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C-1 The Managing AFFF and PFASs at Airports (MAPA) screening tool has been designed to assist airports with the identification of areas of potential environmental concern (APECs) on or near their airport. There are two versions of the screening tool, one entitled âMAPA Screening Toolâ and the other âMAPA Screening Tool Compatibility Version.â If you are utilizing Microsoft Excel 97 to 2003 or 2007, please use the file entitled âMAPA Screening Tool Compatibility Version.â If running a more recent version of Microsoft Excel, please use the file entitled âMAPA Screening Tool.â Please note that the screening tool works best when used in Microsoft Excel 2010. Macros Security The MAPA Screening Tool consists of multiple worksheets and embedded macros. Macros automate frequently used tasks; the ones used in the MAPA Screening Tool are created with Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) and have been written by Dillon Consulting. When you first open the MAPA Screening Tool, macros need to be enabled for the program to function and carry out its tasks. Some macros pose a potential security risk. A person with malicious intent can introduce a destructive macro, in a document or file, which can spread a virus on your computer. In Micro- soft Office Excelâ¢, you can change the macro security settings to control which macros run and under what circumstances when you open a workbook. The following steps discuss how to enable macros. When first opening the program, a pop-up window generally provides the user with an option to enable macros. If there is no pop-up window, or if the user has accidentally clicked âdo not enable macros,â the user should refer to the online instructions provided by Microsoft Office for their version of Excelâ¢: https://support.office.com/en-us/article/Enable-or-disable-macros-in- Office-files-12b036fd-d140-4e74-b45e-16fed1a7e5c6#__toc311698310 Typically, these instructions include the following steps (with variations on naming conventions, e.g., File Tab versus Microsoft Office Button). Microsoft Office provides a disclaimer on the risks associated with running unknown-source Macros. â¢ Click the Microsoft Office Button (or File Tab), and then click Excel Options. â¢ Click Trust Center, click Trust Center Settings, and then click Macro Settings. â¢ Click the options that you want: Enable all macros (not recommended, potentially dangerous code can run). Click this option to allow all macros to run. This setting makes your computer vulnerable to potentially malicious code and is not recommended. A p p e n d i x C Quick Guide to MAPA Screening Tool
C-2 Use and potential impacts of AFFF Containing pFASs at Airports Worksheet 1: Introductory Worksheet The first worksheet of MAPA collects basic information about the airport and the users involved in completing the screening tool, which will be incorporated into a cover page of the document produced as a result of completing MAPA. Users should complete the fields to the best of their knowledge; however, it is strongly recommended to include the input of various people in the completion of the MAPA Screening Tool as different departments will have differ- ent AFFF and PFAS knowledge. 1.Input basic information about the airport and use the drop-down lists to identify the size of the airport and the department of the person ï¬lling out the MAPA Screening Tool (user). 2. Use the drop-down lists to identify the other departments consulted in the completion of the screening tool and provide the personâs name and role. 3. Upon completion of this worksheet, click on the yellow cell at the bottom of the page to continue to the next page of the screening tool. Worksheet 2: Module 1 Overview Questions The purpose of worksheet #2 is to identify areas of potential environmental concern (APECs) and potential receptors through a series of overview questions. After the introductory worksheet (Worksheet 1), the second worksheet of the screening tool, titled âModule 1 Overview Ques- tions,â consists of two tables: APECs and potential sensitive receptors. On worksheet #2, users will identify APECs, both on-site (on airport property) and off-site (in the vicinity of the airport property), and sensitive receptors (e.g., potable water, nearby surface water bodies, wetlands). The following information categories are color coded: â¢ Information associated with on-site APECs will be entered in cells colored blue; â¢ Information associated with off-site APECs will be entered in cells colored green; and, â¢ Information associated with sensitive receptors will be entered in cells colored gray.
