Ad Council. (2012). Gay and Lesbian Bullying Prevention. Available: https://www.adcouncil.org/Impact/Case-Studies/Gay-and-Lesbian-Bullying-Prevention-2012 [June 21, 2017].
Almond, A., Han, J., Jeon, Y., Liu, J., Kamhawi, R., and Lang, A. (2014). Encoding Systems, Biological Imperatives, and Persuasion: Symbols Change Explicit and Representations Change Implicit Attitudes. Paper presented to the ICA Preconference on Communication Science—Evolution, Biology, and Brains 2.0: Innovation in Theory and Methods, May, Seattle, WA.
Anthony, W.A. (1993). Recovery from mental illness: The guiding vision of the mental health service system in the 1990’s. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal, 16(4), 11-23.
Ariely, D. (2008). Predictably Irrational. New York: Harper Collins.
Austin, J.K., Shafer, P.O., and Deering, J.B. (2002). Epilepsy familiarity, knowledge, and perceptions of stigma: Report from a survey of adolescents in the general population. Epilepsy & Behavior, 3(4), 368-375.
Barry, C.L., McGinty, E.E., Vernick, J.S., and Webster, D.W. (2013). After Newtown—Public opinion on gun policy and mental illness. New England Journal of Medicine, 368(12), 1077-1081.
Batey, D.S., Whitfield, S., Mulla, M., Stringer, K.L., Durojaiye, M., McCormick, L., Turan, B., Nyblade, L., Kempf, M.C., and Turan, J.M. (2016). Adaptation and implementation of an intervention to reduce HIV-related stigma among healthcare workers in the United States: Piloting of the FRESH Workshop. AIDS Patient Care STDS, 30(11), 519-527.
Bolls, P., Lang, A., and Potter, R. (2001). The use of facial EMG to measure emotional responses to radio. Communication Research, 28(5), 627-651.
Carpenter, C.J. (2010). A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of health belief model variables in predicting behavior. Health Communications, 25(8), 661-669.
Carpenter, C.J. (2014). A meta-analysis of the ELM’s argument quality × processing type predictions. Human Communication Research, 41(4), 501-524.
The Carter Center. (2015). The Carter Center Journalism Resource Guide on Behavioral Health. Available: http://www.cartercenter.org/resources/pdfs/health/mental_health/2015-journalism-resource-guide-on-behavioral-health.pdf [May 28, 2017].
Caveness, W.F., and Gallup, G.H., Jr. (1980). A survey of public attitudes toward epilepsy in 1979 with an indication of trends over the past thirty years. Epilepsia, 21(5), 509-518.
Collins, T.B.K., Camfield, P.R., Camfield, C.S., and Lee, K. (2007). People with epilepsy are often perceived as violent. Epilepsy & Behavior, 10(1), 69-76.
Corker, E., Hamilton, S., Henderson, C., Weeks, C., Pinfold, V., Rose, D., Williams, P., Flach, C., Gill, V., Lewis-Holmes, E., and Thornicroft, G. (2013). Experiences of discrimination among people using mental health services in England 2008–2011. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 202(S55), S58-S63.
Corrigan, P.W., Morris, S.B., Michaels, P.J., Rafacz, J.D., and Rüsch, N. (2012). Challenging the public stigma of mental illness: A meta-analysis of outcome studies. Psychiatric Services, 63(10), 963-973.
Diiorio, C.A., Kobau, R., Holden, E.W., Berkowitz, J.M., Kamin, S.L., Antonak, R.F., Austin, J.K., Baker, G.A., Bauman, L.J., Gilliam, F., Thurman, D.J., and Price, P.H. (2004). Developing a measure to assess attitudes toward epilepsy in the U.S. population. Epilepsy & Behavior, 5(6), 965-975.
Durkin, S.J., Biener, L., and Wakefield, M.A. (2009). Effects of different types of antismoking ads on reducing disparities in smoking cessation among socioeconomic subgroups. American Journal of Public Health, 99(12), 2217-2223.
Emery, S., Kim, Y., Choi, Y.K., Szczypka, G., Wakefield, M., and Chaloupka, F.J. (2012). The effects of smoking-related television advertising on smoking and intentions to quit among adults in the United States: 1999–2007. American Journal of Public Health, 102(4), 751-757.
Evans-Lacko, S. (2015). Evaluation of England’s National Time to Change Anti-Stigma Campaign: Results from Phase One. Presentation at the Workshop on Opportunities and Strategies to Promote Behavior Change in Behavioral Health, April 15, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Washington, DC.
