National Academies Press: OpenBook
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An Expanded Functional Classification System for Highways and Streets. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24775.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An Expanded Functional Classification System for Highways and Streets. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24775.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An Expanded Functional Classification System for Highways and Streets. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24775.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An Expanded Functional Classification System for Highways and Streets. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24775.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An Expanded Functional Classification System for Highways and Streets. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24775.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An Expanded Functional Classification System for Highways and Streets. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24775.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An Expanded Functional Classification System for Highways and Streets. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24775.
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2018 N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 855 An Expanded Functional Classification System for Highways and Streets Nikiforos Stamatiadis Department of Civil engineering University of KentUCKy Lexington, KY Adam Kirk Don Hartman Jeff Jasper Samantha Wright KentUCKy transportation Center University of KentUCKy Lexington, KY Michael King nelson\nygaarD New York, NY Rick Chellman tnD engineering Portsmouth, NH Subscriber Categories Design • Pedestrians and Bicyclists • Planning and Forecasting Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration

NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing highway administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation results in increasingly complex problems of wide inter- est to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 ini- tiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniques—the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of Transportation. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was requested by AASHTO to administer the research program because of TRB’s recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. TRB is uniquely suited for this purpose for many reasons: TRB maintains an extensive com- mittee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; TRB possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, univer- sities, and industry; TRB’s relationship to the National Academies is an insurance of objectivity; and TRB maintains a full-time staff of special- ists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified by chief administrators and other staff of the highway and transportation departments, by committees of AASHTO, and by the Federal Highway Administration. Topics of the highest merit are selected by the AASHTO Special Committee on Research and Innovation (R&I), and each year R&I’s recommendations are proposed to the AASHTO Board of Direc- tors and the National Academies. Research projects to address these topics are defined by NCHRP, and qualified research agencies are selected from submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Academies and TRB. The needs for highway research are many, and NCHRP can make significant contributions to solving highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement, rather than to substitute for or duplicate, other highway research programs. Published research reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 855 Project 15-52 ISSN 2572-3766 (Print) ISSN 2572-3774 (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-39038-5 Library of Congress Control Number 2018945508 © 2018 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under NCHRP Project 15-52 by the Kentucky Transpor- tation Center at the University of Kentucky and Nelson\Nygaard. The University of Kentucky was the contractor for this study, and Dr. Nikiforos Stamatiadis, Professor of Civil Engineering, was the principal investigator. The other contributing authors of this report are Adam Kirk, Don Hartman, Jeff Jasper, Samantha Wright, Michael King, and Rick Chellman. The members of the Working Advisory Group have also provided continued input and assisted the team in refining the proposed classification scheme. The team expresses its gratitude to Mr. Scott Bradley, Minnesota Department of Transportation (DOT); Mr. Pasco Bakotich, Washington State DOT; Mr. Robert Koehler, Ohio–Kentucky–Indiana (OKI) Regional Council of Governments; and Mr. John Moore, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, for their reviews and guidance. The authors would also like to acknowledge all members who participated in the survey. We would also like to thank the members of the AASHTO Subcommittee on Geometric Design and its Chair, Mr. Jeff Jones, for their input in this process. Finally, the contribution and guidance of the NCHRP Project 15-52 panel should be mentioned. With- out their hard work and diligence in providing comments, this work would not have been successfully completed. CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 855 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs B. Ray Derr, Senior Program Officer Charlotte Thomas, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications NCHRP PROJECT 15-52 PANEL Field of Design—Area of General Design Frederick C. Dock, City of Pasadena DOT, Pasadena, CA (Chair) Stanley W. Wood, Massachusetts State DOT (retired), Ipswich, MA Leigh Blackmon Lane, Louis Berger Group, Raleigh, NC Anthony J. Buczek, METRO, Portland, OR John P. Donahue, Washington State DOT, Olympia, WA Daniel M. Dulaski, Northeastern University, Boston, MA R. Marshall Elizer, Jr., Washington State DOT, Olympia, WA Mubeen S. Quadri, Ohio DOT, Columbus, OH Brooke Struve, FHWA Liaison Stephen F. Maher, TRB Liaison