Quick Guide to MApA Screening Tool C-3 1. Use the drop-down list in the middle column to answer the questions on the left- hand side, directions on what to do next will appear once you have answered all the questions in the same color block in the Next Steps column. 2. Use the empty cells below âAirportâ to list all responsible parties/custodians associated with AFFF and other PFAS sources at the airport. This will become a drop- down list on another worksheet. 3. Answer all the questions in the same color block before following the directions in the Next Steps column. 4. If you are still on this page after completing both tables, click the yellow button to proceed to the next worksheet. Worksheet 3: APECs Worksheet 3, titled âAPECs,â seeks to gain a basic understanding of the life cycle of AFFF at your airport and specific locations of potential concern, if any exist. For the AFFF life cycle stages listed in the first column, provide the location, activity and responsible party associated with AFFF on the airport property. On the same page is an identical table for APECs that are off-site, which should be filled out in the same manner. The only difference is in the place of a âResponsible Party/Custodianâ column, there is a drop-down list to identify the land use type.
4. Only use these cells if AFFF or other sources of PFAS were used/stored in a diï¬erent location in the past then where they are currently. 3. This drop-down list is populated from the information provided in Worksheet 2. Users can go back to Worksheet 2 and add more responsible parties/custodians if needed. 2. Select the appropriate activity from the drop-down list. There is no drop-down list for the storage life cycle as storage is the only activity. 1.List the locations that correspond with the diï¬erent life cycle stages of AFFF at the airport. 5. Once you have completed the table, click the yellow button to proceed to the next page.
Quick Guide to MApA Screening Tool C-5 Worksheet 4: Sensitive Receptors Worksheet 4: Sensitive Receptors builds on the identified potential receptors from Worksheet 2 and assists with clarifying associated potential risk. Users should ensure that they are only complet- ing the tables that are applicable to their site, based on their entries on Worksheet 2, as the three types of sensitive receptors (potable water sources, surface water bodies, and wetlands) are included on Worksheet 4 in individual tables. The three sensitive receptor tables are to be completed in the same manner. Potable Water Sources: Potable water (i.e., drinking water) sources, if impacted with PFASs, may present an unacceptable risk to human health via ingestion. Use the drop-down list in the first column of the Potable Water Sources worksheet to describe the type of potable water source. Options include: â¢ Potable well: groundwater â¢ Municipal water well supply: groundwater â¢ Surface water body: A surface water body (e.g., lake or river) that is used as a source of drink- ing water Surface Water Bodies: In addition to being a potential potable water source, surface water bodies also represent a potential habitat for sensitive receptors. Identify the type of surface water body (e.g., lake, river, stream, pond, ocean, or ditch) using the drop-down menu, assign a location name, and indicate, if known, the proximate distance to the nearest APEC previously identified. Wetlands: Wetlands, like surface water bodies, represent a potential habitat for sensitive recep- tors. Types of wetlands vary; the user is encouraged to characterize the type of wetland using the basic descriptions provided in the screening tool using the drop-down menu. The user should identify each wetland by assigning a location name and indicating, if known, the proximate distance to the nearest APEC previously identified. 1. Use the drop-down list to identify the speciï¬c type of sensitive receptor. 2. Identify the location of the sensitive receptor. 3. The table will be populated with the units selected on worksheet 2. Use the blank cell to input the distance to the closest APEC.
C-6 Use and potential impacts of AFFF Containing pFASs at Airports Worksheet 5: Module 1 Summary Worksheet 5: Module 1 Summary summarizes the APECs and sensitive receptors identified at the airport, based on previous worksheets. Before entering any new information, click the âPress to Startâ button. If using the compatibility version of the tool, press Crtl, Shift and F to activate the macro that populates the table appropriately. Once completed, this worksheet can be used to create GIS maps, which can be useful when visualizing locations of potential concern and their interaction with potentially sensitive receptors. Press the yellow âClick here once table is completeâ button upon completion of the tables. 5. The only new information that needs to be input is the latitude and longitude of the sensitive receptor as well as a GIS location name, e.g. Lake_1. 6. After completing the entire table, press the yellow âClick here once table is completeâ button to proceed to the next worksheet. 2.Use the drop-down list to answer the question: âIs the APEC associated with past release into the environment?â This includes accidental releases like leaks and spills as well as purposeful ones like those associated with training. 3. Enter the latitude and longitude of the APEC location in decimal degrees. 4. Enter a location name to identify the APEC in GIS that does not include any spaces, e.g. Fire_Training1. 1.Click the âPress to Startâ button to populate the table with the APECs identiï¬ed previously.
