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An Expanded Functional Classification System for Highways and Streets (2018)

Chapter: Case Study 1 - US 25/US 421/KY 418; Richmond Road (10.5 miles), Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

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Suggested Citation:"Case Study 1 - US 25/US 421/KY 418; Richmond Road (10.5 miles), Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An Expanded Functional Classification System for Highways and Streets. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24775.
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Suggested Citation:"Case Study 1 - US 25/US 421/KY 418; Richmond Road (10.5 miles), Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An Expanded Functional Classification System for Highways and Streets. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24775.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Case Study 1 - US 25/US 421/KY 418; Richmond Road (10.5 miles), Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An Expanded Functional Classification System for Highways and Streets. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24775.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Case Study 1 - US 25/US 421/KY 418; Richmond Road (10.5 miles), Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An Expanded Functional Classification System for Highways and Streets. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24775.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Case Study 1 - US 25/US 421/KY 418; Richmond Road (10.5 miles), Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An Expanded Functional Classification System for Highways and Streets. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24775.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Case Study 1 - US 25/US 421/KY 418; Richmond Road (10.5 miles), Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An Expanded Functional Classification System for Highways and Streets. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24775.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Case Study 1 - US 25/US 421/KY 418; Richmond Road (10.5 miles), Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An Expanded Functional Classification System for Highways and Streets. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24775.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Case Study 1 - US 25/US 421/KY 418; Richmond Road (10.5 miles), Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An Expanded Functional Classification System for Highways and Streets. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24775.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Case Study 1 - US 25/US 421/KY 418; Richmond Road (10.5 miles), Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An Expanded Functional Classification System for Highways and Streets. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24775.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Case Study 1 - US 25/US 421/KY 418; Richmond Road (10.5 miles), Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An Expanded Functional Classification System for Highways and Streets. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24775.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Case Study 1 - US 25/US 421/KY 418; Richmond Road (10.5 miles), Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An Expanded Functional Classification System for Highways and Streets. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24775.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Case Study 1 - US 25/US 421/KY 418; Richmond Road (10.5 miles), Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An Expanded Functional Classification System for Highways and Streets. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24775.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Case Study 1 - US 25/US 421/KY 418; Richmond Road (10.5 miles), Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An Expanded Functional Classification System for Highways and Streets. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24775.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Case Study 1 - US 25/US 421/KY 418; Richmond Road (10.5 miles), Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An Expanded Functional Classification System for Highways and Streets. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24775.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Case Study 1 - US 25/US 421/KY 418; Richmond Road (10.5 miles), Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An Expanded Functional Classification System for Highways and Streets. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24775.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Case Study 1 - US 25/US 421/KY 418; Richmond Road (10.5 miles), Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An Expanded Functional Classification System for Highways and Streets. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24775.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Case Study 1 - US 25/US 421/KY 418; Richmond Road (10.5 miles), Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An Expanded Functional Classification System for Highways and Streets. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24775.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Case Study 1 - US 25/US 421/KY 418; Richmond Road (10.5 miles), Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An Expanded Functional Classification System for Highways and Streets. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24775.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Case Study 1 - US 25/US 421/KY 418; Richmond Road (10.5 miles), Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An Expanded Functional Classification System for Highways and Streets. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24775.
×
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47 US 25/US 421/KY 418; Richmond Road (10.5 miles), Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky C A S E S T U D Y 1

US 25/US 421/KY 418; Richmond Road (10.5 miles), Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky 49 The roadway in this case study is a principal arterial (urban-rural) that extends 10.5 miles. It traverses the five context categories of the Expanded FCS. The analysis included aerial photography, visual survey, review of the state’s functional classification, review of city transit information, and review of city/county bicycle information. The state highway department designates the road- way functional type as principal arterial (urban/rural). The study provides an analysis of context using the Expanded FCS methodology. Design considerations are established using the appropriate cell of the Expanded FCS matrix, which designates ranges to accommodate drivers, bicyclists, and pedestrians. Additionally, consid- eration is given to any transit or freight route information as an overlay. These matrix cell ranges for each context are then translated into a cross section alternative. A B OVERVIEW Case Study Corridor