This report presents an expanded functional classification system for highways and streets that builds upon the current system to provide a better basis for the preliminary engineering of a design project, including developing the purpose and need. In particular, it provides additional contexts beyond urban and rural, facilitates accommodation of modes other than personal vehicles, and adds overlays for transit and freight. Two case studies illustrating application of the expanded system to actual projects are included. The report will be useful to planners and designers and could be useful when developing preliminary designs. A care- ful agency review is recommended to ensure that the system is well suited to the agency’s particular circumstances. Since 1984, the AASHTO “Green Book” (A Policy on the Geometric Design of Highways and Streets) and other roadway design criteria have been based on a functional classification system of a hierarchical network composed of arterials, collector roads, and local roads. This classification is further broken out by an urban or rural designation. This system is described in Highway Functional Classification Concepts, Criteria and Procedures (FHWA-PL-13-026). This system of highway classification has been under increasing scrutiny and discussion because of some incompatibilities with context-sensitive design, practical design, and other innovative approaches. The following are some concerns: • Designation as urban or rural is insufficient to adequately account for the range of con- texts for a highway or street. • The current system is focused on the needs of vehicle drivers and does not help in serving the needs of other types of users (e.g., transit riders, pedestrians, bicyclists). In particular, it does not help with design decisions that must balance benefits for one mode against disbenefits for another (e.g., narrower lanes that benefit pedestrians but make it harder for trucks to use the road). • Classification leads to recommended or limited design choices that may not be optimal for the particular facility. These restrictions promote “designing to standards” rather than a careful consideration of the safety, operational, and other impacts of design decisions. • The public often questions the use of these classifications as the basis for design decisions. In NCHRP Project 15-52, the University of Kentucky and Nelson\Nygaard reviewed the current functional classification system as well as alternative systems that have been used by transportation agencies internationally. Strengths and weaknesses were assessed to inform the development of a composite system that better meets the needs of planners and designers. Lastly, possible impacts on other uses of the current functional classification system were assessed (e.g., project funding, federal reporting) to prevent unintended consequences. F O R E W O R D By B. Ray Derr Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

For more information on the research performed, please see NCHRP Web-Only Docu- ment 230: Developing an Expanded Functional Classification System for More Flexibility in Geometric Design. Readers of this report will also be interested in the results of the following NCHRP proj- ects that complement this report: • NCHRP 15-47, available as NCHRP Research Report 839: A Performance-Based Highway Geometric Design Process (http://www.trb.org/main/blurbs/175375.aspx) • NCHRP 15-50, to be published as NCHRP Research Report 876: Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects

1 Introduction 2 Relationship to Other Guides 2 Expanded FCS Overview 8 Context Settings 8 Overview 9 Determining Context: Factors and Process 10 Rural 12 Rural Town 13 Suburban 14 Urban 15 Urban Core 17 Transportation Networks 17 Automobile, Bicycle, and Pedestrian Networks 22 Overlays 23 Network Overlay Application 26 Modal Considerations and Accommodation 26 Driver Accommodation 29 Bicyclist Accommodation 33 Pedestrian Accommodation 36 Expanded FCS Matrix 36 Transit Rider Accommodation as an Overlay 38 Freight Accommodation as an Overlay 39 Application of the Expanded Functional Classification System 39 Application Overview 40 Single-Context Application 41 Corridor Concepts 45 Conclusion 46 References 47 Case Study 1 US 25/US 421/KY 418; Richmond Road (10.5 miles), Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky 66 Case Study 2 US 150; W. Broadway Avenue (0.73 mile), Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky 75 Case Studies Lessons Learned C O N T E N T S

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TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Research Report 855: An Expanded Functional Classification System for Highways and Streets builds upon preliminary engineering of a design project, including developing the purpose and need. In particular, it provides additional contexts beyond urban and rural, facilitates accommodation of modes other than personal vehicles and adds overlays for transit and freight. Two case studies illustrating an application of the expanded system to actual projects are included. Accompanying the report is NCHRP Web-Only Document 230: Developing an Expanded Functional Classification System for More Flexibility in Geometric Design, which documents the methodology of NCHRP Research Report 855.

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