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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of the Academic Biomedical Research Community: Protecting the Nation's Investment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24827.
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Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of the
Academic Biomedical Research Community

Protecting the Nation’s Investment

Committee on Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of
Academic Research Communities

Georges C. Benjamin, Lisa Brown, and Ellen Carlin, Editors

Board on Health Sciences Policy

Board on Earth Sciences and Resources

Institute for Laboratory Animal Research

Health and Medicine Division

Division on Earth and Life Studies

A Consensus Study Report of

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of the Academic Biomedical Research Community: Protecting the Nation's Investment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24827.
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This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation (G2014-14537), the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation (#2014168; #2016055), the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and the National Institutes of Health (#HHSN26300083). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-46249-5
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-46249-5
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Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Strengthening the disaster resilience of the academic biomedical research community: Protecting the nation’s investment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/24827.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of the Academic Biomedical Research Community: Protecting the Nation's Investment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24827.
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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

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Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of the Academic Biomedical Research Community: Protecting the Nation's Investment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24827.
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Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.

For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of the Academic Biomedical Research Community: Protecting the Nation's Investment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24827.
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COMMITTEE ON STRENGTHENING THE DISASTER RESILIENCE OF ACADEMIC RESEARCH COMMUNITIES

GEORGES C. BENJAMIN (Chair), Executive Director, American Public Health Association

JOHN G. BENITEZ, Medical Director, Emergency Preparedness, Tennessee Department of Health

ANDREW C. CANNONS, Laboratory Director, Bureau of Public Health Laboratories–Tampa, Division of Disease Control and Health Protection, Florida Department of Health

PRESCOTT DEININGER, Director, Tulane Cancer Center, Tulane University

BRADFORD S. GOODWIN, JR., Former Director (retired), Animal Research Facilities, University of Texas Health Science Center

ALEXANDER ISAKOV, Executive Director, Office of Critical Event Preparedness and Response, Emory University

LISA GRANT LUDWIG, Professor of Public Health, Program in Public Health, University of California, Irvine

KIRK PAWLOWSKI, Architect

CHRIS D. POLAND, Consulting Engineer, National Institute of Standards and Technology Disaster Resilience Fellow

NEIL RAMBO, Director, New York University Health Science Library and Knowledge Informatics, Ehrman Medical Library, New York University School of Medicine Langone Medical Center

JOHN A. ROCK, Founding Dean and Senior Vice President for Health Affairs, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University

LEONARD TAYLOR, JR., Senior Vice President, Operations and Support Services, University of Maryland Medical Center

CATHERINE VOGELWEID, Clinical Professor, Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri

Study Staff

LISA BROWN, Study Director

CLAIRE GIAMMARIA, Associate Program Officer (from September 2016)

MARIA BABIRYE, Senior Program Assistant (from August 2016)

ASHLEY OTTEWELL, Research Associate (until September 2016)

KATYE MAGEE, Senior Program Assistant (until August 2016)

JOHN (JACK) HERRMANN, Senior Program Officer (until August 2016)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of the Academic Biomedical Research Community: Protecting the Nation's Investment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24827.
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Board on Health Sciences Policy Staff

HILARY BRAGG, Program Coordinator

ANDREW M. POPE, Board Director

Board on Earth Sciences and Resources Staff

SAMMANTHA MAGSINO, Senior Program Officer

Institute for Laboratory Animal Research Staff

LIDA ANESTIDOU, Senior Program Officer

Consultant

ELLEN CARLIN, Science Writer

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of the Academic Biomedical Research Community: Protecting the Nation's Investment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24827.
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Reviewers

This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Mary Comerio, University of California, Berkeley

Paul Gaffney, Monmouth University

Naim Kapucu, School of Public Administration, University of Central Florida

Gabor D. Kelen, Johns Hopkins University

Andre Le Duc, University of Oregon

Garry MacPherson, University of California, San Diego

Anneliese M. McCann, U.S. Department of Agriculture

Josh Meyer, Jacobs Consultancy

Peter Palese, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

William Stead, Vanderbilt University Medical Center

James R. Swearengen, AAALAC International

Phyllis M. Wise, Colorado Longitudinal Study

Laurel Wood, University of Kentucky Police Department

Stephen M. Woods, Yale University

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of the Academic Biomedical Research Community: Protecting the Nation's Investment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24827.
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Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Lewis R. Goldfrank, New York University School of Medicine and Bellevue Hospital Center, and Bobbie Berkowitz, Columbia University School of Nursing. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of the Academic Biomedical Research Community: Protecting the Nation's Investment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24827.
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Preface