50 An Expanded Functional Classification System for Highways and Streets Roadway Context The following table displays milepoint segments and their context descriptions: density, land use, and setbacks. A significant spot development anomaly occurs at two places along the corridor—where it intersects an Interstate (traveler-associated commercial services) and where an adjacent small commercial area exists (regional commercial activity) in the rural segment. This spot development extends for nearly 1 mile [milepoint (MP) 8.2–9.1]. These context segments were determined without depending upon census data or governmental boundaries for service areas, using Expanded FCS context descriptions from Table 1. Roadway context overview Milepoint Density Land Use Setbacks Expanded FCS 0.0–0.7 High density, multistory and high- rise buildings; highest density within the corridor Commercial, institutional (court houses and government offices) and residential uses; on-street parking and parking structures Small setbacks with wide sidewalks and enhanced pedestrian facilities (benches, street furniture and pedestrian plazas) Urban Core 0.7–2.5 High density, some multistory buildings Mainly residential with some commercial uses; educational use; off-street parking Medium (old established neighborhoods) and small setbacks with narrow sidewalks Urban 2.5–4.4 Medium density with primarily single-story buildings Primarily strip and big- box commercial uses; some multifamily and single-family residential (accessed by collectors) Commercial properties have larger setbacks with significant parking areas between street and buildings Suburban (1) 4.4–6.4 Medium density with single and some multistory buildings Primarily single-family residential clusters with some commercial and institutional uses Residential areas are buffered and are accessed by intersecting collectors. Commercial/institutional properties have larger setbacks with significant off-street parking areas Suburban (2) 6.1–8.2 Low density, sparse residential with occasional agriculture-related structures Agricultural uses with fenced areas Large setbacks Rural 8.2–9.1 Medium density Commercial Large setbacks Spot Development 9.1–10.0 Low density, sparse residential with occasional agriculture-related structures Agricultural uses with fenced areas Large setbacks Rural 10.0–10.5 Single- and two- story buildings in a several-block area of low to medium density Single-family residential and commercial with on- street parking Small setbacks and narrow sidewalks Rural Town

US 25/US 421/KY 418; Richmond Road (10.5 miles), Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky 51 The area of development covered by this case study follows a traditional wheel-and-spoke roadway network. This partially accounts for the rather clean segment boundaries of context. In addition, the area is currently subject to urban services growth which limits development into rural parts of the county, concentrates development patterns (and context boundaries), as well as limits options for future growth and expansion. One area of note is the section from MP 8.2 to 9.1, an area of spot development/non-conforming use associated with the arterial’s intersection with the Interstate highway in the otherwise predominately rural segment. With the area being less than one mile of arterial and the commercial services being primarily for the Interstate traveler and some regional commercial uses, it was decided not to assign the short segment as suburban context as discussed in the latter section of this report. Based on a review of the 2013 Comprehensive Plan Update, no significant land use change is planned that would impact the context for this principal arterial. Some additional residential development is projected adjacent to the arterial in the Suburban (2) segment in keeping with the existing context. Roadway Type Richmond Road is signed as US 25 and US 421 and is currently classified as a principal arterial in Kentucky. US 25 and US 421 provide direct access to the cities of Richmond, Frankfort and Georgetown and beyond—including Covington/Cincinnati and Louisville. This section of roadway also serves as the primary route to access Interstate 75/71 from the City of Lexington. Average daily traffic volume on US 25/421 ranges from 24,000 vehicles per day (vpd) west of I-75 to 44,000 vpd within the urban core. East of I-75, traffic drops significantly to 3,000 vpd. Travel speeds range from 55 mph in the rural areas to 25 mph within the urban core. While serving a significant volume of through traffic accessing the urban core and within the urbanized areas, the arterial also serves high volumes of local traffic accessing the commercial, residential, and institutional areas near the corridor. This use best fits the proposed principal arterial roadway type which includes “corridors of regional importance connecting large centers of activity.”

Urban Core (MP 0.0 to 0.7) Urban Core Context • Highest density (multi- story and high-rise structures with integrated parking) • Mixed commercial, residential and institutional uses • Small setbacks with sidewalks and pedestrian plazas 310,797, anchoring a metropolitan city–county area of 489,435 people and a combined two-county statistical area of 708,677 people. This is the urban core of the second- largest city in Kentucky that is consolidated with Fayette County; the city's 2014 population was The Expanded FCS matrix cell to the left defines the design considerations for the urban core–principal arterial section of the corridor. The roadway context is urban core due to the small setbacks, the mixed land use (residential, commercial and institutional), and high density of buildings. Most of the buildings are high-rise, multistory.There are enhanced-width sidewalks with street furniture and pedestrian facilities (benches) and plazas, and there is on-street parking along most of the section. The roadway type is a principal arterial, because it supplies regional network connectivity to traffic through the town and gives access to the area centers of activity. The roadway operates as a one-way pair. Driver Accommodation: According to the definitions for an urban core principal arterial, the roadway should provide low operating target speeds (<25 mph). Due to the principal arterial designation, the upper range of speeds is considered appropriate at 25 mph. This translates into medium mobility and medium levels of access.