Quick Guide to MApA Screening Tool C-7 Worksheet 6: MOD 2 OPS APECS Worksheet 6 is used to input further details on the operational life cycle of AFFF at an airport. Worksheet 6 will self-populate with the operational APECs identified in Worksheet 3. Click the âPress to Startâ button in the upper left hand corner to populate the table with APEC names. If using the compatibility version of the tool, press Crtl, Shift and A to activate the macro that populates the table appropriately. Answer questions applicable to the APECs identified at the top of each column. Each response corresponds to a numerical value that will be used to score the potential risk associated with each APEC. Once the table is complete, click the yellow âClick here once table is completeâ button at the bottom of the table. 2.Use the drop-down list to select the most appropriate answer for each APEC. 4. After answering all the questions for the speciï¬ed APEC, a total score will be provided at the bottom of the table. 3. A score will appear for each question based on the answer selected from the drop-down list. 1.Click the âPress to Startâ button to populate the table with the APECs identiï¬ed previously.
C-8 Use and potential impacts of AFFF Containing pFASs at Airports Worksheet 7: MOD 2 Legacy APECS The table will auto-populate with the locations identified on Worksheet 5 when the âPress to Startâ button is clicked. If using the compatibility version of the tool, press Crtl, Shift, and B to activate the macro that populates the table appropriately. Worksheet 7 is used to input further details associated with APECs associated with PFAS impacts in the environment. Questions are posed about the release characteristics, co-mingling of contaminants, surface covering, and exposure pathways of AFFF at each APEC. Each answer in the drop-down list is associated with a score. When all the questions for an APEC have been answered, a score for that APEC is provided at the bottom of the table. Press the yellow âClick here once table is completeâ button upon completion of the table. 1. Click âPress to Startâ button to populate the table with the APECs identiï¬ed previously. 2. Use the drop-down list to select the most appropriate answer for each APEC. 3. A score will appear for each question based on the answer selected from the drop-down list.
Quick Guide to MApA Screening Tool C-9 Worksheet 8: MOD 2 Ranking Summary Worksheet 8: Ranking Summary combines operational and legacy APECs for comparison and preliminary ranking in order of potential concern. This table will auto-populate with the information input previously and lists the life cycle stage, APEC, and score for comparison. If using the compatibility version of the tool, press Crtl, Shift, and C to activate the macro that populates the table appropriately, and then press Crtl, Shift and D to sort the APECs from high- est to lowest scores. 1.Click the âPress to Startâ button to populate the table. 2. Click the âPress to Sortâ button to organize the APECs from highest score to lowest score.
C-10 Use and potential impacts of AFFF Containing pFASs at Airports Worksheet 9: Data Gaps Worksheet 9: Data Gaps identifies additional information that is needed for a further analysis of potential impacts associated with AFFF. Click the âPress to Startâ button to populate the table with APECs previously identified. If using the compatibility version of the tool, press Crtl, Shift, and E to activate the macro that populates the table appropriately. Use the drop-down list to identify whether or not the specified information is available for the APEC. For the most part, this is not information expected to be readily on hand; instead it is, in many cases, related to intrusive environmental studies (e.g., groundwater chemistry, precipitation infiltration rate, and surface water and sediment chemistry). The identification of data gaps is important when creating a plan for locations that potentially have AFFF impacts and determining where to allo- cate resources. 2.Use the drop-down list to identify if user possesses the information for the APEC named at the top of the table â select âYesâ if the user has the information and select âNoâ if they do not. 1.Click the âPress to Startâ button to populate the table with the APECs identiï¬ed previously.