Our academic biomedical research community is a major economic and intellectual driver for innovation not only in the United States, but worldwide. As a nation, our public and private investment in medical and health research was over $158 billion in calendar year 2015. More than $35 billion of that was from the federal government, with the bulk of it from the National Institutes of Health. This significant investment of both money and time must be properly protected to minimize the loss of important scientific discoveries.

Disasters can be costly to academic biomedical research not only because of the potential loss of facilities and equipment, which can be replaced, but also because of the potential loss of the irreplaceable, such as the lives of humans and research animals, research specimens, data, and critical components of current experiments. In some cases, the loss of even a few months of work can be catastrophic for a researcher. A disaster affects not only the people involved in the research endeavor but also can influence an institution’s funding streams and reputation, and therefore its ability to recruit researchers, with researchers choosing to go to other institutions where they might feel their futures are more secure.

Resilience is the ability to prepare for, absorb, recover from, and more successfully adapt to adverse events such as disasters. These adverse events can be as small as a single laboratory fire or as large as the total destruction that could occur with an earthquake or hurricane. Our task as a committee was to define the academic biomedical research community, to better understand its state of preparedness, and to propose measures that would strengthen the resilience of the research enterprise should disaster strike.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of the Academic Biomedical Research Community: Protecting the Nation's Investment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24827.
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The committee conducted its work by reviewing the scope of the academic biomedical research community. It then explored the experiences of biomedical research institutions that had been affected by disasters in order to understand the impact on their facilities, research funding, and research materials, the disruptions in the conduct of their research, and even the potential impact to their researchers’ careers. This was done through a review of the published literature, news stories, and presentations by individuals from these facilities and other experts in the field. We also conducted a site visit to New York University—a 2012 victim of Hurricane Sandy—and to the emergency response center of New York City. We looked at policies, procedures, planning processes including design and construction standards, training, financial and enterprise risk assessments, and recovery planning. We reviewed previous disasters from a facilities planning perspective with a particular focus on vivaria—because of the unique nature of animal research and the fact that the animals are unable to help themselves during a catastrophic event—as well as on what their loss means to the research enterprise. We took a systems approach, recognizing that any response by the research enterprise is one component of a broader institutional and community response plan.

What we discovered was of great concern because historically there has been a general lack of preparedness as an organized effort by those facilities that could be affected by such disasters. While there have been some efforts in this area, the committee believes we have a long way to go to optimize the resilience of the academic biomedical research community. Despite the academic biomedical research community already having experienced several significant disasters, there is a large gap today between the community’s existing level of preparedness and what the community will require to optimally recover from disasters. This report provides recommendations to significantly close this gap.

I want to first thank the staff of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, who worked tirelessly to provide the critical support for this important report. I am grateful as well to my colleagues on this committee who dedicated their time and expertise to studying the evidence about the problem and to crafting an important series of recommendations that, if implemented, will make our academic biomedical research community, a critical national resource, much more resilient when disaster strikes.

Georges C. Benjamin, Chair

Committee on Strengthening the Disaster

Resilience of Academic Research Communities

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of the Academic Biomedical Research Community: Protecting the Nation's Investment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24827.
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Acknowledgments

This Consensus Study Report would not have been possible without the many experts dedicated to both biomedical research and disaster resilience who generously contributed their time and expertise to inform the development of this report. The committee would like to thank all of the speakers (whose full names and affiliations are found in Appendix A) and participants who played a role in the public workshops. The committee is thankful for the many contributions of these individuals. Their willingness to share their perspectives and experiences was essential to the committee’s work. We also thank the numerous other stakeholders who shared information with the committee over the course of the study.

The committee would also like to thank the sponsors for their generous financial support: the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and the National Institutes of Health. Without additional financial support from the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation, the site visit to New York City would not have been possible.

