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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Use and Potential Impacts of AFFF Containing PFASs at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24800.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Use and Potential Impacts of AFFF Containing PFASs at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24800.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Use and Potential Impacts of AFFF Containing PFASs at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24800.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Use and Potential Impacts of AFFF Containing PFASs at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24800.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Use and Potential Impacts of AFFF Containing PFASs at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24800.
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91 1. Backe, W. J., Day, T. C., and Field, J. A. Zwitterionic, Cationic, and Anionic Fluorinated Chemicals in Aqueous Film Forming Foam Formulations and Groundwater from U.S. Military Bases by Nonaqueous Large-Volume Injection HPLC-MS/MS. Environ. Sci. Technol. 47, 5226–5234 (2013). 2. UNEP. Technical Paper on the Identification and Assessment of Alternatives to the Use of Perfluorooctane Sulfonic Acid in Open Applications (2012). 3. Poulson, P. B. et al. Substitution of PFOS for Use in Non-Decorative Hard Chrome Plating. (Danish Environ- mental Protection Agency, 2011). 4. U.S. EPA. PFOS Chromium Electroplater Study. (2009). 5. UNEP. Risk Profile on Perfluorooctane Sulfonate. (2006). 6. Siegemund, G. et al. in Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2000). 7. UNEP. Draft Guidance on Alternatives to Perfluorooctane Sulfonic Acid and Its Derivatives. (2011). 8. Organofluorine Chemistry. (Springer US, 1994). 9. U.S. EPA OPPT AR226-0060. 3M submission (not dated). Data Summaries Completed 1999. Transport Between Environmental Compartments (Fugacity): Perfluorooctanesulfonate (1999). 10. U.S. EPA OPPT AR226-0547. 3M submission dated 5/2/99. The Science of Organic Fluorochemistry. (1999). 11. Environment Canada. Ecological Screening Assessment Report on Perfluorooctane Sulfonate, Its Salts and Its Precursors that Contain the C8F17SO2 or C8F17SO3, or C8F17SO2N Moiety. Government of Canada. (2010). Available at: https://www.ec.gc.ca/lcpe-cepa/default.asp?lang=En&n=98B1954A-1&offset=10&toc=show. (Accessed: 3rd March 2015). 12. Houtz, E. F., Higgins, C. P., Field, J. A. & Sedlak, D. L. Persistence of Perfluoroalkyl Acid Precursors in AFFF-Impacted Groundwater and Soil. Environ. Sci. Technol. 47, 8187–8195 (2013). 13. Prevedouros, K., Cousins, I. T., Buck, R. C. & Korzeniowski, S. H. Sources, Fate and Transport of Perfluoro- carboxylates. Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 32–44 (2006). 14. Dauchy, X., Boiteux, V., Rosin, C. & Munoz, J.-F. Relationship Between Industrial Discharges and Con- tamination of Raw Water Resources by Perfluorinated Compounds. Part I: Case Study of a Fluoropolymer Manufacturing Plant. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 89, 525–530 (2012). 15. Dauchy, X., Boiteux, V., Rosin, C. & Munoz, J.-F. Relationship Between Industrial Discharges and Con- tamination of Raw Water Resources by Perfluorinated Compounds. Part II: Case Study of a Fluorotelomer Polymer Manufacturing Plant. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 89, 531–536 (2012). 16. Clara, M., Scharf, S., Weiss, S., Gans, O., and Scheffknecht, C. Emissions of Perfluorinated Alkylated Substances (PFAS) from Point Sources—Identification of Relevant Branches. Water Sci. Technol. 58, 59 (2008). 17. Shoeib, M., Harner, T., Wilford, B. H., Jones, K. C. & Zhu, J. Perfluorinated Sulfonamides in Indoor and Outdoor Air and Indoor Dust: Occurrence, Partitioning, and Human Exposure. Environ. Sci. Technol. 39, 6599–6606 (2005). 18. Shoeib, M., Harner, T., Webster, G. M. & Lee, S. C. Indoor Sources of Poly- and Perfluorinated Compounds (PFCS) in Vancouver, Canada: Implications for Human Exposure. Environ. Sci. Technol. 