Quick Guide to MApA Screening Tool C-11 End Product of MAPA Screening Tool It is recommended that Worksheets 1, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 are printed at the completion of the screening tool as outputs for use in the management of AFFF at the airport. 1. Print the circled tabs as your output from the MAPA screening tool. Upon the completion of the nine worksheets of the screening tool, users have â¢ Identified APECs on and adjacent to airport property. â¢ Identified potential sensitive receptors on and adjacent to airport property. â¢ Collected the information needed to create GIS maps for visualization of APECs, sensitive receptors, and exposure pathways. â¢ Produced a preliminary ranking of potential concern for operational and legacy APECs. â¢ Identified gaps in data needed for more in-depth analysis of AFFF impacts for each APEC. The MAPA screening tool can be used â¢ As a summary of information that the airport has concerning the life cycle of AFFF. â¢ As a first step in the assessment and remediation of APECs for future development or changes to the airport property in consultation with an AFFF environmental specialist. â¢ To identify operational practices that would decrease the potential environmental impacts associated with AFFF use. A printout of Worksheet 5: Module 1 Summary should be shared with your GIS specialist for the creation of maps identifying APECs and sensitive receptors. Mapping the results of Module 1 can â¢ Make exposure pathways from APECs to sensitive receptors more easily identifiable. â¢ Allow for improved communication of MAPA screening tool results with other members of staff. â¢ Provide a visual representation when consulting with an AFFF environmental specialist. If the user requires further information to complete the screening tool or more background information about the rationale behind various aspects of the screening tool, please refer to Chapter 6 of the reference document.
A t t A C h m e n t A Module 2 Questions, Answer Choices, and Scores
C-14 Use and potential impacts of AFFF Containing pFASs at Airports Table 1. Operational storage. Question Answer Choices Associated Score Is the AFFF being stored in accordance with the MSDS and TDS? Yes No Donât Know 1 5 5 What is the covering of the storage location? Enclosed Covered Outside or exposed directly to the elements 1 3 5 Is the AFFF being stored in the original container? Yes No 1 5 What is the volume of AFFF solution that is being stored in this location? less than 95 L/ less than 25 gallons 95 to 285 L/ 25 to 75 gallons 285 to 945 L/ 75 to 250 gallons 945 to 2,840 L/ 250 to 750 gallons 2, 840 to 3,785 L/ 750 to 1,000 gallons More than 3,785 L/ more than 1,000 gallons 1 2 4 6 8 10 What is the containment of the storage vessel? Double Single 1 5 Describe the type and condition of the ï¬oor where AFFF is stored. Paved Slightly cracked pavement Moderately cracked pavement Heavily cracked/broken pavement Earthen 1 2 3 4 5 Does the storage location have a history of leaking? No, does not currently or have a history of leaking Yes, on a couple of occasions Yes, substantial leaking has occurred Yes, currently leaks 0 3 4 5 OPERATIONAL STORAGE = MSDS + Covering + Original Container + Volume of AFFF + Containment + Flooring + Leaking Maximum Score: 40
Table 2. Operational use. Question Answer Choices Associated Score How frequently is AFFF used at this location? Less than once per every 5 years Between 1 and 5 years Semi-annually Annually Monthly 1 2 3 4 5 How much AFFF is used per use? 0 to 5 gallons/ 0 to 20 L 5 to 20 gallons/ 20 to 75 L 20 to 50 gallons/ 75 to 190 L 50 to 100 gallons/ 190 to 375 L 100 to 500 gallons/ 375 to 1900 L 500 to 1000 gallons/ 1900 to 3800 L Greater than 1000 gallons/Greater than 3800 L 1 2 4 6 8 10 15 Are absorbents, a spill kit, and a spill management plan in place during AFFF use? Yes No 1 5 Donât Know 5 Where (ultimate receiver) does the used AFFF (or unused if returned to the manufacturer) go when used? Sent oï¬-site for disposal Down the drain Evaporated oï¬ of pavement Soaked into the ground Washed/runoï¬ into surface