Report Series - Committee on Solar and Space Physics
Committee on Solar and Space Physics
Space Studies Board
Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences
A Report of
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001
This study is based on work supported by the Contract No. NNH17CB02B/NNH17CB01T with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any agency or organization that provided support for the project.
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/24803
Copies of this report are available free of charge from:
Space Studies Board
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth Street, NW
Washington, DC 20001
Copyright 2017 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America
Suggested Citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Report Series: Committee on Solar and Space Physics: Heliophysics Science Centers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/24803.
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.
The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president.
The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president.
The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine.
Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org.
Reports document the evidence-based consensus of an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and committee deliberations. Reports are peer reviewed and are approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.
Proceedings chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other convening event. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and have not been endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.
For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit nationalacademies.org/whatwedo.
COMMITTEE ON SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS
SARAH GIBSON, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Co-Chair
MAURA E. HAGAN, Utah State University, Co-Chair
BRIAN J. ANDERSON, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory
STEVEN J. BATTEL, NAE,1 Battel Engineering, Inc.
YUE DENG, University, of Texas, Arlington
STEPHEN A. FUSELIER, Southwest Research Institute
J. TODD HOEKSEMA, Stanford University
MARY K. HUDSON, Dartmouth College
ROBYN MILLAN, Dartmouth College
TAI D. PHAN, University of California, Berkeley
JIONG QIU, Montana State University
JOSHUA SEMETER, Boston University
HOWARD J. SINGER, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
LEONARD STRACHAN, JR., Naval Research Laboratory
BARBARA J. THOMPSON, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
GARY P. ZANK, NAS,2 University of Alabama, Huntsville
Staff: ABIGAIL SHEFFER, Program Officer, Space Studies Board;
MARCHEL HOLLE, Research Associate, Space Studies Board;
ANESIA WILKS, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board;
MICHAEL H. MOLONEY, Director, Space Studies Board and Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board.
SPACE STUDIES BOARD
FIONA HARRISON, NAS, California Institute of Technology, Chair
ROBERT D. BRAUN, NAE, University of Colorado Boulder, Vice Chair
DAVID N. SPERGEL, NAS, Princeton University and Center for Computational Astrophysics at the Simons Foundation, Vice Chair
JAMES G. ANDERSON, NAS, Harvard University
JEFF M. BINGHAM, Consultant
JAY C. BUCKEY, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth
MARY LYNNE DITTMAR, Dittmar Associates
JOSEPH FULLER JR., Futron Corporation
THOMAS R. GAVIN, California Institute of Technology
SARAH GIBSON, National Center for Atmospheric Research
WESLEY T. HUNTRESS, Carnegie Institution of Washington
ANTHONY C. JANETOS, Boston University
CHRYSSA KOUVELIOTOU, NAS, The George Washington University
DENNIS P. LETTENMAIER, NAE, University of California, Los Angeles
ROSALY M. LOPES, Jet Propulsion Laboratory
DAVID J. MCCOMAS, Princeton University
LARRY PAXTON, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory
SAUL PERLMUTTER, NAS, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
ELIOT QUATAERT, University of California, Berkeley
BARBARA SHERWOOD LOLLAR, University of Toronto
HARLAN E. SPENCE, University of New Hampshire
MARK H. THIEMENS, NAS, University of California, San Diego
MEENAKSHI WADHWA, Arizona State University
1 National Academy of Engineering.
2 National Academy of Sciences.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF REVIEWERS
This report has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:
Daniel N. Baker, NAE, University of Colorado Boulder,
Stuart D. Bale, University of California, Berkeley,
Timothy M. Heckman, NAS, Johns Hopkins University,
Philip Kaaret, University of Iowa,
Louis J. Lanzerotti, NAE, New Jersey Institute of Technology,
Merav Opher, Boston University,
Raymond Orbach, University of Texas, Austin,
Larry Paxton, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, and
Michelle F. Thomsen, Planetary Science Institute.
Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of the report was overseen by Maxine L. Savitz, Honeywell, Inc. (retired), who was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of the report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.