US 25/US 421/KY 418; Richmond Road (10.5 miles), Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky 53 Bicyclist Accommodation: The roadway is considered a citywide connector as it draws ridership from all areas within the city and accesses downtown Lexington. This designation requires a medium separation treatment; a 6.5-foot bike lane is considered appropriate in this section of the corridor due to the lower speeds, but includes additional width for interactions with transit vehicles and parking. Overlays: There is heavy transit demand along the corridor and the lanes must be designed to accommodate transit buses. There is also some freight demand—mainly small delivery trucks, which should be considered during the final cross section design. Cross Section Alternative Pedestrian Accommodation: The land use indicates high pedestrian activity with several destinations in the area and therefore an enhanced-width sidewalk is recommended. Street furniture and pedestrian plazas may be considered due to aggregating pedestrians in this section. The cross section above was developed using the matrix cell guidance provided by Expanded FCS. Other cross section alternatives may be reasonable and warranted. This one features a 25 mph speed limit with a reduced number of narrow 10-foot lanes (an outside 11-foot lane to accommodate transit vehicles). Left and right turn lanes are eliminated within the urban core to calm travel speeds, minimize pedestrian crossing distances and minimize conflicts with bicycles. A wider 6.5-foot bike lane is used to increase separation from parking and transit. The cross section shows little to no building setback of an urban core. Enhanced sidewalks with occasional “parklets” that benefit pedestrian are in use. On-street parking is provided as well as transit stops. The one-way pairs culminating on the right are clearly visible in the aerial photograph below. The shadows are indicative of the high-rise and multistory structures of the urban core.

Urban Context • High density (multistory structures with designated off-street parking) • Mixed residential and commercial uses with some institutional and other special uses • Minimum on-street parking and sidewalks with mixed setbacks This urban segment has multistory structures of residential and commercial use. There is no on-street parking. Sidewalks are provided and the setbacks are mixed. The Expanded FCS matrix cell to the left defines the design considerations for the urban–principal arterial section of the corridor. The roadway context is urban due to the small setbacks, the mostly residential land use (with some commercial and educational uses), and single-family homes with some low-rise buildings. There is some off-street parking to accommodate the commercial land uses. The roadway type is a principal arterial, since it supplies regional network connectivity to traffic through the town and facilitates access to the downtown centers of activity. Driver Accommodation: According to the definitions for an urban principal arterial, the roadway should provide medium speed (30–40 mph) and, given the context, a target speed on the lower end of the spectrum of 30 mph is considered appropriate. This translates into medium mobility and medium levels of access. Urban (MP 0.7 to 2.5)

US 25/US 421/KY 418; Richmond Road (10.5 miles), Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky 55 Bicyclist Accommodation: The roadway is considered a citywide connector and, in this case, requires a high separation. A 6-foot bike lane is appropriate due to the limited bicycle demand in this section of the corridor. Pedestrian Accommodation: Generally, the land use indicates moderate levels of pedestrian traffic; however, volumes are not anticipated that would crowd a typical sidewalk or have areas with congregating pedestrians. Therefore, a minimum-width sidewalk is recommended. There are limited areas (commercial and educational land uses) that require a wide or enhanced sidewalk to accommodate aggregating pedestrians in the vicinity of these land uses. Overlays: There is transit demand along the corridor and the lanes should be designed to accommodate transit buses. There is also some freight demand, mainly small delivery trucks, and this needs to be considered during the final cross section design. Cross Section Alternative The cross section above was developed using the matrix cell guidance provided by the Expanded FCS. It features narrow lanes (11 feet) with turn lanes to accommodate higher auto-focused travel with a speed limit of 25 mph due to the presence of on-street bicycle facilities. Bike lanes and wide sidewalks are provided with intermittent enhancements. There are little to no building setbacks in commercial areas and, in these commercial areas, on-street parking is provided. In residential areas, where off-street parking is present, no parking is shown. Other cross section alternatives may be reasonable and warranted. The aerial photograph below clearly shows the commercial/institutional development toward the left, and the single-family residential development to the right. Structures are typically multistory.