water body 1 5 5 8 10 How many of the following types of PPE are used during the handling and use of AFFF? (eye protection, work gloves, nitrile/single-use gloves, ï¬re-retardant/turnout gear, well-ventilated location) All Four Three Two One None 0 1 2 3 4 5 Under current operational conditions, is there exposure contact via direct contact to humans without any of the PPE listed above? Yes - workers during daily operations Yes - workers during weekly operations Yes - workers during monthly operations Yes - workers during emergency situations Yes â trespassers 240 48 12 5 3 No Donât know 0 240 OPERATIONAL USE = (Frequency of Use x Volume of AFFF x AFFF Ultimate Receiver) + Human Exposure + Spill Management + PPE Maximum Score: 1000
Table 3. Operational maintenance. Question Answer Choices Associated Score How frequently is the AFFF equipment checked for malfunctions/degradation (leaks, cracks, erosion, etc.)? Monthly or more frequently Quarterly Semi-annually Annually Never 1 2 4 8 10 What is used to clean equipment that had contained AFFF? Nothing Rinsed/ï¬ushed with water Cleaned with water and soap/detergent Rinsed/ï¬ushed with a solvent 5 3 2 0 How is AFFF removed from the distribution equipment (deluge systems or ï¬re trucks) during the maintenance activities? Mechanical pump Manual pump Gravity/drain valve AFFF not removed 1 3 5 10 When AFFF is removed from distribution equipment Discharged into temporary storage containers and 1 (deluge systems or ï¬re trucks), what is done with it? returned to the equipment Kept in storage containers Discharged onto ground Disposed of oï¬-site 2 10 1 What volume of AFFF is used during maintenance (lost in transportation)? None Less than 1 gallon 1 to 2 gallons 3 to 5 gallons More than 5 gallons 0 1 2 3 5 What is the typical volume of rinsate that results from cleaning equipment that had contained AFFF? Less than 200 gallons/ Less than 760 L More than 200 gallons/ More than 760 L None 4 5 0 Describe the type and condition of the ï¬oor where maintenance activities are conducted. Paved Slightly cracked pavement Moderately cracked pavement Heavily cracked/broken pavement 1 2 3 4 Earthen 5
Quick Guide to MApA Screening Tool C-17 Question Answer Choices Associated Score What is the ultimate receiver of the waste produced from AFFF equipment maintenance activities? Sent oï¬-site for disposal Down the drain Evaporated oï¬ of pavement Soaked into the ground Washed/runoï¬ into surface water body 1 5 5 8 10 Are absorbents, a spill kit, and a spill management plan in place during AFFF use? Yes No Donât Know 1 5 5 How many of the following procedures are required for the handling of AFFF? (Two or more people involved in the handling of AFFF (single person could do it if they had to), clear procedural standards, procedural training for those handling AFFF, ensuring ï¬ttings and connections are tight) All Three Two One None 0 2 3 4 5 OPERATIONAL MAINTENANCE = ((Volume of AFFF + Volume of Rinsate) x Ultimate Receiver) + Equipment Checks + AFFF Removal Method + AFFF Storage during Maintenance + Cleaning Method + Handling Procedures + Spill Management + Flooring Maximum Score: 145 Table 3. (Continued).
C-18 Use and potential impacts of AFFF Containing pFASs at Airports Question Answer Choices Associated Score What is the frequency of disposal of AFFF? 1 to 2 years 2 to 5 years More than 5 years 5 3 1 What volume of AFFF is disposed of at a time? 0 to 5 gallons/ 0 to 20 L 5 to 20 gallons/ 20 to 75 L 20 to 50 gallons/ 75 to 190 L 50 to 100 gallons/ 190 to 375 L 100 to 500 gallons/ 375 to 1900 L 500 to 1000 gallons/ 1900 to 3800 L Greater than 1000 gallons/Greater than 3800 L Unknown 1 2 3 6 8 10 15 15 What is the ultimate receiver of the disposed AFFF? Manufacturer Incinerator Down the drain/municipal sewer system 1 2 4 Evaporated oï¬ of pavement Soaked into the ground Washed/runoï¬ into surface water body Sent oï¬-site for disposal (waste management contractor or landï¬ll) Sent oï¬-site for treatment 6 8 10 3 3 OPERATIONAL DISPOSAL = Frequency of Disposal x Volume of AFFF x AFFF Ultimate Receiver Maximum Score: 500 Table 4. Operational disposal.
