, 8-2, 8-44, 8-48,8-91 to 8-102 applications, 8-91, 8-99 best practices, 8-105 double tracking, 8-72 dwell time, 8-51 evaluating crossover locations, 8-101 evaluating siding locations, 8-102 evaluating single-track operation, 8-102 model calibration and validation, 8-99 model inputs, 8-95 model outputs, 8-96 model types, 8-91 software features, 8-94 simulation, use of. See also simulation, pedestrian and simulation, rail transit bus capacity estimation, 6-78 comparison to operating experience, 3-8 pedestrian circulation, 10-4 7 rail capacity estimation, 8-68 single-track operation capacity, calculation example, 8-115 commuter rail, 8-69 planning-level capacity, 8-86 simulation, use for evaluation, 8-102 skip-stop operation, 6-15, 6-19, 6-55, 6-56, 6-62, 6-79, 6-81,6-82 adjustment factor, capacity, 6-83 calculation example, bus capacity and speed, 6-115 capacity, impact on, 6-56,8-31 impact on speed, 6-91 rail transit, 8-31 skip-stop operation (continued) speed, impact on, 6-91 space, pedestrian. See pedestrians, space special events, 3-4, 8-43, 10-43 special signal phasing. See transit signal priority, special signal phasing speed. See also travel time as part of multimodallevel of service, 5-41 associated train stopping distance, 8-48 average section, 6-93 base bus running time rate, 6-91 bus facility, 6-94 bus methodology, 6-86 to 6-94 bus stop failure, impact on, 6-5 bus stop spacing, relationship to, 6-10 bus volumes, impact of, 3-36, 6-14,6-92 calculation example, bus, 6-110 capacity, relationship to, 3-3 commuter rail, 8-74 comprehensive operations analysis applications, 5- 75 concepts, 3-10 creep, 8-79, 8-121 dwell time, impact of, 3-27 escalators, 10-27 evaluating fare collection technology changes, 6-98 factors influencing, 3-11 fare collection, impact of, 3-41,3-42 ferry transit concepts, 9-4 grades, impact on, 4-19 grade-separated busways, 6-11 illustrative by mode, 3-12 importance of, 1-7,3-3 input data to bus method, 6-87 limits, curves and switches, 8-4 7 limits, turnouts, 8-48 line, ropeways, 8-78 moving walkways, 10-23, 10-47 operating environment, impact of, 3-35, 3-36, 3-37 pedestrian, 9-25, 10-25, 10-38, 10-43 pedestrian, relationship to space, 10-21 pedestrians, on walkways, 10-20 profile, example, 8-97 rail maximum, by track class, 8-73 reference, 8-19 restrictions, 8-3, 8-18, 8-95 running, 6-88 Page 12-16 Chapter 12/lndex