This segment meets the density, land use and setback criteria for a suburban context as defined by the Expanded FCS. The land use consists of primarily commercial strip and cluster development with some multifamily and single-family residential. The Expanded FCS matrix cell on the left defines the design considerations for the suburban–principal arterial section of the corridor. The roadway context is suburban due to the increased setbacks and lower development density. The primary land use is big- box commercial retail and low-rise buildings on out lots. All parking is off-street with parking facing the primary corridor. The roadway type is a principal arterial, since it supplies regional network connectivity to traffic through the town and facilitates access to the downtown centers of activity, I-75 and the primary commercial activity centers on the corridor. Driver Accommodation: According to the definitions for a suburban principal arterial, the roadway should be designated at medium speed. Due to the increased density of development over the previous section and increased access points, the lower end of the “high” speed category (≥45 mph) is recommended. This section is signed with a speed of 45 mph. While the principal arterial provides for medium access, access management principles should be applied to supply consolidated access points and improved internal circulation to benefit the high retail uses. Suburban Context • Medium to low density • Mixed residential and commercial clusters • Varied setbacks with some sidewalks and mostly off- street parking Suburban Section 1 (MP 2.5 to 4.4)

US 25/US 421/KY 418; Richmond Road (10.5 miles), Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky 57 Bicyclist Accommodation: The roadway is considered a citywide connector and, in this case, requires high separation due to the higher speeds on the corridor. A buffered bike lane is recommended to separate bicycle traffic from the high volume vehicular traffic. An alternate may allow for bicycle usage on frontage roads, but the high number of access points and indirect routing of these roads make this option undesirable. Overlays: Transit is present on the corridor with multiple stops on both sides of the roadway. Consideration may be given to providing bus pull-outs or enhanced bus stops to accommodate transit/pedestrians accessing the suburban retail area. Some heavy freight traffic does use the corridor to access the outlying urban areas and connect to I-75 on the east end of the corridor. Cross Section Alternative The above 45 mph cross section alternative for this suburban arterial was developed using the matrix cell guidance provided by the Expanded FCS. Other cross section alternatives may be reasonable and warranted. The cross section design specifies four 11-foot travel lanes with turn lanes and buffered bike lanes as well as minimum sidewalks. Access management is necessary, and no on-street parking is provided. Transit service is available and bus stops are planned in accordance with the city’s transit route overlay. The aerial photograph below clearly shows the commercial development of this suburban section with controlled access. Each establishment has dedicated off-street parking, and a network of service roads is apparent. Pedestrian Accommodation: The land use indicates low pedestrian traffic with mainly local destinations to/from the retail areas or transit stops. However, minimal pedestrian traffic is anticipated and the development and land use favors automobile-centric use. Therefore, sidewalks are necessary; however, wide or enhanced treatments are not required to accommodate large groups of pedestrians. ADA-compliant minimum sidewalk widths are recommended.

This suburban area contains some commercial/institutional areas that include health services but is predominately single- family residential in clusters with intersecting collector access. Driver Accommodation: According to the definitions for a suburban principal arterial, the roadway should be signed at medium speed and, given the context, a target speed of 45 mph is considered appropriate, due to the lower access spacing and increased setbacks off residential properties on this section. This translates into medium mobility and medium levels of access. Suburban Context • Medium to low density • Mixed residential and commercial clusters • Varied setbacks with some sidewalks and mostly off- street parking Suburban Section 2 (MP 4.4 to 6.4) The Expanded FCS matrix cell to the left defines the design considerations for the suburban–principal arterial section of the corridor. The roadway context is suburban due to the increased setbacks, which are primarily residential in this section of the corridor. Development faces away from the primary street and has direct access off of the secondary street network. Additional residential development adjacent to the arterial is indicated in the 2013 Comprehensive Plan Update for the area but would not change the future context. Some low-rise commercial retail centers and office use surround the primary intersection at Man O’ War Boulevard. All parking is off-street. The roadway type is a principal arterial, since it supplies regional network connectivity to traffic through the town and facilitates access to the downtown centers of activity, I-75, and the primary commercial activity centers on the corridor.

