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Acquisition and Operation of Polar Icebreakers: Fulfilling the Nation’s Needs (2017)

Chapter: 7. Appendix F: Committee on Polar Icebreaker Cost Assessment: Members and Biographical Information

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Suggested Citation:"7. Appendix F: Committee on Polar Icebreaker Cost Assessment: Members and Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Acquisition and Operation of Polar Icebreakers: Fulfilling the Nation’s Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24834.
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Suggested Citation:"7. Appendix F: Committee on Polar Icebreaker Cost Assessment: Members and Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Acquisition and Operation of Polar Icebreakers: Fulfilling the Nation’s Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24834.
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Suggested Citation:"7. Appendix F: Committee on Polar Icebreaker Cost Assessment: Members and Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Acquisition and Operation of Polar Icebreakers: Fulfilling the Nation’s Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24834.
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Suggested Citation:"7. Appendix F: Committee on Polar Icebreaker Cost Assessment: Members and Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Acquisition and Operation of Polar Icebreakers: Fulfilling the Nation’s Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24834.
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Suggested Citation:"7. Appendix F: Committee on Polar Icebreaker Cost Assessment: Members and Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Acquisition and Operation of Polar Icebreakers: Fulfilling the Nation’s Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24834.
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Suggested Citation:"7. Appendix F: Committee on Polar Icebreaker Cost Assessment: Members and Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Acquisition and Operation of Polar Icebreakers: Fulfilling the Nation’s Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24834.
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Suggested Citation:"7. Appendix F: Committee on Polar Icebreaker Cost Assessment: Members and Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Acquisition and Operation of Polar Icebreakers: Fulfilling the Nation’s Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24834.
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Suggested Citation:"7. Appendix F: Committee on Polar Icebreaker Cost Assessment: Members and Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Acquisition and Operation of Polar Icebreakers: Fulfilling the Nation’s Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24834.
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Suggested Citation:"7. Appendix F: Committee on Polar Icebreaker Cost Assessment: Members and Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Acquisition and Operation of Polar Icebreakers: Fulfilling the Nation’s Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24834.
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89 Appendix F Committee on Polar Icebreaker Cost Assessment: Members and Biographical Information Members RADM Richard D. West, U.S. Department of the Navy (retired), Coventry, Rhode Island, Chair Carin J. Ashjian, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts Jay P. Carson, Independent Consultant, El Cajon, California Roberta R. Marinelli, Oregon State University, Corvallis R. Keith Michel, Webb Institute, Glen Cove, New York VADM David P. Pekoske, U.S. Coast Guard (retired), Potomac, Maryland (resigned June 5, 2017, before completion of the committee’s report) David G. St. Amand, Navigistics Consulting, Boxborough, Massachusetts Steven T. Scalzo, Scalzo Marine Services, LLC, Seattle, Washington Eugene A. Van Rynbach, Herbert Engineering Corporation, Annapolis, Maryland The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Staff Studies and Special Programs, Transportation Research Board Mark S. Hutchins, Study Director Stephen R. Godwin, Scholar Stephanie Seki, Program Officer Polar Research Board, Division on Earth and Life Studies Amanda Staudt, Director Laurie Geller, Senior Program Officer Ocean Studies Board, Division on Earth and Life Studies Susan Roberts, Director