45, 7999–8005 (2011). 19. Wang, Z. et al. Atmospheric Fate of Poly- and Perfluorinated Alkyl Substances (PFASs): II. Emission Source Strength in Summer in Zurich, Switzerland. Environ. Pollut. 169, 204–209 (2012). 20. Müller, C. E. et al. Atmospheric Fate of Poly- and Perfluorinated Alkyl Substances (PFASs): I. Day–Night Patterns of Air Concentrations in Summer in Zurich, Switzerland. Environ. Pollut. 169, 196–203 (2012). 21. Weiß, O. et al. Perfluorinated Compounds in the Vicinity of a Fire Training Area – Human Biomonitoring Among 10 Persons Drinking Water from Contaminated Private Wells in Cologne, Germany. Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health 215, 212–215 (2012). References

92 Use and Potential Impacts of AFFF Containing PFASs at Airports 22. Awad, E. et al. Long-Term Environmental Fate of Perfluorinated Compounds after Accidental Release at Toronto Airport. Environ. Sci. Technol. 45, 8081–8089 (2011). 23. Moody, C. A. & Field, J. A. Perfluorinated Surfactants and the Environmental Implications of Their Use in Fire-Fighting Foams. Environ. Sci. Technol. 34, 3864–3870 (2000). 24. de Solla, S. R., De Silva, A. O. & Letcher, R. J. Highly Elevated Levels of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate and Other Perfluorinated Acids Found in Biota and Surface Water Downstream of an International Airport, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Environ. Int. 39, 19–26 (2012). 25. Wilhelm, M., Kraft, M., Rauchfuss, K. & Hölzer, J. Assessment and Management of the First German Case of a Contamination with Perfluorinated Compounds (PFC) in the Region Sauerland, North Rhine-Westphalia. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health A 71, 725–733 (2008). 26. Lindstrom, A. B. et al. Application of WWTP Biosolids and Resulting Perfluorinated Compound Contami- nation of Surface and Well Water in Decatur, Alabama, USA. Environ. Sci. Technol. 45, 8015–8021 (2011). 27. Murakami, M., Shinohara, H. & Takada, H. Evaluation of Wastewater and Street Runoff as Sources of Perfluorinated Surfactants (PFSs). Chemosphere 74, 487–493 (2009). 28. Guo, R., Sim, W.-J., Lee, E.-S., Lee, J.-H. & Oh, J.-E. Evaluation of the Fate of Perfluoroalkyl Compounds in Wastewater Treatment Plants. Water Res. 44, 3476–3486 (2010). 29. Ahrens, L. et al. Wastewater Treatment Plant and Landfills as Sources of Polyfluoroalkyl Compounds to the Atmosphere. Environ. Sci. Technol. 45, 8098–8105 (2011). 30. Busch, J., Ahrens, L., Sturm, R. & Ebinghaus, R. Polyfluoroalkyl Compounds in Landfill Leachates. Environ. Pollut. 158, 1467–1471 (2010). 31. Hydromantis Inc., University of Waterloo & Trent University. Emerging Substances of Concern in Biosolids: Concentrations and Effects of Treatment Processes. (2009). 32. Buck, R. C. et al. Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in the Environment: Terminology, Classification, and Origins. Integr. Environ. Assess. Manag. 7, 513–541 (2011). 33. Wang, Z., Cousins, I. T., Scheringer, M., Buck, R. C. & Hungerbühler, K. Global emission inventories for C4-C14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid (PFCA) homologues from 1951 to 2030, part II: the remaining pieces of the puzzle. Environ. Int. 69, 166–176 (2014). 34. Wang, Z., Cousins, I. T., Scheringer, M., Buck, R. C. & Hungerbühler, K. Global Emission Inventories for C4-C14 Perfluoroalkyl Carboxylic Acid (PFCA) Homologues from 1951 to 2030, Part I: Production and Emissions from Quantifiable Sources. Environ. Int. 70, 62–75 (2014). 35. Hekster, F. M., de Voogt, P., Pijinenberg, A. M. C. M. & Laane, R. W. P. M. Perfluoroalkylated Substances— Aquatic Environmental Assessment. (University of Amsterdam and RIKZ (The State Institute for Coast and Sea, 2002). 36. UNEP. Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. (2004). 37. Environment Canada. Perfluoroalkyl Substances Report of Section 71 (CEPA, 1999) Notice with Respect to Certain Substances on the Domestic Substances List (DSL). (2000). 