Question Answer Choices Associated Score Was AFFF foam or AFFF concentrate released? Foam Concentrate 3 5 What volume was released? 0 to 5 gallons/ 0 to 20 L 5 to 20 gallons/ 20 to 75 L 20 to 50 gallons/ 75 to 190 L 50 to 100 gallons/ 190 to 375 L 100 to 500 gallons/ 375 to 1900 L 500 to 1000 gallons/ 1900 to 3800 L Greater than 1000 gallons/Greater than 3800 L Unknown 1 2 4 6 8 10 15 15 When did the release occur? Before 2010 After 2010 Donât know 50 25 50 Have petroleum hydrocarbons been known to have been present in the sub-surface and/or released at the same Yes No 5 1 time as the AFFF? What type of surface covering is in the immediate vicinity of the release? Paved (concrete or asphalt) Unvegetated Soil/Gravel Vegetated -Treed/forested Vegetated- Meadow/grassland 1 5 3 3 Where does runoï¬ ï¬ow at this APEC? No runoï¬/inï¬ltration Overland ï¬ow via grassed ditches/swales to surface water body Overland ï¬ow via lined conveyance systems to surface water body Collected and treated on-site 10 10 10 1 What is the distance to the nearest potable water receptor identiï¬ed in Phase 1? 0 to 500 m/ 0 to 1640 ft 500 to 1 km/ 1640 to 0.6 miles 1 to 5 km/ 0.6 to 3 miles Greater than 5 km/ Greater than 3 miles 100 75 25 1 What is the distance to the nearest sensitive ecological 0 to 500 m/ 0 to 1640 ft 100 receptor (wetland or surface water body) identiï¬ed in Phase 1? 500 to 1 km/ 1640 to 0.6 miles 1 to 5 km/ 0.6 to 3 miles Greater than 5 km/ Greater than 3 miles 75 25 1 LEGACY APEC = ((Concentrate vs. Foam x AFFF Volume x Petroleum Hydrocarbons) + Release Timing + Surface Covering + Runoï¬ Flow + Distance to Potable Water + Distance to Sensitive Ecological Receptor) Maximum Score: 650 Table 5. Legacy APEC.
Abbreviations and acronyms used without definitions in TRB publications: A4A Airlines for America AAAE American Association of Airport Executives AASHO American Association of State Highway Officials AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials ACIâNA Airports Council InternationalâNorth America ACRP Airport Cooperative Research Program ADA Americans with Disabilities Act APTA American Public Transportation Association ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials ATA American Trucking Associations CTAA Community Transportation Association of America CTBSSP Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program DHS Department of Homeland Security DOE Department of Energy EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAA Federal Aviation Administration FAST Fixing Americaâs Surface Transportation Act (2015) FHWA Federal Highway Administration FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration FRA Federal Railroad Administration FTA Federal Transit Administration HMCRP Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ISTEA Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 ITE Institute of Transportation Engineers MAP-21 Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (2012) NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAO National Association of State Aviation Officials NCFRP National Cooperative Freight Research Program NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NTSB National Transportation Safety Board PHMSA Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration RITA Research and Innovative Technology Administration SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SAFETEA-LU Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (2005) TCRP Transit Cooperative Research Program TDC Transit Development Corporation TEA-21 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (1998) TRB Transportation Research Board TSA Transportation Security Administration U.S.DOT United States Department of Transportation
TRA N SPO RTATIO N RESEA RCH BO A RD 500 Fifth Street, N W W ashington, D C 20001 A D D RESS SERV ICE REQ U ESTED N O N -PR O FIT O R G . U .S. PO STA G E PA ID C O LU M B IA , M D PER M IT N O . 88 U se and Potential Im pacts of A FFF Containing PFA Ss at A irports A CRP Research Report 173 TRB ISBN 978-0-309-44638-9 9 7 8 0 3 0 9 4 4 6 3 8 9 9 0 0 0 0