90 Committee Biographical Information Rear Admiral Richard “Dick” D. West, Chair (U.S. Navy, retired), served as President and CEO of the Consortium for Oceanographic Research and Education/Ocean Leadership from 2002 to 2008. He led efforts of this Washington, D.C.–based nonprofit organization to promote ocean research and education within the U.S. federal government on behalf of the academic and private ocean research community. He has testified before Congress on marine-related policy issues and has addressed the United Nations on Safety of Life at Sea. Admiral West was also actively involved in three congressionally mandated federal advisory committees. He was a founding member of and served on the Hydrographic Services Review Panel for two terms from 2003 to 2011, a member of a federal investment in research review team, and a member and past chairman of the National Sea Grant College Program Advisory Board. He co-chaired a U.S. Navy navigation accident review panel in 2012, chaired a review of a National Science Foundation (NSF) program, and co-chaired an independent review of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s fleet. He is a member of the Transportation Research Board’s Marine Board; is a board member of the Center for Coastal Studies, Provincetown, Massachusetts; serves on the University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography Dean’s Advisory Council and on the University of Connecticut Sea Grant Program; and is a founding board member of a charter high school. He helped establish the Sampson Veterans Memorial Cemetery in upstate New York and serves on the committee to bring the Vietnam Traveling Memorial Wall to upstate New York in 2017. Admiral West retired from the U.S. Navy in 2002. He served as Oceanographer and Navigator of the Navy and provided oceanographic, meteorological, geospatial, and navigation support to the U.S. Navy from 1999 to 2002. As the first Navigator of the Navy, he led the Navy’s transition to electronic navigation. As Oceanographer of the Navy, he was the Department of Defense representative to the U.S. Ocean Commission. Admiral West was a career Surface Warfare Officer; he served on several ships and on senior staffs in Washington, D.C., and overseas. Admiral West served in Vietnam with the riverine forces and was Commanding Officer of three ships, two during hostilities in the Persian Gulf. He also served as Commanding Officer of the U.S. Navy’s Surface Warfare Officers School, Newport, Rhode Island, where all U.S. Navy officers going to sea, from Division Officer to Commanding Officer, are trained. Carin J. Ashjian is a Senior Scientist in the Department of Biology and the Henry Bryant Bigelow Senior Scientist Chair at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI). She graduated with a PhD in oceanography from the University of Rhode Island in 1991. She did postdoctoral work at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the University of Miami, and WHOI before joining the scientific staff at WHOI in 1996. Her research has focused on oceanography, zooplankton ecology, and biological–physical interactions in a range of the world’s oceans. Her recent work focuses on the impact of climate change on polar ecosystems and the greater Arctic system, including the human dimension. She has extensive seagoing experience (60 research cruises) on a range of research vessel types, including U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) icebreakers (the Polar Sea, the Healy), the NSF icebreaker Nathaniel B. Palmer, and the University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS) ice-capable Research Vessel Sikuliaq. She served

91 as Chief Scientist on three cruises on the Healy and on two cruises on the Sikuliaq as well as on other UNOLS vessels. She has served on several national committees focusing on science mission requirements, design, acquisition, or testing of UNOLS research vessels and icebreakers. She was a member and then chair of the UNOLS Arctic Icebreaker Coordinating Committee, for which she received the USCG Meritorious Public Service Award. Jay P. Carson is a naval architect and independent management consultant with more than 40 years of progressively responsible positions in challenging business and professional environments. Mr. Carson specializes in early stage ship design; requirements definition and deployment; functional engineering; and planning, scheduling, and budgeting. From 2002 to 2007 he worked at General Dynamics National Steel and Shipbuilding Company, where he held various technical and management positions before retiring as Vice President, Engineering. Mr. Carson earned a BS in naval architecture and marine engineering from Webb Institute and an MBA from Boston University. He is a Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers (SNAME) Fellow and winner of SNAME’s Vice Admiral E. L. Cochrane Award and William M. Kennedy Award. Roberta R. Marinelli serves as Dean for the College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences. Before coming to Oregon State University, she was the Executive Director of the Wrigley Institute for Environmental Studies at the University of Southern California (USC). She played a leadership role in planning and implementing an expansion of academic and research programs in environmental studies at USC’s University Park Campus, and she directs the Philip K. Wrigley Marine Science Center on Santa Catalina Island. Dr. Marinelli also oversaw the George and Mary Lou Boone Center for Science and Environmental Leadership, a nexus where scientists and policy makers can meet to resolve environmental challenges. Dr. Marinelli was the Vice Chair of the Board of Trustees of the Consortium for Ocean Leadership, President of the Board of Directors of the Southern California Marine Institute, and a member of the Executive Committee of the Western Association for Marine Laboratories. She served on the Governing Board of the Southern California Coastal Ocean Observing System. Before her arrival at USC, Dr. Marinelli was Director of the Antarctic Organisms and Ecosystems Program in NSF’s Antarctic Sciences section. She helped lead the development of collaborative, interdisciplinary programs across NSF, including the International Polar Year; Climate Research Investments; and Science, Engineering, and Education for Sustainability. She was a tenured associate professor on the faculty at the University of Maryland’s Center for Environmental Science and an assistant professor at the Skidaway Institute of Oceanography. Dr. Marinelli received her master’s and doctoral degrees in marine science from the University of South Carolina and her bachelor’s degree from Brown University. She is a member of the American Geophysical Union, the Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography, and the Oceanography Society. R. Keith Michel, NAE, is president of Webb Institute. Before his appointment to that position in 2013, he worked for the Herbert Engineering Company (HEC), a naval architecture firm, for 38 years, where he served as President and Chairman of the Board. At HEC he worked on design, specification development, and contract negotiations for containerships, bulk carriers, and tankers. Mr. Michel has served on numerous industry advisory groups developing guidelines for alternative tanker designs, including groups advising the International Maritime Organization