Chapter 12/lndex Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, 3'd Edition speed (continued) running time losses, bus, 6-90, 6-100 skip-stop operation, impact of, 6-91 station approach, 8-15, 8-47,8-50, 8-51, 8-62 station approach, impact on capacity, 8-15 stop spacing, impact of, 3-42, 3-43 traffic signals, impact of, 3-35 transit preferential treatment assessment applications, 6-99 unimpeded bus running time rate, 6-87 used for determining vehicle requirements, 6-98 vehicle-platform interface, impact of, 3-38 speed margin, 8-55 speed restrictions, 3-33 spreadsheets, 1-4,8-2,8-45,8-56,8-102,8-105, 10-58 stairways, 10-24 ascending speed, pedestrian, 10-25 bicycle stair channels, 10-36 capacity, 10-24, 10-26, 10-48, 10-50 capacity, impact of stair rise, 10-51 conflicts, 10-24 design factors, 10-48 determining number of lanes, 10-50 effective width, 10-48 emergency evacuation, 10-4, 10-51 level of service, 10-48 number of, 8-8 pedestrian flow rates, 10-25 pedestrian lanes, 10-24, 10-49 platform clearance, role in, 8-33 queuing, 10-26, 10-51 reverse flow, 10-24, 10-48 sizing, 10-26, 10-38, 10-49, 10-51 sizing, calculation example, 10-77 speed, pedestrian, 10-25 supplement to escalators, 10-49 width, 10-48 width, impact on capacity, 10-24 standard normal distribution, 6-64, 6-65 standing passenger area calculation, 5-27 statewide transportation planning, 5-75 station agent, 10-9 stations. See also terminals and bus stops access for persons with disabilities, 10-2 alternative station location and features applications, 10-63 Page 12-17 stations (continued) alternatives analysis, 10-62 amenities, 4-35, 10-5, 10-6, 10-7, 10-8, 10-9, 10-10, 10-12, 10-29, 10-36 amenities, impact on value of time, 4-13 amenities,impact on ridership, 10-10 automated guideway transit, 10-8 bus rapid transit, 10-7 busway, 10-7 capacity issues, existing stations, 10-64 commuter rail, 10-9 comprehensive passenger circulation analysis, 10- 65 critical, 8-51 design capacity, 10-2 emergency evacuation. See emergency evacuation heavy rail, 10-8 horizontal circulation. See pedestrians, circulation information provision, 10-15 light rail, 8-55, 10-7, 10-8 mezzanines, 10-3 multiple-platform, 6-79,8-71,8-77 off-line, 8-77, 8-119 passenger circulation areas, multi-activity, 10-22, 10-23, 10-46 pedestrian circulation, 10-52, 10-58, 10-59 platforms. See platforms queuing areas, 10-47, 10-52 remodeling applications, 10-63 seating, 10-30 security elements, 10-4, 10-16 streetcar, 10-8 terminals, sources of common delays, 8-64 terminals, train storage constraints, 8-70 turnaround time, 8-63 vertical circulation, 8-96, 10-3, 10-7, 10-24, See also elevators and escalators and ramps waiting rooms, 10-30 walkways. See walkways wayfinding, 10-9, 10-10, 10-15, 10-16 stop spacing. See bus stop spacing stopping distance as a function of speed, 8-48 street connectivity, 4-20, 5-86 service coverage, impact on, 5-12 street crossing difficulty, 5-86 streetcars, 2-16,2-17 stations, 10-8 I

Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition string-line chart, 8-92,8-97,8-103,8-106 subways, 8-6, See also heavy rail switches, 8-7,8-18,8-46,8-47,8-55,8-59,8-60,8-70, 8-73,8-77,8-100 speed limits, 8-48 synchronization time, 4-29 systen design, rail capacity, impact on, 8-40 telephones, 4-36,10-10,10-11,10-12 terminals. See also stations bus capacity, 6-81 ferry, 9-8, 9-5 to 9-13, 10-10 ferry, as a system, 9-11 ferry, examples, 9-11 ferry, passenger flow through, 9-9 ferry, siting, 9-11 intelligent, 10-32 intermodal, 10-10 layover, 8-63 passenger lobby area, 9-8 systems perspective, 10-2 vehicle staging area, 9-6, 9-7 terminology lack of consistency, 1-7 ticket machines, 10-7 determining required number, 10-41 fare purchase service times, 10-41 tides, 9-1, 9-5, 9-6, 9-12, 10-10 timepoint holding dwell time, impact on, 6-70 track circuits, 8-20 track occupancy diagram, 8-97,8-98,8-103,8-104,8- 106 track separation effect on headway, 8-60 tracks double-tracking, 8-72 gauntlet, 8-55 pocket, 8-6, 8-41 single, 8-42 three or four, impact on capacity, 8-31 traffic calming, 6-5 7 traffic delay, 3-31 traffic operations, 6-5 traffic volumes capacity, impact on, 3-32 train capacity. See capacity, vehicle train control, 8-18 to 8-23 automated guideway transit, 8-75 automatic train control, 8-18 automatic train operation, 8-21,8-27, 8-32 automatic train stops, 8-18 automatic train supervision, 8-21 line-of-sight, 8-18 train signals. See signals, train train operations automatic train supervision, 8-61 line-of-sight, 8-57 single-track, 8-55, 8-69 train performance calculator, 8-91, 8-93,8-94, 8-96, 8- 103, 8-106 train separation minimum, 8-3,8-4,8-44,8-45,8-46,8-50,8-108 minimum, AGT, 8-76 minimum, calculating, 8-48, 8-51 trains city block length as train length constraint, 8-12 disabled, impact on system operation, 8-41 length, 2-20,8-12,8-44,8-45,8-55,8-57,8-70,8-75, 8-81,8-82 mixed freight and passenger operations. See rail transit, mixed passenger and freight operations passenger loading diversity, 8-10 performance, 8-4 power supply, constraint on train length, 8-12 vehicle characteristics, impact on line capacity, 8-8 transfer span, 9-5, 9-10 transfers, 6-12,6-53,6-54,8-33,8-71,9-4,9-9,9-22, 10-4, 10-6, 10-10, 10-15, 10-32 dwell times, impact on, 8-31 effect on train loading, 8-10 transfer time, 4-11, 4-34 transit centers, 6-14,6-81,9-22, 10-5, 10-6 bus berths, number of, 10-31 bus capacity, 10-6 sizing, calculation example, 10-74 transit development plans, 5-75, 5-76 transit performance community point of view, 4-6 motorist point of view, 4-6 overview, 4-4 passenger point of view, 4-6 transit agency point of view, 4-5 Page 12-18 Chapter 12/lndex