Evans-Lacko, S., London, J., Japhet, S., Rüsch, N., Flach, C., Corker, E., Henderson, C., and Thornicroft, G. (2012). Mass social contact interventions and their effect on mental health related stigma and intended discrimination. BMC Public Health, 12, 489.
Evans-Lacko, S., Henderson, C., and Thornicroft, B. (2013a). Public attitudes and behavior regarding people with mental illness in England 2009-2012. British Journal of Psychiatry, 202(S55), S51-S57.
Evans-Lacko, S., Henderson, C., Thornicroft, G., and McCrone, P. (2013b). Economic evaluation of the anti-stigma social marketing campaign in England 2009-2011. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 202(S55), S95-S101.
Evans-Lacko, S., Malcolm, E., West, K., Rose, D., London, J., Rüsch, N., Little, K., Henderson C., and Thornicroft, G. (2013c). Influence of Time to Change’s social marketing interventions on stigma in England 2009-2011. British Journal of Psychiatry, 202(S55), S77-S88.
Evans-Lacko, S., Corker, E., Williams, P., Henderson, C., and Thornicroft, G. (2014). Trends in mental illness related public stigma among the English population in 2003-2013: Influence of the Time to Change anti-stigma campaign. Lancet Psychiatry, 1(2), 121-128.
Falcone, M., Lerman, C., Cappella, J.N., Sanborn, P., Jepson, C., and Strasser, A.A. (2013). No untoward effects of smoking cues in anti-smoking public service announcements. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 133(1), 279-282.
Farrelly, M.C., Healton, C.G., Davis, K.C., Messeri, P., Hersey, J.C., and Lyndon Haviland, M. (2002). Getting to the truth: Evaluating national tobacco countermarketing campaigns. American Journal of Public Health, 92(6), 901-907.
Farrelly, M.C., Davis, K.C., Haviland, M.L., Messeri, P., and Healton, C.G. (2005). Evidence of a dose—Response relationship between “Truth” antismoking ads and youth smoking prevalence. American Journal of Public Health, 95(3), 425-431.
Farrelly, M.C., Nonnemaker, J., Davis, K.C., and Hussin, A. (2009). The influence of the national Truth campaign on smoking initiation. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 36(5), 379-384.
Fisher, R.J. (1993). Social desirability bias and the validity of indirect questioning. Journal of Consumer Research, 20(2), 303-315.
Grabe, M.E., Zhou, S., Lang, A., and Bolls, P.D. (2000). Packaging television news: The effects of tabloid and standard television news on viewer evaluations, memory, and arousal. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 44(4), 581-598.
Harris Interactive. (2007). From Teasing to Torment: School Climate in America. New York: Harris Interactive.
Hatzenbuehler, M.L., McLaughlin, K.A., Keyes, K.M., and Hasin, D.S. (2010). The impact of institutional discrimination on psychiatric disorders in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: A prospective study. American Journal of Public Health, 100(3), 452-459.
Hatzenbuehler, M.L., Bellatorre, A., Lee, Y., Finch, B., Muennig, P., and Fiscella, K. (2014). Structural stigma and all-cause mortality in sexual minority populations. Social Science & Medicine, 103, 33-41.
Henderson, C., and Thornicroft, G. (2013). Evaluation of the Time to Change programme in England 2008–2011. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 202(S55), S45-S48.
Henson, C., Chapman, S., McLeod, L., Johnson, N., and Hickie, I. (2010). Room for improvement: Mixed portrayal of young people with mental illness on Australian television news. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 44(3), 267-272.
Holtgrave, D.R., Wunderink, K.A., Vallone, D.M., and Healton, C.G. (2009). Cost–utility analysis of the national truth® campaign to prevent youth smoking. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 36(5), 385-388.
Institute of Medicine. (2012). Epilepsy Across the Spectrum: Promoting Health and Understanding. M.J. England, C.T. Liverman, A.M. Schultz, and L.M. Strawbridge (Eds.). Board on Health Sciences Policy, Committee on the Public Health Dimensions of the Epilepsies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
Johnson, B.T., Smith-McLallen, A., Killeya, L.A., and Levin, K.D. (2004). Truth or consequences: Overcoming resistance to persuasion with positive thinking. In E.S. Knowles and J. Linn (Eds.), Resistance and Persuasion (pp. 215-233). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking Fast and Slow. New York: Macmillan.