92 (IMO) and USCG, and he served as chair of IMO’s Subcommittee on Bulk Liquids and Gases. That subcommittee was tasked with developing regulations concerning the subdivision of tankers, including criteria for the acceptance of alternative designs to double-hull tankers. His work has included development of methodology, vessel models, and oil outflow analysis. He was a project engineer for USCG’s report on oil outflow analysis for double-hull and hybrid tanker arrangements, which was part of the U.S. Department of Transportation’s technical report to Congress on the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. He has worked on the development of salvage software used by USCG and the Canadian Coast Guard, the U.S. Navy, the National Transportation Safety Board, the Maritime Administration (MARAD), the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), Lloyd’s, and numerous oil and shipping companies. Mr. Michel was Chair of the Marine Board of the National Research Council (NRC) from 2002 through 2004 and has served on several NRC committees. In 2011 he received the W. Selkirk Owen Award for distinguished service from the Alumni Association of Webb Institute. He is a past president of SNAME. In 2002 he was the recipient of SNAME’s highest award, the David W. Taylor Medal. He is a Fellow and Honorary Member of SNAME; a National Associate of NRC of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and past Chairman of the Webb Institute Board of Trustees. In 2014, he was elected to the National Academy of Engineering. Mr. Michel holds a BS in naval architecture and marine engineering from the Webb Institute of Naval Architecture. Vice Admiral David P. Pekoske, USCG (retired), is an Adjunct Professor at American University in Washington, D.C. He is a former Vice President, National Programs, at PAE and a former Group President of the National Security Group at A-T Solutions, Inc. Vice Admiral Pekoske’s expertise includes maritime security and maritime transportation. Before joining PAE/A-T Solutions, he served in USCG for 33 years until his retirement in 2010. In his last position, he served as Vice Commandant of USCG. He essentially served as second in command and chief operating officer and often represented the Commandant and Secretary of Homeland Security in National Security Council and Joints Chiefs of Staff settings. Vice Admiral Pekoske serves on numerous boards and scientific advisory committees. He is chairman of the Board of Directors for the InfraGard National Members Alliance (a national nonprofit organization sponsored by the Federal Bureau of Investigation focused on protecting the nation’s critical infrastructure) and is a member of the National Security Advisory Council of the U.S. Global Leadership Coalition (a network dedicated to strengthening U.S. leadership in the world through strategic investment in development and diplomacy). He earned a master of business administration degree from the Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; a master of public administration degree from the School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University; and a bachelor of science degree in ocean engineering from the U.S. Coast Guard Academy. (Note: Mr. Pekoske resigned from the committee on June 5, 2017 after being nominated as Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration). David G. St. Amand, President of Navigistics Consulting, has more than 40 years of maritime industry experience; he has been a management consultant for the past 30 years. Mr. St. Amand holds a BS in naval architecture and marine engineering from Webb Institute and an MBA from the Amos Tuck School of Business Administration at Dartmouth College. He previously served on the Committee on the Assessment of U.S. Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Roles and Future Needs and the Committee on Oil Pollution Act of 1990 Implementation Review of the National

