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NAT IONAL COOPERAT IVE H IGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP SYNTHESIS 509 SubScriber categorieS Administration and Management â¢ Education and Training â¢ Highways â¢ Safety and Human Factors Highway Worker Safety A Synthesis of Highway Practice conSultantS John A. Gambatese David Hurwitz and Zachary Barlow Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon 2017 Research Sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in Cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration
NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing highway administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local interest and can best be stud- ied by highway departments individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation results in increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Associa- tion of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 initiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniquesâthe National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of Transportation. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Acad- emies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was requested by AASHTO to administer the research program because of TRBâs recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. TRB is uniquely suited for this purpose for many rea- sons: TRB maintains an extensive committee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; TRB possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; TRBâs relationship to the Academies is an insurance of objectivity; and TRB maintains a full-time staff of specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs identi- fied by chief administrators and other staff of the highway and trans- portation departments and by committees of AASHTO. Topics of the highest merit are selected by the AASHTO Standing Committee on Research (SCOR), and each year SCORâs recommendations are proposed to the AASHTO Board of Directors and the Academies. Research projects to address these topics are defined by NCHRP, and qualified research agencies are selected from submitted propos- als. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the Academies and TRB. The needs for highway research are many, and NCHRP can make significant contributions to solving highway transportation prob- lems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement, rather than to substitute for or duplicate, other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America NCHRP SYNTHESIS 509 Project 20-05, Topic 47-16 ISSN 0547-5570 ISBN 978-0-309-38997-6 Library of Congress Control No. 2017932236 Â© 2017 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessari- ly those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are con- sidered essential to the object of the report.
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
TOPIC PANEL 47-16 JAMES W. BRYANT, JR., Transportation Research Board DAVID FENDER, Murray State University, Murray, KY JAMES âJIMâ GAUS, Michigan Department of Transportation, Lansing LORA HOLLINGSWORTH, Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee MARK J. POPPE, Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix KEITH ALAN ROBINSON, California Department of Transportation, Sacramento DANIEL WILBER, New York State Department of Transportation, Albany TERECIA W. WILSON, Institute for Global Road Safety and Security, Prosperity, SC BERNIE KUTA, Federal Highway Administration (Liaison) ANTONIO NIEVES, Federal Highway Administration (Liaison) SYNTHESIS STUDIES STAFF STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies and Special Programs JON M. WILLIAMS, Program Director, IDEA and Synthesis Studies MARIELA GARCIA-COLBERG, Senior Program Officer JO ALLEN GAUSE, Senior Program Officer THOMAS HELMS, Consultant GAIL R. STABA, Senior Program Officer TANYA M. ZWAHLEN, Consultant DON TIPPMAN, Senior Editor CHERYL KEITH, Senior Program Assistant DEMISHA WILLIAMS, Senior Program Assistant DEBBIE IRVIN, Program Associate COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF CHRISTOPHER J. HEDGES, Director, Cooperative Research Programs LORI L. SUNDSTROM, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications NCHRP COMMITTEE FOR PROJECT 20-05 CHAIR BRIAN A. BLANCHARD, Florida Department of Transportation MEMBERS STUART D. ANDERSON, Texas A&M University SOCORRO âCOCOâ BRISENO, California Department of Transportation DAVID M. JARED, Georgia Department of Transportation CYNTHIA L. JONES, Ohio Department of Transportation MALCOLM T. KERLEY, NXL, Richmond, VA JOHN M. MASON, JR., Auburn University ROGER C. OLSON, Minnesota Department of Transportation (retired) BENJAMIN T. ORSBON, South Dakota Department of Transportation RANDALL R. PARK, Utah Department of Transportation ROBERT L. SACK, New York State Department of Transportation FRANCINE SHAW WHITSON, Federal Highway Administration JOYCE N. TAYLOR, Maine Department of Transportation FHWA LIAISON JACK JERNIGAN TRB LIAISON STEPHEN F. MAHER Cover figure: A variable message sign instructing drivers to slow their speed for the workers along the highway during night paving operations in Oregon. The photo was taken by an Oregon State University graduate student during a field visit for research conducted by John Gambatese.