Kaiser Family Foundation. (2008). Television as a Health Educator: A Case Study of Grey’s Anatomy. Available: https://kaiserfamilyfoundation.files.wordpress.com/2013/01/7803.pdf [February 7, 2017].
Keene, J., Loof, T., and Lang, A. (2014). Text on screen: Can incongruent combinations of media frames and emotional trajectories elicit coactivation in the motivational systems. Paper submitted to Human Communication Research.
Kim, H.S., Bigman, C.A., Leader, A.E., Lerman, C., and Cappella, J.N. (2012). Narrative health communication and behavior change: The influence of exemplars in the news on intention to quit smoking. Journal of Communication, 62(3), 473-492.
Kim, M., Shi, R., and Cappella, J.N. (2016). Effect of character-audience similarity on the perceived effectiveness of antismoking PSAs via engagement. Health Communication, 31(10), 1193-1204.
LaMartina, J.M. (1989). Uncovering public misconceptions about epilepsy. Journal of Epilepsy, 2(1), 45-48.
Lang, A. (1989). The effects of chronological presentation of information on processing and memory for broadcast news. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 33(4), 441-452.
Lang, A. (1990). Involuntary attention and physiological arousal evoked by structural features and motion in TV commercials. Communication Research, 17(3), 275-299.
Lang, A. (1995). Defining audio/video redundancy from a limited capacity information processing perspective. Communication Research, 22(1), 86-115.
Lang, A. (2006). Using the limited capacity model of motivated mediated message processing (LC4MP) to design effective cancer communication messages. Journal of Communication, 56(Suppl. 1), S57-S80.
Lang, A., and Bailey, R.L. (2015). Encoding systems and evolved message processing: Pictures enable action, words enable thinking. Media and Communication, 30(1), 34-43.
Lang, A., and Yegiyan, N. (2008). Understanding the interactive effects of emotional appeal and claim effectiveness in health messages. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 52(3), 432-447.
Lang, A., Geiger, S., Strickwerda, M., and Sumner, J., (1993). The effects of related and unrelated cuts on viewers’ memory for television: A limited capacity theory of television viewing. Communication Research, 20(1), 4-29.
Lang, A., Newhagen, J., and Reeves, B. (1996). Negative video as structure: Emotion, attention, capacity, and memory. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 40(4), 460-477.
Lang, A., Bolls, P., Potter, R., and Kawahara, K. (1999). The effects of production pacing and arousing content on the information processing of television messages. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 43(4), 451-476.
Lang, A., Zhou, S., Schwartz, N., Bolls, P.D., and Potter, R.F. (2000). The effects of edits on arousal, attention, and memory for television messages: When an edit is an edit can an edit be too much? Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 44(1), 94-109.
Lang, A., Borse, J., Wise, K., and David, P. (2002). Captured by the World Wide Web: Orienting to structural and content features of computer presented information. Communication Research, 29(3), 215-245.
Lang, A., Park, B., Sanders-Jackson, A., and Wilson, B.D. (2007). Separating emotional and cognitive load: How valence, arousing content, structural complexity and information density affect the availability of cognitive resources. Media Psychology, 10, 317-338.
Lang, A., Kurita, S., Gao, Y., and Rubenking, B.R. (2013a). Measuring television message complexity as available processing resources: Dimensions of information and cognitive load. Media Psychology, 16(2), 129-153.
Lang, A., Sanders-Jackson, A., Wang, Z., and Rubenking, B. (2013b). Motivated message processing: How motivational activation influences resource allocation, encoding, and storage of TV messages. Motivation and Emotion, 37(3), 508-517.
Lang, A., Wu, Y., and Almond, A. (2014). Conceptualizing Combined Motivational Activation as the Mechanism Underlying Implicit Attitudes. Paper presented to the ICA Preconference on Communication Science—Evolution, Biology, and Brains 2.0: Innovation in Theory and Methods, Seattle, WA, May.
Lang, A., Schwartz, N., and Mayell, S. (2015). Slow down you’re moving too fast: Age, production pacing, arousing content, and memory for television messages. Journal of Media Psychology, 27(2), 53-63.
Link, B. (2015). Results from a School-Based Intervention to Change Norms about Mental Illnesses. Presentation at the Workshop on Opportunities and Strategies to Promote Behavior Change in Behavioral Health, April 15, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Washington, DC.
Machlin, A., Skehan, J., Sweet, M., Wake, A., Fletcher, J., Spittal, M., and Pirkis, J. (2012). Reporting suicide: Interpreting media guidelines. Australian Journalism Review, 34(2), 45.