93 Academies. He has served on USCG’s Towing Safety Advisory Committee (TSAC) and has received USCG’s Public Service Commendation and Certificate of Merit for his work on TSAC. Steven T. Scalzo, Scalzo Marine Services, LLC, is the former Chief Operating Officer of Foss Marine Holdings, Inc., and former President and CEO of Foss Maritime. He joined Foss Maritime, a subsidiary of Foss Marine Holdings, in 1975. In his career at Foss Maritime, he held a variety of executive positions. In 2005, he assumed the position of Chief Operating Officer of Foss Marine Holdings, Inc., a holding and support company for investments in tug, barge, shipyards, terminals, and ancillary marine service companies. Mr. Scalzo is a graduate of the United States Merchant Marine Academy and received a master’s degree in law and commerce from Gonzaga University. He is a past member of the Marine Board of NRC, and he is active in legislative and regulatory issues affecting marine transportation safety at the international, national, and local levels. He is past chairman of USCG’s TSAC and the State of Washington Puget Sound Marine Safety Committee, and he was a member of the Executive Committee of the National Academies’ Transportation Research Board and a board member of the Webb Institute. He has also served as chairman of the American Waterway Operators, the tug and barge industry national trade association. He is a board member of the American Protection and Indemnity Club, Seattle University, and a trustee for the Coast Guard Foundation. Mr. Scalzo is the author of several tug escort technical papers. He is a co-author of Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World: An Assessment of U.S. Needs, a 2007 report of NRC. Eugene A. Van Rynbach is a Vice President at HEC and manager of the Annapolis, Maryland, office. He joined HEC in 2005 after he had accumulated an extensive background in the ship operation and engineering fields. Among his activities at HEC are management of the concept design for the National Security Multimission Vessel (new state maritime academy training vessel) for MARAD and preparation of a suite of roll-on/roll-off (RoRo) vessel designs for MARAD and other organizations for American Marine Highways. He has participated in liquefied natural gas propulsion system design, conversion of a RoRo ship to a partial containership, several newbuilding projects, vessel life extension studies, tanker piping system modifications, tanker barge construction cost estimates, technical support and plan approval management for a floating dry dock being built in China, and evaluation of steel renewals for ships undergoing repairs. Before joining HEC, Mr. Van Rynbach worked for 15 years as Manager of Technical Services for the containership operator Sea-Land Service and its offshoot U.S. Ship Management. His areas of responsibility included vessel construction, conversions, major modifications, technical engineering, development of procedures for complex repairs, evaluation of vessel capabilities and potential improvements, and provision of technical advice to management. In the 1980s Mr. Van Rynbach was a principal with the consulting firm J. D. Van Rynbach and Associates, Inc., for a 7-year period. Before that, he worked for 2 years for American President Lines in Oakland, California, as a staff engineer in the Marine Operations department and was involved with energy conservation efforts, vessel modifications, and vessel capability evaluations and improvements. From 1979 through 1980 he worked for Sea-Land Service. Before that, Mr. Van Rynbach worked for several years as a ship operating marine engineer. He obtained a U.S. marine engineer’s license as a 3rd engineer (motor vessels, unlimited horsepower). After graduation, Mr. Van Rynbach worked for several years as a Hull Technical Engineer for ABS. He was engaged in plan approval for new construction of ships and

94 mobile drilling rigs and worked on the engineering staff at a small shipping company in New York. Mr. Van Rynbach earned a BS with honors in mechanical engineering with a specialization in naval architecture from the University of California, Berkeley. He received an MS with honors in transportation management from State University of New York Maritime College, Fort Schuyler. He is a member of ABS and SNAME and received the Linnard Prize from SNAME for presenting the best paper at the 1995 SNAME Annual Meeting.