38. Environment Canada & Health Canada. Screening Assessment Report Perfluorooctanoic Acid, its Salts, and its Precursors. (2012). 39. Davis, K. L., Aucoin, M. D., Larsen, B. S., Kaiser, M. A. & Hartten, A. S. Transport of Ammonium Per- fluorooctanoate in Environmental Media near a Fluoropolymer Manufacturing Facility. Chemosphere 67, 2011–2019 (2007). 40. Post, G. B., Cohn, P. D. & Cooper, K. R. Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA), an Emerging Drinking Water Contaminant: A Critical Review of Recent Literature. Environ. Res. 116, (2012). 41. Gellrich, V., Stahl, T. & Knepper, T. P. Behavior of Perfluorinated Compounds in Soils During Leaching Experiments. Chemosphere 87, 1052–1056 (2012). 42. Higgins, C. P. & Luthy, R. G. Sorption of Perfluorinated Surfactants on Sediments. Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 7251–7256 (2006). 43. Tang, C. Y., Shiang Fu, Q., Gao, D., Criddle, C. S. & Leckie, J. O. Effect of Solution Chemistry on the Adsorption of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate onto Mineral Surfaces. Water Res. 44, 2654–2662 (2010). 44. U.S. EPA. Drinking Water Health Advisories for PFOA and PFOS. (2016). Available at: https://www.epa. gov/ground-water-and-drinking-water/drinking-water-health-advisories-pfoa-and-pfos. (Accessed: 21st June 2016) 45. Michigan Department of Environmental Quality. DEQ - Rule 57 Water Quality Values. State-Wide Rule 57 Water Quality Values (2015). Available at: http://www.michigan.gov/deq/0,4561,7-135-3313_3681_3686_ 3728-11383--,00.html. (Accessed: 12th April 2016) 46. MDH (Minnesota Department of Health). Health Guidelines for PFCs in Drinking Water - EH: Minnesota Department of Health. (2014). Available at: http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/eh/hazardous/topics/pfcs/ drinkingwater.html. (Accessed: 6th March 2015) 47. State of New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) in Drinking Water. (2007). Available at: http://www.nj.gov/dep/watersupply/dwc_quality_pfoa.html. (Accessed: 6th March 2015)

References 93 48. Gleason, J. A., Cooper, K. R., Klotz, J. B., Post, G. B. & Van Orden, G. Health-based maximum contaminant level support document: perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA). (New Jersey Drinking Water Quality Institute, 2015). 49. State of New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Ground Water Quality Standards N.J.A.C. 7:9C: Interim Groundwater Quality Table (2015). Available at: http://www.nj.gov/dep/wms/bears/gwqs_interim_ criteria_table.htm. (Accessed: 12th April 2016) 50. North Carolina Department of Environmental and Natural Resources (NCDENR). Recommended Interim Maximum Allowable Concentration for Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) in Groundwater. (2006). 51. North Carolina Science Advisory Board on Toxic Air Pollutants (NCSAB). Recommendation to the Division of Water Quality for an Interim Maximum Allowable Concentration for Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) in Groundwater. (2010). 52. Sun, M. 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(Department of Environment Regulation, 2016). 59. Krafft, M. P. & Riess, J. G. Per- and polyfluorinated substances (PFASs): Environmental challenges. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 20, 192–212 (2015). 60. Jin, C., Sun, Y., Islam, A., Qian, Y. & Ducatman, A. Perfluoroalkyl acids including perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorohexane sulfonate in firefighters. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 53, 324–328 (2011). 61. State of New Hampshire Department of Health and Human Services (Division of Public Health Services). Pease PFC Blood Testing Program: April 2015–October 2015. (2016). 62. Lloyd-Smith, M. & Senjen, R. The Persistence and Toxicity of Perfluorinated Compounds in Australia. (National Toxics Network, 2016). 63. Guelfo, J. L. & Higgins, C. P. Subsurface Transport Potential of Perfluoroalkyl Acids at Aqueous Film-Forming Foam (AFFF)-Impacted Sites. Environ. Sci. Technol. 47, 4164–4171 (2013). 64. McGuire, M. E. et al. 