US 25/US 421/KY 418; Richmond Road (10.5 miles), Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky 59 Bicyclist Accommodation: The roadway is considered a citywide connector and, in this case, requires a high separation. A primary attraction in the area is Jacobson Park, which can serve many of the residential areas on the corridor and in the vicinity. A multi-use bicycle/pedestrian path is proposed on the north side of the corridor. Cross-street bicycle/pedestrian access should be accommodated at all signals through the section. Pedestrian Accommodation: The land use indicates low pedestrian traffic with mainly local destinations and potentially some recreation traffic to/from the residential areas to Jacobson Park which would require a minimum width. However, pedestrians may also share use of the multi-use path described above if connection to major crossing points at intersections are provided on the south side of the roadway. Overlays: There is no transit on this section of the corridor. Some heavy freight traffic does use the corridor to access the outlying urban areas and connect to I-75 on the east end of the corridor. Cross Section Alternative Other cross section alternatives may be reasonable and warranted. The above 55 mph cross section alternative for this suburban arterial was developed using the matrix cell guidance provided by the Expanded FCS. The cross section design accommodates four wider travel lanes (11 feet) with median and turn lanes. A multi-use path connects to park and residential areas. Access management is necessary, and no on-street parking is provided. Transit service is available and bus stops are planned in accordance with the city’s transit route overlay. The aerial photograph on the facing page shows some commercial/institutional land use while the photograph below shows the transition to park and single-family residential accessed from intersecting collectors.

This rural segment has the lowest density with a few isolated houses and occasional farm structures with large setbacks. Agricultural uses dominate the area but are interrupted by spot development (non-conforming use of less than one mile, accommodating Interstate traveler and regional commercial services). Rural Context • Lowest density (few houses or other structures) • Agricultural uses predominate with isolated residential and commercial • Usually large setbacks Rural (MP 6.1 to 8.2, 9.1 to 10.0) The Expanded FCS matrix cell on the left defines the design considerations for the rural–principal arterial section of the corridor. The roadway context is rural due to the large setbacks, the mostly agricultural land use, and sparse single-family homes with some low-rise agricultural buildings. The roadway type is a principal arterial, since it supplies regional network connectivity to traffic through the county to rural towns and access to suburban/urban centers of activity. Driver Accommodation: According to the definitions for a rural principal arterial, the roadway should be signed as high speed and, given the context, a target speed of 55 mph is considered appropriate. This translates into high mobility and low levels of access. Access is at medium level given the varied agricultural land uses and need for land access.

US 25/US 421/KY 418; Richmond Road (10.5 miles), Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky 61 Bicyclist Accommodation: There is no demand for bicycles and therefore no dedicated bicycle facilities are provided, though riders may make use of the wide shoulders or the travel way itself. Pedestrian Accommodation: There is no demand for pedestrians in this area beyond rare or occasional foot traffic and therefore there is no need for any dedicated pedestrian facilities within the rural area. Overlays: There is no freight or transit demand in the area and thus no additional considerations are needed for specific overlays. Cross Section Alternative Other cross section alternatives may be reasonable and warranted. The cross section above was developed using the rural arterial matrix cell guidance provided by the Expanded FCS. This option features a wide four-lane roadway with wide shoulders and a higher speed limit of 55 mph. A median is provided for safety. The aerial photographs on the facing page and below clearly show agricultural use and the large setbacks of most structures (residential and farm). The non-conforming commercial use at the Interstate intersection is not shown below but is shown on the following pages.

This short sub-segment (less than 1 mile) within the overall rural segment has a somewhat suburban commercial context that centers on the interchange of the rural arterial with I-75. The uses are commercial services related to travelers. In addition, there is a small adjacent commercial/industrial complex. Rural Context • Low density, with spot suburban development • Small commercial development surrounded by agricultural uses • Medium suburban-type setbacks Rural – Spot Development (MP 8.2 to 9.1) The Expanded FCS matrix cell on the left defines the design considerations for the rural–principal arterial section of the corridor. The rural roadway context is interrupted by this compact commercial use area. The roadway type is a principal arterial, since it supplies regional network connectivity to traffic through the county to rural towns and access to suburban/urban centers of activity and I-75. While this sub-segment offers a substantially different context and land use than the surrounding agricultural uses, its short length as well as the relative compatibility of its context with the surrounding rural context in terms of speed and mobility means it can fit the spot development designation. Therefore, it is proposed that the roadway cross section need not differ substantially from adjacent sections, and the context need not change. Operational improvements may be warranted such as “Congested Area” warning signs or advisory speed plaques.