McGinty, E.E., Webster, D.W., and Barry, C.L. (2013). Effects of news media messages about mass shootings on attitudes toward persons with serious mental illness and public support for gun control policies. American Journal of Psychiatry, 170(5), 494-501.
McGinty, E.E., Webster, D.W., Jarlenski, M., and Barry, C.L. (2014). News media framing of serious mental illness and gun violence in the United States, 1997-2012. American Journal of Public Health, 104(3), 406-413.
Messer, K., Pierce, J.P., Zhu, S.H., Hartman, A.M., Al-Delaimy, W.K., and Trinidad D.R. (2007). The California Tobacco Control Program’s effect on adult smokers: (1) Smoking cessation. Tobacco Control, 16(2), 85-90.
Miller, C.L., Wakefield, M., and Roberts, L. (2003). Uptake and effectiveness of the Australian telephone Quitline service in the context of a mass media campaign. Tobacco Control, 12(Suppl. 2), ii53-ii58.
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2016). Ending Discrimination Against People with Mental and Substance Use Disorders. Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education; Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences; Committee on the Science of Changing Behavioral Health Social Norms. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
O’Keefe, D.J. (2012). From psychological theory to message design: Lessons from the story of gain-framed and loss-framed persuasive appeals. In H. Cho (Ed.), Health Communication Message Design: Theory, Research, and Practice (pp. 3-20). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Parvanta, S., Gibson, L., Forquer, H., Shapiro-Luft, D., Dean, L., Freres, D., Lerman, C., Mallya, G., Moldovan-Johnson, M., Tan, A., Cappella, J., and Hornik, R. (2013). Applying quantitative approaches to the formative evaluation of antismoking campaign messages. Social Marketing Quarterly, 19(4), 242-264.
Pescosolido, B.A. (2013). The public stigma of mental illness: What do we think; What do we know; What can we prove?. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 54(1), 1-21.
Pescosolido, B.A., Martin, J.K., Long, J.S., Medina, T.R., Phelan, J., and Link, B.G. (2010). “A disease like any other?” A decade of change in public reactions to schizophrenia, depression and alcohol dependence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 167(11), 1321-1330.
Pew Research Center. (2016). Changing Attitudes on Gay Marriage: Public Opinion on Same-Sex Marriage. Available: http://www.pewforum.org/2016/05/12/changing-attitudes-on-gay-marriage [May 5, 2017].
Pirkis, J., Dare, A., Warwick, R., Rankin, B., Williamson, M., Burgess, P., and Jolley, D. (2009). Changes in media reporting of suicide in Australia between 2000/01 and 2006/07. Crisis: The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention, 30(1), 25-33.
Potter, R.F., Lang, A., and Bolls, P.D. (2008). Identifying structural features of audio: Orienting responses during radio messages and their impact on recognition. Journal of Media Psychology, 20(4), 168-177.
Price, P., Kobau, R., Buelow, J., and Lowenberg, K. (2015). Improving understanding, promoting social inclusion and fostering empowerment related to epilepsy: Epilepsy Foundation public awareness campaigns—2001 through 2013. Epilepsy & Behavior, 44, 239-244.
Prochaska, J.O., DiClemente, C.C., and Norcross, J.C. (1992). In search of how people change: Applications to the addictive behaviors. American Psychologist, 47(9), 1102-1114.
Reeves, B., and Nass, C. (1996). The Media Equation: How People Treat Computers, Television, and New Media Like Real People and Places. Stanford, CA: CSLI.
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (2011). Health Care’s Blind Side: The Overlooked Connection between Social Needs and Good Health. Available: http://www.rwjf.org/en/library/research/2011/12/health-care-s-blind-side.html [February 21, 2017].
Rogers, S. (2015). Implementing Change in the U.S. Context: Strategies for Reaching Audiences. Presentation at the Workshop on Opportunities and Strategies to Promote Behavior Change in Behavioral Health, April 15, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Washington, DC.
Rüsch, N., Abbruzzese, E., Hagedorn, E., Hartenhauer, D., Kaufmann, I., Curschellas, J., Ventling, S., Zuaboni, G., Bridler, R., Olschewski, M., Kawohl, W., Rössler, W., Kleim, B., and Corrigan, P.W. (2014). Efficacy of Coming Out Proud to reduce stigma’s impact among people with mental illness: Pilot randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry, 204, 391-397.
Schneider, E.F., Lang, A., Shin, M., and Bradley, S.D. (2004). Death with a story: How story impacts emotional, motivational, and physiological responses to first person shooter video games. Human Communication Research, 30(3), 361-375.