Many others within the National Academies provided support to this project in various ways. The committee would like to thank the staff of the Health and Medicine Division’s (HMD’s) Executive Office and Office of Communications. The committee is also grateful to Jim Banihashemi for his financial assistance on this project. We would like to thank Daniel Bearss and the National Academies Research Center staff for their assistance in the committee’s research efforts. Finally, Robert Pool is to be credited for his editorial assistance in preparing this report.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of the Academic Biomedical Research Community: Protecting the Nation's Investment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24827.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of the Academic Biomedical Research Community: Protecting the Nation's Investment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24827.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of the Academic Biomedical Research Community: Protecting the Nation's Investment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24827.
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Page xvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of the Academic Biomedical Research Community: Protecting the Nation's Investment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24827.
×
Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of the Academic Biomedical Research Community: Protecting the Nation's Investment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24827.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of the Academic Biomedical Research Community: Protecting the Nation's Investment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24827.
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9-1 Financial Considerations for Academic Research Institutions

10-1 HPH Sector Partnership Goals

FIGURES

S-1 Goals of a resilient academic biomedical research community

S-2 Example of how the chief resilience officer for the research enterprise represents the concerns of the research community within the framework for institutional disaster preparedness

1-1 With the power out in the wake of Hurricane Sandy, NYU Langone lab members struggle to preserve scientific samples with dry ice, hauling it up multiple flights of stairs one bin at a time

1-2 Trends in federally funded research, 1970–2016, obligations in billions of constant FY 2016 dollars

1-3 University R&D funding by source, expenditures in billions, FY 2016 dollars

1-4 Sources life sciences expenditures at universities, excluding agricultural sciences, FY 2014

1-5 Goals of a resilient academic biomedical research community

3-1 University of Texas Medical Branch investigator checkpoint staffed by Environmental Health and Safety employees following Hurricane Ike

3-2 Example of a typical organizational structure of an academic research institution

3-3 Example of how the chief resilience officer for the research enterprise represents the concerns of the research community within the framework for institutional disaster preparedness

4-1 Visualization of NYU Langone’s roadmap to resilience for its research enterprise

4-2 Core capabilities by area

4-3 Steps in a common planning process

5-1 Example of a NYU Langone research preparedness initiative

5-2 Emory University ERM executive sponsors, risk chairs, and framework

6-1 Common patterns in disaster response and recovery

6-2 Sample laboratories resilience assessment at NYU Langone

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of the Academic Biomedical Research Community: Protecting the Nation's Investment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24827.
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6-3 The Rockefeller University Comparative Bioscience Center management hierarchy for people who will be responsible for essential functions after a disaster, established as part of a comprehensive laboratory animal facility pandemic response plan

6-4 General ICS structure

6-5 Example of an academic research institution ICS structure

6-6 The command structure for the Rockefeller University in a disaster

6-7 Example of how a complex academic research institution may adopt a unified command when the institution is made up of different affiliated centers with distinct chief executives and governing boards

6-8 Summary of the sequence of complex and overlapping recovery tasks over days, weeks, months, and years

6-9 Community-wide recovery activities

6-10 Recovery plan’s adoption of an ICS-based organizational structure

7-1 Swine carried down stairs at the University of Texas Medical Branch illuminated by lantern for transport to Houston as a result of Hurricane Ike

8-1 NIST Planning Guide Steps

9-1 Destroyed fume hood as a result of 2011 Great Tohoku Japan Earthquake

9-2 The resiliency capital planning process: Tools and core activities to support financial planning for enhanced resilient outcomes

9-3 A visualization of risk-layering strategies

E-1 FIU’s disaster preparedness checklist for research laboratories

TABLES

1-1 Estimated U.S. Medical and Health Research Expenditures, 2013–2015

3-1 Suggested Roles of Individual Research Laboratories in Disaster Resilience

3-2 Suggested Roles of Key Institutional Personnel in Disaster Resilience

3-3 Suggested Roles of Governing Bodies in Disaster Resilience

Page xxiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of the Academic Biomedical Research Community: Protecting the Nation's Investment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24827.
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Acronyms and Abbreviations