US 25/US 421/KY 418; Richmond Road (10.5 miles), Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky 63 Bicyclist Accommodation: There is no demand for bicycles and therefore no dedicated bicycle facilities are provided though riders may make use of the wide shoulders or the travel way itself. Pedestrian Accommodation: The automobile-oriented nature of the businesses and isolated location eliminates pedestrian demand along the roadway itself, though pedestrians should be considered within and between adjacent businesses. Overlays: There is some freight that requires wider lanes and turning lanes as well as special consideration at the commercial access points, but there is no transit demand in the area and thus no additional considerations are needed for specific overlays. Cross Section Alternative Driver Accommodation: According to the definitions for a rural–principal arterial, the roadway should provide high speed but, given the congestion and commercial context, a target speed of 45 mph is considered appropriate. This translates into medium mobility and medium levels of controlled access. This spot development is clearly automobile centric. The cross section above was developed using the rural arterial matrix cell guidance provided by the Expanded FCS. Due to the short length of this development cluster, the basic cross section of the roadway is maintained, though this design is augmented with turn lanes within the center median as necessary to serve the development. The aerial photograph below shows the clustered commercial development along this otherwise rural arterial with its agricultural uses.

Rural Town Context • Low to medium density (single- family and other single-purpose structures) • Primarily commercial uses along a main street with adjacent residential uses • On-street parking and sidewalks with small setbacks This rural town (a small unincorporated village) in the rural services area of Lexington–Fayette Urban County to the east of I-75 is located at the junction of KY 418 and KY 1973. The Expanded FCS matrix cell on the left defines the design considerations for the rural town–principal arterial section of the corridor. The roadway context is rural town due to the small setbacks, the mostly residential land use (with some commercial and educational uses), and single-family homes with some two-story buildings. There is limited off-street parking to accommodate the commercial land uses. The roadway type is a principal arterial, since it supplies regional network connectivity to traffic through the rural town and facilitates access to residential and limited commercial uses. Rural Town (MP 10.0 to 10.5)

US 25/US 421/KY 418; Richmond Road (10.5 miles), Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky 65 Overlays: There is no freight or transit demand in the area and therefore no additional considerations are needed for specific overlays. Cross Section Alternative The cross section above was developed using the rural town arterial matrix cell provided by the Expanded FCS. Other cross section alternatives may be reasonable and warranted. This option features narrow lanes with on- street parking available. Setbacks are varied. The aerial photograph on the facing page shows the relatively compact mixed residential and commercial uses of this rural town that is centered on the intersection of two state numbered highways. The intersection at the town center is four-way stop controlled. Driver Accommodation: According to the definitions for a rural town principal arterial, the roadway is signed at low speed and, given the roadway context, a target speed of 25 mph is considered appropriate. This offers medium mobility and high levels of access. Turn lanes are not provided in order to minimize crossing distances and calm traffic speeds through the town. Bicyclist Accommodation: The road could be considered a local connector for bicyclists and would require a low separation. In this case, sharrows can be used to indicate the presence of low-volume bicycle traffic mixed with low-speed vehicular traffic. Pedestrian Accommodation: The land use indicates low pedestrian activity, requiring a minimum-width sidewalk.

66 C A S E S T U D Y 2 US 150; W. Broadway Avenue (0.73 mile), Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Next: Case Study 2 - US 150; W. Broadway Avenue (0.73 mile), Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky »
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TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Research Report 855: An Expanded Functional Classification System for Highways and Streets builds upon preliminary engineering of a design project, including developing the purpose and need. In particular, it provides additional contexts beyond urban and rural, facilitates accommodation of modes other than personal vehicles and adds overlays for transit and freight. Two case studies illustrating an application of the expanded system to actual projects are included. Accompanying the report is NCHRP Web-Only Document 230: Developing an Expanded Functional Classification System for More Flexibility in Geometric Design, which documents the methodology of NCHRP Research Report 855.

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