Schomerus, G., Schwahn, C., Holzinger, A., Corrigan, P.W., Grabe, H.J., Carta, M.G., and Angermeyer, M.C. (2012). Evolution of public attitudes about mental illness: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 125(6), 440-452.
Seitz, H.H., Gibson, L., Skubisz, C., Forquer, H., Mello, S., Schapira, M.M., Armstrong, K., and Cappella, J.N. (2016). Effects of a risk-based online mammography intervention on accuracy of perceived risk and mammography intentions. Patient Education and Counseling, 99(10), 1647-1656.
Sparks, J.V., and Lang, A. (2015). Mechanisms underlying the influence of sexy and humorous content in advertisements. Communication Monographs, 82(1), 134-162.
Star, S. (1955). The Public’s Ideas about Mental Illness? Chicago, IL: National Opinion Research Center.
Strasser, A.A., Cappella, J.N., Jepson, C., Fishbein, M., Tang, K.Z., Han, E., and Lerman, L. (2009). Experimental evaluation of antitobacco PSAs: Effects of message content and format on physiological and behavioral outcomes. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 11(3), 293-302.
Stuart, H., Chen, S.-P., Christie, R., Dobson, K., Kirsh, B., Knaak, S., Koller, M., Krupa, T., Lauria-Horner, B., Luong, D., Modgill, G., Patten, S.B., Pietrus, M., Szeto, A., and Whitley, R. (2014). Opening minds in Canada: Targeting change. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 59(10, Suppl. 1), S13-S18.
Swarbrick, M., Schmidt, L., and Gill, K. (2010). People in Recovery as Providers of Psychiatric Rehabilitation Services: Building on the Wisdom of Experience. McLean, VA: U.S. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Association.
Tatum, P.T., Canetto, S.S., and Slater, M.D. (2010). Suicide coverage in U.S. newspapers following the publication of the media guidelines. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 40(5), 524-534.
Thaler, R.H., and Sunstein, C. (2009). Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness. London, UK: Penguin.
Thornicroft, A., Goulden, R., Shefer, G., Rhydderch, D., Rose, D., Williams, P., Thornicroft, G., and Henderson, C. (2013). Newspaper coverage of mental illness in England 2008–2011. The British Journal of Psychology, 55(Suppl.), S64-S69.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1999). Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Available: https://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/ps/access/NNBBHS.pdf [April 24, 2017].
Uys, L.R., Holzemer, W.L., Chirwa, M.L., Dlamini, P.S., Greeff, M., Kohi, T.W., Makoae, L.N., Stewart, A.L., Mullan, J., Phetlhu, R.D., Wantland, D.J., Durrheim, K.L., Cuca, Y.P., and Naidoo, J.R. (2009). The development and validation of the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument-Nurse (HASI-N). AIDS Care, 21(2), 150-159.
Vallone, D.M., Duke, J.C., Cullen, J., McCausland, K.L., and Allen, J.A. (2011). Evaluation of EX: A national mass media smoking cessation campaign. American Journal of Public Health, 101(2), 302-309.
Wang, A., Ruparel, K., Loughead, J.W., Strasser, A.A., Blady, S.J., Lynch, K.G., Romer, D., Cappella, J.N., Lerman, C., and Langlebena, D.D. (2013). Content matters: Neuroimaging investigation of brain and behavioral impact of televised anti-tobacco public service announcements. Journal of Neuroscience, 33(17), 7420-7427.
Whitley, R., and Berry, S. (2013). Trends in newspaper coverage of mental illness in Canada: 2005–2010. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie, 58(2), 107-112.
Whitley, R., and Wang, J.W. (2016). Good news? A longitudinal analysis of newspaper portrayals of mental illness in Canada 2005 to 2015. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 62(4), 278-285.
Whitley, R., Adeponle, A., and Miller, A.R. (2015). Comparing gendered and generic representations of mental illness in Canadian newspapers: An exploration of the chivalry hypothesis. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 50(2), 325-333.
Yang, L.H., Kleinman, A., Link, B.G., Phelan, J.C., Lee, S., and Good, B. (2007). Culture and stigma: Adding moral experience to stigma theory. Social Science & Medicine, 64(7), 1524-1535.
Yegiyan, N.S., and Yonelinas, A.P. (2011). Encoding details: Positive emotion leads to memory broadening. Cognition & Emotion, 25(7), 1255-1262.
This page intentionally left blank.