AAAS

American Association for the Advancement of Science

AAHC

Association of Academic Health Centers

AALAS

American Association for Laboratory Animal Science

AAMC

Association of American Medical Colleges

AAU

Association of American Universities

AAUP

American Association of University Professors

APA

American Planning Association

APHL

Association of Public Health Laboratories

ASPR TRACIE

Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, the Technical Resources, Assistance Center, and Information Exchange

AVMA

American Veterinary Medical Association

BCP

business continuity plan

BEAP

building emergency action plan

BSAT

biological select agent or toxin

BSL

biosafety level

CAE

Council for Aid to Education

CDC

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CEPAR

Office of Critical Event Preparedness and Response

CFO

chief financial officer

CFR

Code of Federal Regulations

CI

critical infrastructure

CITI

Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative

Page xxiv Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of the Academic Biomedical Research Community: Protecting the Nation's Investment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24827.
×

CSHEMA

Campus Safety, Health, and Environmental Management Association

CUNY

City University of New York

DFID

Department for International Development

DHS

Department of Homeland Security

DoD

Department of Defense

DR2

Disaster Research Response (NIH)

DRAA

Disaster Relief Appropriations Act

DRM

Design Requirements Manual

DRU

Disaster-Resistant University

DRU Network

Disaster Resilient Universities® Network

EAB

Education Advisory Board

ED

Department of Education

ELN

electronic laboratory notebook

EMHE

Emergency Management for Higher Education

EMSI

Economic Modeling Specialists International

EOC

emergency operations center

EOP

emergency operations plans

EPA

Environmental Protection Agency

ERM

enterprise risk management

FAS

Federation of American Scientists

FASEB

Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology

FAST

Florida Advanced Surgical Transport team

FBI

Federal Bureau of Investigation

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

FEMA

Federal Emergency Management Agency

FERPA

Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act

FHWA

Federal Highway Administration

FIU

Florida International University

FMA

Flood Mitigation Assistance

FMAG

Fire Management Assistance Grant

FSAP

Federal Select Agent Program

GAO

Government Accountability Office

GCC

Government Coordinating Council

GDP

gross domestic product

GFOA

Government Finance Officers Association

GPO

Government Publishing Office

GTRI

Global Threat Reduction Initiative

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of the Academic Biomedical Research Community: Protecting the Nation's Investment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24827.
×

HHS

Department of Health and Human Services

HIPAA

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act

HMGP

Hazard Mitigation Grant Program

HPH

health care and public health

HVA

hazard vulnerability assessment

HVAC

heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning

IACUC

institutional animal care and use committee

IAEA

International Atomic Energy Agency

IAEM

International Association of Emergency Managers

IAEM-UCC

International Association of Emergency Managers–Universities and Colleges Caucus

IBC

International Building Code

ICC

International Code Council

ICS

incident command system

III

Insurance Information Institute

IIWAM

information/influence warfare and manipulation

IO

institutional official

IOM

Institute of Medicine

ISO

International Organization for Standardization

IT

information technology

IVC

individually ventilated caging

LEPC

local emergency planning committee

LIMS

laboratory information management system

LSUHSC

Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center

MAA

mutual aid agreement

MMRRC

Mutant Mouse Resource and Research Centers

MOU

memorandum of understanding

NABR

National Association of Biomedical Research

NACUBO

National Association of College and University Business Officers

NAE

National Academy of Engineering

NCCPS

National Center for Campus Public Safety

NDRF

National Disaster Recovery Framework

NEIDL

National Emerging Infectious Diseases Laboratories at Boston University

NFIP

National Flood Insurance Program

NFPA

National Fire Protection Association

NIAID

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

NIH

National Institutes of Health

Page xxvi Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of the Academic Biomedical Research Community: Protecting the Nation's Investment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24827.
×

NIH–ABRF

National Institutes of Health–Association of Biomolecular Research Facilities

NIMAA

National Intercollegiate Mutual Aid Agreement

NIMS

National Incident Management System

NIST

National Institute of Standards and Technology

NIST Framework

NIST Framework for Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity

NIST Planning Guide

NIST Community Resilience Planning Guide for Buildings and Infrastructure Systems: Volume I