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94 Use and Potential Impacts of AFFF Containing PFASs at Airports 72. Darwin, R. L. Estimated Inventory of PFOS-based Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF), 2011 update to the 2004 report entitled ‘Estimated Inventory of PFOS-based Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF) in the United States’. (Prepared for the Fire Fighting Foam Coalition, Inc., 2011). 73. Ansul Incorporated. Technical Bulletin Number 60. Foam: The Environment and Disposal Issues. (2007). 74. US EPA. Toxic Substances Control Act - Perfluoralkyl Sulfonates; Significant New Use Rule/Chemical Testing & Data Collection/USEPA. 40 CFR Part 721, 72854–72867 (2002). 75. Kaserzon, S. L. et al. Passive sampling of perfluorinated chemicals in water: In-situ calibration. Environ. Pollut. 186, 98–103 (2014). 76. Cerveny, D. et al. Perfluoroalkyl substances in aquatic environment-comparison of fish and passive sampling approaches. Environ. Res. 144, 92–98 (2016). 77. Chen, L. D. et al. 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S., Higgins, C. P., Wang, F. & Shih, K. Effect of temperature on oxidative transformation of per- fluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) by persulfate activation in water. Sep. Purif. Technol. 91, 46–51 (2012). 88. Hori, H. et al. Decomposition of Environmentally Persistent Perfluorooctanoic Acid in Water by Photo- chemical Approaches. Environ. Sci. Technol. 38, 6118–6124 (2004). 89. Zhang, Z., Chen, J.-J., Lyu, X.-J., Yin, H. & Sheng, G.-P. Complete mineralization of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) by g-irradiation in aqueous solution. Sci. Rep. 4, 7418 (2014). 90. Vecitis, C. D., Park, H., Cheng, J., Mader, B. T. & Hoffmann, M. R. Treatment technologies for aqueous perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). Front. Environ. Sci. Eng. China 3, 129–151 (2009). 91. Pancras, T. A. et al. A giant leap forward for in-situ chemical oxidation of perfluorinated compounds. (2013). 92. Bachman, G., Peschman, T. J., Kellogg, D. C. & Ogle, J. T. System and Method for Treating Groundwater. Pub. No.: US 2010/0145113 A1. (2010). 93. Du, Z. et al. Adsorption behavior and mechanism of perfluorinated compounds on various adsorbents— A review. J. Hazard. Mater. 274, 443–454 (2014). 94. Cheng, J., Vecitis, C. D., Park, H., Mader, B. T. & Hoffmann, M. R. Sonochemical Degradation of Perfluoro- octane Sulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in Landfill Groundwater: Environmental Matrix Effects. Environ. Sci. Technol. 42, 8057–8063 (2008). 95. Cheng, J., Vecitis, C. D., Park, H., Mader, B. T. & Hoffmann, M. R. Sonochemical Degradation of Perfluoro- octane Sulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in Groundwater: Kinetic Effects of Matrix Inorganics. Environ. Sci. Technol. 44, 445–450 (2010). 96. Oliaei, F., Kriens, D., Weber, R. & Watson, A. PFOS and PFC releases and associated pollution from a PFC production plant in Minnesota (USA). Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 20, 1977–1992 (2012). 97. Wilson, N. et al. 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TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Report 173: Use and Potential Impacts of AFFF Containing PFASs at Airports explores the potential environmental and health impacts of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) typically found in aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs). The report describes methods that can be used to identify areas of potential concern at an airport and ways to implement management and remediation practices.

To help airports identify areas of potential environmental concern, the research team developed the Managing AFFF and PFASs at Airports (MAPA) Screening Tool. The MAPA Screening Tool is available in two versions: one for running in Microsoft Excel 2010 and the other, a version called the compatibility version, that can be run in Microsoft Excel 97 to 2003, or 2007.

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