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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 173 2017 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation â¢ Environment Use and Potential Impacts of AFFF Containing PFASs at Airports Andrew H. Thalheimer Leah B. McConney Dillon Consulting limiteD Halifax, NS, Canada Indra K. Kalinovich Dillon Consulting limiteD Winnipeg, MB, Canada Anne V. Pigott Dillon Consulting limiteD Vancouver, BC, Canada Jennifer D. Franz Heather Taylor Holbert JD Franz researCh, inC. Sacramento, CA Dean Mericas meaD & hunt, inC. Austin, TX Zachary J. Puchacz meaD & hunt, inC. Lansing, MI
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100â Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 173 Project 02-60 ISSN 2572-3731 (Print) ISSN 2572-374X (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-44638-9 Library of Congress Control Number 2017939583 Â© 2017 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 173 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Joseph D. Navarrete, Senior Program Officer Hana Vagnerova, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Ellen M. Chafee, Senior Editor ACRP PROJECT 02-60 PANEL Field of Environment Michael R. Rantala, Halifax International Airport Authority, Enfield, NS (Chair) Jennifer A. Field, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR Michael A. Gonsalves, CB&I, Tampa, FL Kari Junco, Dallas/Fort Worth Airport Board, DFW Airport, TX Geoff Nielsen, City of Phoenix Fire Department, Phoenix, AZ Adam Walters, Southwest Airlines Co., Dallas, TX Michael Lamprecht, FAA Liaison Marc Tonnacliff, FAA Liaison Linda Gaines, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison
ACRP Research Report 173: Use and Potential Impacts of AFFF Containing PFASs at Air- ports is a comprehensive resource for understanding the potential environmental and health impacts of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) typically found in aqueous film- forming foams (AFFFs). The report will be of particular interest to airport industry practi- tioners who wish to learn about the issue, take steps to identify areas of potential concern at their airport, and implement recommended management and remediation practices. AFFF has been used for extinguishing fires and for firefighter training at airports for decades. The use of AFFF results in the release of PFASs into the environment. Some PFASs are known to be persistent in the natural environment and pose potential human and eco- logical health risks. Government agencies are developing regulation of these chemicals, and these regulations will likely impact airports. Research was needed to help airports identify potential areas impacted by AFFF use and minimize further potential impacts from future actions. The research, led by Dillon Consulting Limited, included a review of literature regard- ing environmental fate and transport and remediation of PFASs, both in North America and in other world regions, with a particular focus on the use of AFFF in airport settings. To gauge the level of awareness and gain a better understanding of management practices, the research team conducted an extensive survey of 167 North American airports. The research team also reached out to subject matter experts, including AFFF manufacturers, emergency response personnel, industry trade organizations, academia, analytical laboratories, and government regulators. The report features a primer on PFASs that summarizes their composition, structure, and sources, as well as potential environmental and toxicological concerns about PFASs, regulatory issues, and how PFASs may affect airports. The report also provides a discus- sion of AFFF management in an airport setting and recommended practices to investigate legacy environmental impacts, potential risks, and remediation options. To help airports identify areas of potential environmental concern, the research team developed the Managing AFFF and PFASs at Airports (MAPA) Screening Tool. The screen- ing tool provides results for the airport as a whole and for individual areas of potential concern. The tool can also be used to foster collaboration among functional departments responsible for management of AFFF and assessment of contamination by PFASs and reme- diation. The tool can be accessed at www.trb.org/main/blurbs/175866.aspx. F O R E W O R D By Joseph D. Navarrete Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research upon which this report is based was performed under ACRP Project 02-60 by Dillon Consulting Limited (Dillon). Dillon was supported by JD Franz Research, Inc. (JD Franz Research) with support from Pacific Market Research, and Mead & Hunt, Inc. (Mead & Hunt). Andrew H. Thalheimer was the principal investigator and the principal in charge of the project. The other authors of this report are Dr. Indra Kalinovich, Anne Pigott, and Leah McConney of Dillon, Dr. Jennifer Franz and Heather Taylor Holbert of JD Franz Research, and Dr. Dean Mericas and Zachary Puchacz of Mead & Hunt. The research team would like to thank the following airport staff and fire departments who participated in this research and contributed valuable information to support the development of this reference document: Aberdeen Regional Airport Abilene Regional Airport Akron-Canton Regional Airport Albany International Airport Alexandria International Airport Anchorage International Airport Arnold Palmer Regional Airport Asheville Regional Airport Atlantic City International Airport Austin Straubel International Airport Austin-Bergstrom International Airport Baltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport Bangor International Airport Baton Rouge Metropolitan Airport, Ryan Field Bill and Hillary Clinton National Airport/Adams Field Boeing Field/King County International Airport Bradley International Airport Brookings Regional Airport Buffalo/Niagara International Airport Burbank Bob Hope Airport Calgary International Airport Canyonlands Field Airport Cape Girardeau Regional Airport Charles B. Wheeler Downtown Airport Charles M. Schulz - Sonoma County Airport Charleston International Airport Charlotte Douglas