NNSA

National Nuclear Security Administration

NOAA

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NRC

National Research Council

NSB

National Science Board

NSC

National Safety Council

NSF

National Science Foundation

NVRT

National Veterinary Response Team

NYULMC

New York University Langone Medical Center

OLAW

Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare

OPERA

Office of Policy for Extramural Research Administration

OSHA

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

OSTP

Office of Science and Technology Policy

PDM

Pre-Disaster Mitigation Grant Program

PERLC

Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Center

PETS

Pets Evacuation and Transportation Standards Act

PHS

Public Health Service

PHS Policy

PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals

PI

principal investigator

PPD

Presidential Policy Directive

R&D

research and development

RARC

research animal resource center

RBC

Royal Bank of Canada

RDD

radiological dispersal device

REMS

Readiness and Emergency Mmanagement for Schools Technical Assistance Center

RMPO

risk management process owner

RMS

Risk Management Solutions

RPO

recovery point objective

RTO

recovery time objective

RUCBC

Rockefeller University Comparative Bioscience Center

Page xxvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of the Academic Biomedical Research Community: Protecting the Nation's Investment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24827.
×

SCC

Sector Coordinating Council

SCUP

Society for College and University Planning

START

National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism

STEM

science, technology, engineering, and mathematics

The Guide

Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals

THIRA

threat and hazard identification and risk assessment

UC

University of California

UK

University of Kentucky

UMD

University of Maryland

UNISDR

United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction

UPS

uninterruptible power supply

USDA–APHIS

U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

USF

University of Southern Florida

USGS

U.S. Geological Survey

USPTO

U.S. Patent and Trademark Office

UTHSC-H

University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston

UTMB

University of Texas Medical Branch

UW

University of Washington

VA

Department of Veterans Affairs

VMAT

Veterinary Medical Assistance Team

VTC

Virginia Tidewater Consortium

ZAHN

Zoo Animal Health Network

ZAHP Fusion Center

Zoo and Aquarium All-Hazards Preparedness, Response, and Recovery Fusion Center

Page xxviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of the Academic Biomedical Research Community: Protecting the Nation's Investment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24827.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of the Academic Biomedical Research Community: Protecting the Nation's Investment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24827.
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Glossary

Academic biomedical research community—Broadly encompasses those research sponsors, academic research institutions and their research enterprises, and researchers involved in the conduct of biomedical and biological research.

Academic research institution—Any academic institution of higher education or research institute that supports multiple research projects.

All-hazards planning—Comprehensive emergency management planning that considers all threats and hazards throughout the planning process, addressing safety needs before, during, and after an incident.

Build-back standards—Design and construction requirements related to the repair, retrofit, rehabilitation, or replacement for a facility damaged in a disaster. These standards are often related to the standards used for the original construction unless the damages exceed 50 percent of the facility value or there is a desire to “build back better.” In that case, the design and construction usually follows the current standards for new buildings (ICC, 2015).

Business continuity plan—Business continuity plans identify critical operating functions and the causes of business interruption and describe strategies for the recovery of essential services in priority order (Dungan, 2014).

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of the Academic Biomedical Research Community: Protecting the Nation's Investment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24827.
×

Capital planning—An integral part of an institution’s strategic planning process which involves the process of analyzing, giving priority to, and allocating funds for the major construction and maintenance of infrastructure in a given community. Capital planning leads to the development of a capital plan.

Crisis communications plan—A plan that outlines the roles, responsibilities, and protocols that will guide the prompt sharing information during an emergency or crisis.

Design events—Events that are expected to occur once in the life of the building or system and are often the basis of mitigation planning (NIST, 2015).

Disaster—A serious disruption of the functioning of the community involving human, material, economic, or environmental losses and impacts and which exceeds the ability of the community to cope using its own resources. Using this definition, disasters can range from a laboratory fire that destroys a researcher’s work to a federal disaster declaration that impacts the broader community (UNISDR, 2009).

Emergency operations plan—A plan that contains the details of the operational strategy for the disaster response.

Enterprise risk management—A holistic approach to strategic planning and risk management that provides a framework for entity-wide risk identification, the prioritization of key exposures, and the development of operational responses to adverse events, based upon a foundation of ownership, accountability, and transparency. An enterprise risk management plan reflects the integration of strategic planning, risk management, and financial controls (Klein, 2016).