FOREWORD The objective of this report is to identify how state departments of transportation (DOTs) implement policies using highway worker safety and health data to reduce injuries and manage risk. The report is a synthesis of current proactive safety practices that will be useful for DOTs developing new or updating existing policies, programs, or tools to mini- mize injuries, fatalities, and risk. The study also identifies gaps in knowledge and future research needs. The information in this report was developed through a comprehensive literature review regarding the topics of worker safety and work site safety. Particular emphasis was placed on the prevalence and causality of injury and fatality incidents for highway workers, the availability of highway worker safety data, existing legal standards and policy recommen- dations related to highway workers, safety risk and human factors, stakeholders in high- way worker safety, and safety program evaluation. The information found in the literature was supplemented with a survey of state DOTs. Six publicly available injury and fatality databases were also examined to quantify and compare injury and fatality incidence rates. John A. Gambatese, David Hurwitz, and Zachary Barlow, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, collected and synthesized the information and wrote the report. The members of the topic panel are acknowledged on the preceding page. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand. Highway administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which infor- mation already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and practice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a conse- quence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviating the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to highway administrators and engineers. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evalu- ating such useful information and to make it available to the entire highway community, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officialsâthrough the mecha- nism of the National Cooperative Highway Research Programâauthorized the Transpor- tation Research Board to undertake a continuing study. This study, NCHRP Project 20-5, âSynthesis of Information Related to Highway Problems,â searches out and synthesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute an NCHRP report series, Synthesis of Highway Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. PREFACE By Tanya M. Zwahlen Consultant Transportation Research Board
CONTENTS 1 SUMMARY 5 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Problem Statement Summary and Scope, 6 Background, 6 Prevalence of Injuries and Fatalities, 6 Common Work Site Safety Issues, 7 Theories of Incident Causation, 8 Common Practices Implemented to Improve Safety, 9 Terminology, 10 Study Approach, 11 Report Organization, 13 14 CHAPTER TWO ISSUES IN HIGHWAY WORKER SAFETY Introduction, 14 Prevalence and Causality of Highway Worker Incidences, 14 Availability of Highway Worker Safety Data, 16 Legal Standards and Policy Recommendations Related to Highway Workers, 19 Risk and Human Factors, 21 Stakeholders in Highway Worker Safety, 24 Maintenance Worker Issues, 27 Evaluation of Safety Programs, 29 Conclusions, 30 31 CHAPTER THREE AGENCY PRACTICES AND PERSPECTIVES ON HIGHWAY WORKER SAFETY Introduction, 31 Methodology, 32 Demographics, 33 Incident Reporting, 36 Postincident Steps, 36 Archiving Process, 37 Near Miss Reporting, 38 Data Collection, 39 Data Utilization, 42 Conclusions, 43 45 CHAPTER FOUR INJURY DATA ANALYSIS Introduction, 45 Bureau of Labor Statistics Data, 45 Occupational Safety and Health Administration Data, 49 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Data, 50 Fatality Analysis Reporting System Data, 54 Strategic Highway Research Program 2 Data, 55 State Department of Transportation Data, 59 Conclusions, 60
62 CHAPTER FIVE STATE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CASE ExAMPLES Introduction, 62 California, 63 DOT Size and Description, 63 Safety Risk Mitigation Policies and Practices, 63 Design for Safety Initiative, 64 Data Sources, Archiving, and Analysis, 66 Monitoring and Evaluation, 66 Effectiveness of Safety Programs, Policies, and Practices, 67 Suggestions for Safety Programs, Policies, and Practices, 67 Maine, 67 DOT Size and Description, 67 Safety Risk Mitigation Policies and Practices, 68 Safety Idea Incentive Program, 68 Data Sources, Archiving, and Analysis, 69 Monitoring and Evaluation, 70 Effectiveness of Safety Programs, Policies, and Practices, 70 Suggestions for Safety Programs, Policies, and Practices, 70 North Dakota, 71 DOT Size and Description, 71 Safety Risk Mitigation Policies and Practices, 71 Leading Indicator Initiative, 71 Return-to-Work Initiative, 72 Data Sources, Archiving, and Analysis, 73 Monitoring and Evaluation, 73 Effectiveness of Safety Programs, Policies, and Practices, 74 Suggestions for Safety Programs, Policies, and Practices, 74 Oregon, 75 DOT Size and Description, 75 Safety Risk Mitigation Policies and Practices, 75 Oregon Work Zone Executive Strategy Steering Committee, 76 Model Structure and Data Sources, 76 Monitoring and Evaluation, 77 Effectiveness of Safety Programs, Policies, and Practices, 77 Suggestions for Safety Programs, Policies, and Practices, 78 South Carolina, 78 DOT Size and Description, 78 Safety Risk Mitigation Policies and Practices, 78 Data Sources, Archiving, and Analysis, 81 Monitoring and Evaluation, 81 Effectiveness of Safety Programs, Policies, and Practices, 82 Suggestions for Safety Programs, Policies, and Practices, 82 Washington, 83 DOT Size and Description, 83 Safety Risk Mitigation Policies and Practices, 83 Near Miss Reporting Program, 84 Data Sources, Archiving, and Analysis, 86 Monitoring and Evaluation, 86 Effectiveness of Safety Programs, Policies, and Practices, 86 Suggestions for Safety Programs, Policies, and Practices, 87 Conclusions, 87 88 CHAPTER SIx STUDY CONCLUSIONS Summary of Findings, 88 Barriers to Widespread Implementation, 89 Suggestions for Future Research, 89
91 REFERENCES 98 APPENDIx A SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE 105 APPENDIx B COMPLETE TABULATED DATA FOR SELECTED SURVEY QUESTIONS 124 APPENDIx C INTERVIEW PROTOCOL 127 APPENDIx D CALIFORNIA: ROADSIDE SAFETY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM HANDOUT 132 APPENDIx E NORTH DAKOTA: JOB HAZARD ANALYSIS FORM 136 APPENDIx F OREGON: OWZESSC NEWSLETTER 138 APPENDIx G SOUTH CAROLINA: 2004 FOCUS GROUP REPORT 146 APPENDIx H WASHINGTON: NEAR MISS/SAFETY SUGGESTION BOOKLET PAGES Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.