95 Appendix G Information-Gathering Activities of the Committee In the course of preparing its report, the committee met four times. At its open session meeting in February 2017, the committee heard from John C. Rayfield, Staff Director, Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation; Admiral Charles D. Michel, Vice Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard; Vice Admiral Charles W. Ray, Deputy Commandant for Operations, U.S. Coast Guard; Rear Admiral Michael J. Haycock, Director of Acquisitions Programs and Program Executive Officer, U.S. Coast Guard; Jay Stefany, Executive Director, Amphibious, Auxiliary, and Sealift Office, Program Executive Office, Ships, U.S. Navy; Commander Kelly E. Taylor, Deputy Director, Task Force Climate Change, U.S. Navy; Rear Admiral David A. Score, Director, Commissioned Officer Corps and Office of Marine and Aviation Operations, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Kelly K. Falkner, Director, Office of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation; and Evan T. Bloom, Director, Office of Ocean and Polar Affairs, U.S. Department of State. At its April 2017 meeting, the committee heard from the following people in open session: Fred Harris, President (retired), General Dynamics National Steel and Shipbuilding Company (NASSCO); Frank Foti, President and CEO, Vigor Industrial; Dirk Kristensen, Principal, Glosten; Justin Chin, Program Manager, General Dynamics NASSCO; Brendan P. Kelly, Executive Director of the Study of Environmental Arctic Change; Vice Admiral Fred M. Midgette, Commander, Pacific Area, U.S. Coast Guard; Commander William Woityra, Ice Operations Division Chief, Office of Waterways Management, U.S. Coast Guard; Commander Eben Phillips, Naval Engineering Department Head, Base Seattle, U.S. Coast Guard; Captain Michael Davanzo, Commanding Officer, Polar Star, U.S. Coast Guard; and David Forcucci, Healy Marine Science Coordinator, Base Seattle. The committee also toured the U.S. Coast Guard’s two polar icebreakers (the Polar Star and the Healy) and visited with their crews.

96

97 Appendix H Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM) Report Review Committee. The purposes of the independent review are to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. The committee thanks the following for their review of this report: Rita Colwell, University of Maryland, College Park; Charles R. Cushing, C. R. Cushing and Company, Inc., New York City; Laurent Deschamps, SPAR Associates, Inc., Annapolis, Maryland; Arthur Divens, Sextant Executive Solutions, LLC, Beltsville, Maryland; Frank Foti, Vigor Industrial, Portland, Oregon; Chris Hendrickson, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Brendan Kelly, Monterey Bay Aquarium, Monterey, California; Richard P. Neilson, Webb Institute (retired), Kilmarnock, Virginia; Peter Noble, Noble Associates, LLC, Katy, Texas; Brian Salerno, United States Coast Guard (retired), Silver Spring, Maryland; James Swift, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California; Kirsi K. Tikka, American Bureau of Shipping, Port Washington, New York; and Al Washburn, U.S. Naval Postgraduate School (retired), Monterey, California. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of the report was overseen by the review coordinator, Susan Hanson, Clark University, and the review monitor, Charles F. Manski, Northwestern University. Appointed by NASEM, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of the report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of the report rests entirely with the committee and the institution.

Acquisition and Operation of Polar Icebreakers: Fulfilling the Nation’s Needs Get This Book
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On July 11, 2017, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Committee on Polar Icebreaker Cost Assessment released a letter report that advises the U.S. Congress on strategies to minimize life-cycle costs of polar icebreaker acquisition and operations. The Committee recommends the number and type of polar icebreakers to fund and an acquisition strategy that achieves a lower cost.

The Committee developed an independent cost estimate using available concept designs to determine if the U.S. Coast Guard’s existing cost estimates for heavy and medium icebreakers are reasonable. It also compared operating costs of the current fleet to the prospective operating costs of new vessels. The Committee recommends a science-ready design for the new icebreakers and the use of an enhanced maintenance program to ensure continuity of operations for existing icebreakers.

This letter report is mandated by the Coast Guard Authorization Act of 2015, and sponsored by the USCG. View the press release.

View a video summarizing the report findings:

On July 25, 2017, the U.S. House of Representatives Transportation and Infrastructure Committee Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation held a hearing that examines the U.S. Coast Guard’s infrastructure and acquisition needs, and includes the testimony of Rear Admiral Richard D. West (Navy Ret.) who served as Chair for the Committee on Polar Icebreaker Cost Assessment. Witness statements are available online, and the video of the hearing is below:

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