Fail-safe design—A type of design that incorporates components or processes into buildings or other engineered systems that will mitigate losses caused by system or component failures. The design assumption is that if failure occurs (e.g., in the air-handling system, the environmental cooling system for animal care, small-animal housing equipment, electricity, or water supply systems to the vivarium), then the device, system, or process will fail in a safe manner which will result in continued life support for the research animals. This fail-safe design also suggests a level of system redundancy; during the study process it was defined as N+1 or N+2.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of the Academic Biomedical Research Community: Protecting the Nation's Investment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24827.
×

Hazard mitigation plan—A comprehensive, long-term plan based on a threat and hazard identification and risk assessment that describes long-term strategies for protecting people and property from future disasters.

Healthcare and Public Health Sector—A critical infrastructure sector whose assets, systems, and networks, whether physical or virtual, are considered so vital to the United States that incapacitation or destruction would have a debilitating effect on national security, economic security, public health or safety, or some combination thereof. The sector includes publicly accessible health care facilities, research centers, suppliers, manufacturers, and other physical assets and vast, complex public–private information technology systems (DHS, 2016).

Incident command system—A management system designed to enable effective and efficient domestic incident management by integrating a combination of facilities, equipment, personnel, procedures, and communications operating within a common organizational structure (FEMA, 2016a).

Mitigation—The capabilities necessary to reduce the loss of life and property by lessening the impact of disasters (FEMA, 2016d).

National Incident Management System—A set of concepts, operational principles, terminology, and organizational structure that enables the effective, efficient, and collaborative management of any incident, regardless of size or complexity (FEMA, 2016c).

National Preparedness System—An organized process for the whole community, including academic research institutions, to move forward with their preparedness activities and to be prepared for all-hazards. The National Preparedness System integrates efforts across five areas: prevention, protection, mitigation, response, and recovery (FEMA, 2016e).

Prevention—The capabilities necessary to avoid, prevent, or stop a threatened or actual act of terrorism. In this context, the term prevention refers to preventing imminent threats. (FEMA, 2016f).

Protection—The capabilities necessary to secure against acts of terrorism and manmade or natural disasters (FEMA, 2016g).

Recovery—The capabilities necessary to restore and rebuild the community following a disaster (FEMA, 2016b).

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Recovery plan—A plan that sets forth the procedures necessary to restore and rebuild following a disaster. The recovery plan should clearly identify decision-making authority in activating disaster recovery procedures.

Research enterprise—An entity that defines the policies, procedures, organizational structure, staffing, facilities, and practices used to fulfill an academic institution’s research mission.

Research-related assets—Research data, samples, reagents, laboratory space, and specialized equipment, among other materials.

Research sponsor—An individual, institution, company, or organization that takes the responsibility to initiate, manage, or finance the research project but does not actually conduct the investigation.

Researchers—Any or all of the three below entities unless one is specifically mentioned:

Principal investigators—Faculty members who direct research projects; further broken down into established principal investigators, early-career investigators, and new investigators.

Research staff—Typically professionals hired to carry out research who are under the direction of the principal investigator.

Research students and trainees—Most commonly, doctoral students and postdoctoral (M.D. or Ph.D.) trainees.

Resilience—The ability to prepare and plan for, absorb, recover from, and more successfully adapt to adverse events (NRC, 2012). Using this definition, resilience can range from the ability of the researcher to the ability of the academic research institution to prepare and plan for, absorb, recover from, and more successfully adapt to adverse events.

Response—The capabilities necessary to save lives, protect property and the environment, and meet basic human needs after an incident. (FEMA, 2016h).

Threat and hazard identification and risk assessment—A standard process for identifying community-specific threats and hazards and setting capability targets for each core capability identified in the National Preparedness Goal (FEMA, 2013).

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of the Academic Biomedical Research Community: Protecting the Nation's Investment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24827.
×

Training and exercise plan—A plan that documents an organization’s overall training and exercise priorities for a specific multiyear time period.

Unified command—The unified command organization consists of the incident commanders from the various jurisdictions or agencies operating together to form a single command structure in the field (FEMA, 2016a).