Chapter 12/lndex Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, 3'd Edition transit preferential treatments, 4-33,4-41,6-12,6-52, 6-24 to 6-52, 6-95, See also individual treatments defined, 6-25 evaluation applications, 6-99 keys to success, 6-24 rail transit, 8-21,8-23 transit signal priority, 6-8, 6-13, 6-40 to 6-45, 6-99, 8- 22, 8-57, 8-87 active, 6-40 bus operations, impact on, 6-44 conditional, 6-40, 6-43 contrasted with preemption, 6-40 green extension, 6-41, 6-42 impact on bus operations, 6-48 light rail, 8-8 passive, 6-40 planning guidelines, 6-44 queue jumps, in conjunction with, 6-47, 6-48 real-time, 6-40 red truncation, 6-41, 6-42 special signal phasing, 6-42 stop relocation, in conjunction with, 6-55 summary of potential treatments, 6-41 technology, 6-43 transit time, 9-16 transit-dependent riders, 4-3 transit-oriented development, 3-21 transit-supportive area, 5-17, 5-82 calculation example, 5-82 example calculation, 5-18 transitway light rail, 8-22 transportation demand management, 3-21,4-27,4-35 special events, 8-43 transportation system management, 3-4 trash receptacles, 4-36, 10-10, 10-11,10-12 travel speed, as quality of service factor, 4-6 travel time, 4-34, 5-63, 5-72, 5-75, 5-76, 5-77, 6-24, 6- 25, 6-39,6-98, 8-21,9-4,9-22,9-23, See also speed as quality of service factor, 5-33 bus lanes, impact of, 6-39 costs associated with changes, 4-41 demand-response, example calculation, 5-66 elevators, 10-53 quality of service. See quality of service, travel time ridership, impact on, 4-38, 6-39 single-track sections, 8-55, 8-56 Page 12-19 trip patterns demand-responsive transit, 7-5 trip purpose, 2-10 trip reservation, 2-6 trip turn-downs, 5-60 turn backs, 8-3,8-6,8-44, 8-61,8-62 United States Coast Guard regulations, 9-3, 9-9, 9-29 value of time. See passenger value of time vanpools, 2-13,6-34 vehicle capacity. See capacity, vehicle vehicle propulsion bus,2-2, 2-5 commuter rail, 2-19 diesel light rail, 2-17 heavy rail, 2-14 hybrid rail, 2-17 light rail, 2-16 vehicle staging area, 9-6, 9-7 vehicle types bus, 2-2,2-4, 6-19, 6-20 vehicle-platform interface, 3-38, 6-8, 8-7 capacity, impact on, 3-38 speed, impact on, 3-38 vending machines, 4-36, 10-10, 10-11, 10-12 vessel capacity. See capacity, vehicle vessels auto capacity, 9-29 auto service time, calculation example, 9-32 bowloading,9-5,9-6 clean-up and resupply, 9-14 examples used for ferry transit, 9-3 fuel consumption, 9-4 load control, 9-9 passenger boarding, 9-11, 9-12 passenger circulation, 9-10, 9-14, 9-16 passenger service time, calculation example, 9-30 propulsion, 9-4 side loading, 9-6 vehicle disembarking, 9-8 vehicle loading, 9-6, 9-7 vintage trolleys, 2-16,2-17, 8-38 voltage drops impact on headway, 8-48 minimum headway, impact on, 8-49, 8-50 volume-to-capacity ratio station circulation design, use for, 10-58 I

Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, 3'd Edition wait time, 4-11, 4-29 elevator, 10-53 waiting areas design, 10-30 level of service, 9-9,10-14,10-55 seating, 10-30 waiting rooms, 10-57 wake wash, 9-1,9-4,9-16 walking distance to transit. See access to transit, pedestrian walking time vessel embarking and disembarking, 9-10, 9-14, 9- 15,9-24 walkways analysis time period, 10-45 buffer width, 10-21 capacity, 9-25, 10-20, 10-21, 10-45 conflicts, 10-20 effective width, 10-21, 10-38, 10-45 emergency evacuation, 10-46 level of service, 10-14, 10-44, 10-45 micro-peaking, 10-45 pedestrian speed, 10-20 sizing, 10-45, 10-46, 10-51 water taxi, 2-28, See also ferry transit wayfinding, stations. See stations, wayfinding website, 1-5 wheelchair access aerial ropeways, 8-40 commuter rail, 2-20, 8-39 consideration in selecting an operating margin, 8-54 inclined planes, 8-40 light rail, 2-18 rail transit, 8-34 to 8-40 wheelchairs, 10-12 accessibility, 8-35 elevators, 10-53 lifts, 10-28 loading, 3-24,3-38,6-7,6-69 loading, impact on bus dwell time, 6-70 securement, 8-34 yards,4-41, 8-12,8-74 yield-to-bus laws, 6-58 Z values. See bus stop failure, Z values zone routes, 2-43 Page 12-20 Chapter 12/lndex

Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, Third Edition Get This Book
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TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Report 165: Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, Third Edition provides guidance on transit capacity and quality of service issues and the factors influencing both. The manual contains background, statistics, and graphics on the various types of public transportation, and it provides a framework for measuring transit availability, comfort, and convenience from the passenger and transit provider points of view. In addition, the manual includes quantitative techniques for calculating the capacity and other operational characteristics of bus, rail, demand-responsive, and ferry transit services, as well as transit stops, stations, and terminals.

The CD-ROM that accompanies the manual provides PDF versions of all the publication’s chapters for use on tablets and computers; links to all of the TCRP reports referenced in the manual; spreadsheets that help perform the calculations used in the bus, ferry, and rail transit capacity methods; and presentations that introduce the manual and its core material.

The CD-ROM is also available for download from TRB’s website as an ISO image. Links to the ISO image and instructions for burning a CD-ROM from an ISO image are provided below.

Readers can download a full version of the report or download each chapter through the "read more" button. A zipped file of all chapters in PDF format is also available for download below. PowerPoint presentations and spreadsheet tools that are included in the CD-ROM are available for download below.

Warning: The full report and ISO CD-ROM are very large. Some may take in excess of an hour to download, depending on Internet capacity.

Downloadable Content

.ISO CD-ROM Image (Help on Burning an .ISO CD-ROM Image)

PowerPoint Presentations

TCQSM Overview

Quality of Service

Bus Capacity

Demand-Responsive Transit

Rail Capacity

Ferry Transit Capacity

Station Capacity

Spreadsheet Tools

Bus Capacity

Rail Transit Capacity

Ferry Capacity

Multimodal Transit LOS

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