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I. Introduction, 3 A. Purpose of Digest, 3 B. Overview of FTA Buy America, 3 C. What FTA Buy America Is Not, 4 II. History of FTA Buy America, 9 A. 1978 Surface Transportation Assistance Act, 9 B. 1982 Surface Transportation Assistance Act, 10 C. 1987 Surface Transportation and Uniform Relocation Assistance Act, 11 D. 1990s Amendments, 11 E. 2005 Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users, 12 F. 2012 Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act, 13 G. 2015 Fixing Americaâs Surface Transportation (FAST) Act, 14 III. Application of FTA Buy America Domestic Content Requirement, 15 A. Manufactured Products, 15 B. Rolling Stock, 18 C. Infrastructure and Construction Projects, 24 IV. Waivers and Exceptions, 28 A. General Waivers, 28 B. Project-Specific Waivers, 33 V. Enforcement, 39 A. Certification, 39 B. Pre-Award and Post-Delivery Audits, 42 C. FTA Investigations, 43 D. Penalties, 45 E. Legal Action by Disappointed Bidders, 48 VI. Conclusions, 50 CONTENTS