International Airport Charlottetown International Airport Cincinnati Municipal Airport-Lunken Field Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport City of Colorado Springs Municipal Airport Cleveland Hopkins International Airport Coeur dâAlene Airport - Pappy Boyington Field Corpus Christi International Airport Dallas Love Field Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport Dane County Regional Airport-Truax Field Denver International Airport Des Moines International Airport Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport Dickinson Theodore Roosevelt Regional Airport Dodge City Regional Airport Dothan Regional Airport Eagle County Regional Airport Edmonton International Airport Eglin Air Force Base El Paso International Airport Eppley Airfield Fairbanks International Airport Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport Francisco C. Ada/Saipan International Airport Fredericton International Airport Fresno Yosemite International Airport Gander International Airport General Mitchell International Airport George Bush Intercontinental Airport Gerald R. Ford International Airport Grand Junction Regional Airport Grande Prairie Airport Great Falls International Airport Greater Binghamton Airport Greater Moncton International Airport Greater Rochester International Airport Greenville Spartanburg International Airport Groton-New London Airport Hagerstown Regional Airport - Richard A. Henson Field Halifax International Airport Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport Hector International Airport Hilo International Airport Indianapolis International Airport James M. Cox Dayton International Airport Jamestown Regional Airport John Wayne Airport-Orange County Juneau International Airport Kahului Airport Kansas City International Airport Kearney Regional Airport Kona International Airport La Crosse Regional Airport Lakeland Linder Regional Airport Lanai Airport Laramie Regional Airport Las Cruces International Airport Lehigh Valley International Airport Lihue Airport Los Angeles International Airport Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport Louisville International Airport - Standiford Field Manchester Airport Marthaâs Vineyard Airport Mason City Municipal Airport McAllen Miller International Airport McGhee Tyson Airport McNary Field Airport Melbourne International Airport Memorial Field Airport Memphis International Airport Metropolitan Oakland International Airport Midland International Airport Minneapolis-Saint Paul International/ Wold-Chamberlain Airport Mobile Downtown Airport Myrtle Beach International Airport Nashville International Airport Norfolk International Airport Norman Y. Mineta San Jose International Airport North Las Vegas Airport Orlando International Airport Orlando Sanford International Airport Owensboro-Daviess County Regional Airport Palm Beach International Airport Palm Springs International Airport Pellston Regional Airport Pensacola International Airport Philadelphia International Airport Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport Pittsburgh International Airport Port Columbus International Airport Portland International Airport Portland International Jetport Pullman-Moscow Regional Airport Quad City International Airport Quebec City - Jean Lesage International Airport Raleigh-Durham International Airport Reno-Tahoe International Airport Republic Airport Rhinelander-Oneida County Airport Richmond International Airport Roanoke Regional Airport/Woodrum Field Rocky Mountain Metropolitan Airport Rogue Valley International - Medford Airport Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport Sacramento International Airport Salina Regional Airport San Antonio International Airport San Francisco International Airport Santa Barbara Municipal Airport Sarasota-Bradenton International Airport Savannah/Hilton Head International Airport Seattle-Tacoma International Airport Southern California Logistics Airport Southwest Florida International Airport St. Johnâs International Airport St. Louis Downtown Airport St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport Stennis International Airport Stewart International Airport Syracuse Hancock International Airport Tafuna/Pago Pago International Airport Tallahassee International Airport Theodore Francis Green State Airport Thunder Bay International Airport Toronto - Lester B. Pearson International Airport Tucson International Airport Tulsa International Airport University Park Airport Vancouver International Airport Venango Regional Airport W. K. Kellogg Airport Whitehorse International Airport Will Rogers World Airport William P. Hobby Airport Willow Run Airport Wilmington International Airport Winnipeg James Armstrong Richardson International Airport
1 Summary 8 Chapter 1 Introduction and Purpose 8 1.1 Understanding the Problem 8 1.2 Project Objectives 9 1.3 Report Organization 9 1.4 How to Use This Document 10 Chapter 2 PrimerâBackground on PFASs 10 2.1 What Are PFASs? 12 2.2 Where Did/Do PFASs Come From? 14 2.3 Why and How Do PFASs Pose a Concern? 17 2.4 What Are the Regulatory Requirements Regarding PFASs? 23 2.5 How Might PFASs Affect an Airport? 25 Chapter 3 Research Methodology 25 3.1 Overview 25 3.2 Literature Review 26 3.3 Airport Survey 27 3.4 Subject Matter and Industry Expert Outreach 28 Chapter 4 AFFF Management Within Airport Operations 28 4.1 Overview 29 4.2 Procurement 35 4.3 Storage 38 4.4 Application 41 4.5 Disposal 47 Chapter 5 Addressing Legacy Environmental Impacts 47 5.1 Overview 47 5.2 Sampling of PFASs 51 5.3 Analysis of PFASs 57 5.4 Risk Management 61 5.5 Remediation Options 68 Chapter 6 Screening Tool Guidance 68 6.1 Introduction to the MAPA Screening Tool 70 6.2 Module 1âAirport Scale Evaluation 80 6.3 Module 2âAPEC Scale Evaluation 85 6.4 Data Gaps 86 6.5 APEC Prioritization 86 6.6 Closing 88 Chapter 7 Recommendations for Future Research C O N T E N T S
91 References 96 Abbreviations, Acronyms, Initialisms, and Symbols 99 Glossary A-1 Appendix A Survey Methodology and Findings B-1 Appendix B AFFF Alternatives C-1 Appendix C Quick Guide to MAPA Screening Tool Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.