REFERENCES

DHS (Department of Homeland Security). 2016. Healthcare and public health sector-specific plan. https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/nipp-ssp-healthcare-publichealth-2015-508.pdf (accessed February 28, 2017).

Dungan, K. 2014. Disaster resiliency and NFPA codes and standards. Quincy, MA: Fire Protection Research Foundation. http://www.nfpa.org/news-and-research/fire-statisticsand-reports/research-reports/building-and-life-safety/general-life-safety-issues/disasterresiliency-and-nfpa-codes-and-standards (accessed October 16, 2016).

FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency). 2013. Threat and hazard identification and risk assessment guide: Comprehensive preparedness guide (CPG). https://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/8ca0a9e54dc8b037a55b402b2a269e94/CPG201_htirag_2nd_edition.pdf (accessed September 6, 2016).

———. 2016a. Incident Command System Resources. https://www.fema.gov/incident-command-system-resources (accessed May 18, 2017).

———. 2016b. National Disaster Recovery Framework (second edition). https://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/1466014998123-4bec8550930f774269e0c5968b120ba2/National_Disaster_Recovery_Framework2nd.pdf (accessed September 6, 2016).

———. 2016c. National Incident Management System. https://www.fema.gov/national-incident-management-system (accessed September 6, 2016).

———. 2016d. National Mitigation Framework (second edition). https://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/1466014166147-11a14dee807e1ebc67cd9b74c6c64bb3/National_Mitigation_Framework2nd.pdf (accessed September 6, 2016).

———. 2016e. National Preparedness System. https://www.fema.gov/national-preparedness-system (accessed September 6, 2016).

———. 2016f. National Prevention Framework (second edition). http://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/1466017209279-83b72d5959787995794c0874095500b1/National_Prevention_Framework2nd.pdf (accessed September 6, 2016).

———. 2016g. National Protection Framework (second edition). https://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/1466017309052-85051ed62fe595d4ad026edf4d85541e/National_Protection_Framework2nd.pdf (accessed September 6, 2016).

———. 2016h. National Response Framework (third edition). https://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/1466014682982-9bcf8245ba4c60c120aa915abe74e15d/National_Response_Framework3rd.pdf (accessed September 6, 2016).

ICC (International Code Council). 2015. 2015 International Building Code (IBC). http://codes.iccsafe.org/app/book/toc/2015/I-Codes/2015%20IBC%20HTML (accessed March 4, 2017).

Klein, S. 2016. Enterprise risk management: A collaborative approach to risk mitigation. PowerPoint presentation to the Committee on Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of Academic Research Communities. Available by request through the National Academies’ Public Access Records Office.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of the Academic Biomedical Research Community: Protecting the Nation's Investment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24827.
×

NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology). 2015. Community resilience planning guide for buildings and infrastructure systems: Volume 1. http://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/NIST.SP.1190v1.pdf (accessed September 7, 2016).

NRC (National Research Council). 2012. Disaster resilience: A national imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

UNISDR (United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction). 2009. Terminology. https://www.unisdr.org/we/inform/terminology#letter-d (accessed February 28, 2017).

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The academic biomedical research community is a hub of employment, economic productivity, and scientific progress. Academic research institutions are drivers of economic development in their local and state economies and, by extension, the national economy. Beyond the economic input that the academic biomedical research community both receives and provides, it generates knowledge that in turn affects society in myriad ways.

The United States has experienced and continues to face the threat of disasters, and, like all entities, the academic biomedical research community can be affected. Recent disasters, from hurricanes to cyber-attacks, and their consequences have shown that the investments of the federal government and of the many other entities that sponsor academic research are not uniformly secure. First and foremost, events that damage biomedical laboratories and the institutions that house them can have impacts on the safety and well-being of humans and research animals. Furthermore, disasters can affect career trajectories, scientific progress, and financial stability at the individual and institutional levels.

Strengthening the Disaster Resilience of the Academic Biomedical Research Community offers recommendations and guidance to enhance the disaster resilience of the academic biomedical research community, with a special focus on the potential actions researchers, academic research institutions, and research sponsors can take to mitigate the impact of future disasters.

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