Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
195 AASHTO. 2016. AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specification, 2016 interim revisions, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C. ACI. 2012. Guide for the analysis and design of reinforced and prestressed concrete guideway structures (ACI 343.1R-12), American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI AECOM. 2008. Central corridor light rail transit: report for design criteria, Metropolitan Council of Minnesota, AECOM Technology Corporation, Los Angeles, CA. AREMA. 2008. Manual for railway engineering: vol. 1â4, American Railway Engineering and Maintenance-of- way Association, Lanham, MD. ASME. 2009. Safety standard for structural requirements for light rail vehicles (RT-1), New York, NY. Ataei, S., Aghakouchak, A. A., Marefat, M. S., and Mohammadzadeh, S. 2005. Sensor fusion of a railway bridge load test using neutral networks, Expert Systems with Applications, 29, 678â683. Azimi, H., Galal, K., and Pekau, O. A. 2013. A numerical element for vehicle-bridge interaction analysis of vehicles experiencing sudden deceleration, Engineering Structures, 49, 792â805. Bakht, B. and Jaeger, L. G. 1985. Bridge analysis simplified, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY. Bakht, B. and Pinjarkar, S. G. 1989. Dynamic testing of highway bridgesâa review, Transportation Research Record, 1223, 93â100. Barke, D. and Chiu, W. K. 2005. Structural health monitoring in the railway industry: a review, Structural Health Monitoring, 4(1), 81â93. Barker, R. M. and Puckett, J. A. 1997. Design of highway bridges, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York, NY. Baxter, D. and Nemovitz, D. 2012. Sensitivity analysis of rail-structure interaction force effects for direct-fixation bridges, AREMA Annual Conference and Exposition, Chicago, IL. 31 pp. Black, A. 1993. The recent popularity of light rail transit in North American, Journal of Planning Education Research, 12(2), 150â159. BV Bro. 2006. The Swedish rail administration: design standard for railway bridges, Standard BUS 583.10, Borlange, Sweden. CEN. 1996. Eurocode 1: Basis of design and action on structures, part 1: basis of design, European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium. CEN. 2002. Eurocode 1: Actions on structures-part 2: traffic loads on bridges, European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium. Chebli, H., Clouteau, D., and Schmitt, L. 2008. Dynamic response of high-speed ballasted railway tracks: 3D periodic model and in situ measurements, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 28, 118â131. COE. 2011. LRT design guidelines for ETS Edmonton transit system, City of Edmonton, AB, Canada. Daniels, L. E., et al. 2005. TCRP Report 71: track-related research, volume 6: Direct-fixation track design specifications, research, and related material, TRB, National Research Board, Washington, D.C. Dexter, R. J. and Fisher, J. W. 2000. Bridge Engineering Handbook, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. Dukkipati, R. V. and Dong, R. 1999. Impact loads due to wheel flats and shells, Vehicle System Dynamics, 31, 1â22. Ellingwood, B. R. 1996. Reliability-based condition assessment and LRFD for existing structures, Structural Safety, 18(2-3), 67â80. Fatemi, M. J., Green, M. F., Campbell, T. I., and Moucessian, A. 1996. Dynamic analysis of resilient crosstie track for transit system, Journal of Transportation Engineering, 122(2), 173â180. Fisher, J. W., Nussbaumer, A., Keating, P. B. and Yen, B. T. 1993. NCHRP Report 254: Resistance of welded details under variable amplitude long-life fatigue loading, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. Flener, E. B. and Karoumi, R. 2009. Dynamic testing of a soil-steel composite railway bridge, Engineering Structures, 31, 2803â2811 References
196 Proposed AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications for Light Rail Transit Loads Foutch, D. A., Kim, T.-W., Otter, D. E., and Doe, B. E. 2006. Investigation of longitudinal forces in a concrete railroad trestle, Journal of Bridge Engineering, 11(5), 618â625. Frederick, C. O. 1978. The effect of wheel and rail irregularities on the track, Heavy Haul Railways Conference, Institution of Engineers Australia. Fryba, L. 1972. Vibration of solids and structures under moving loads, Noordhoff International Publishing, Groningen, Netherlands. Fryba, L. 1996. Dynamics of railway bridges, Thomas Telford, London, UK. Fu. G. 2002. Truck loads and highway bridge safety: new developments, US-European Workshop on Bridges, Rome, Italy, July 17-19, 17 pp. Ghali, A. and Neville, A. M. 1989. Structural analysis: a unified classical and matrix approach (3rd edition), Chapman & Hall, New York, NY. Gu, G. and Franklin, F. J. 2010. Application of the structural articulation method to dynamic impact loading of railway bridgesâcase study, International Journal of Vehicle Mechanics and Mobility, 48(10), 1097â1113. Gu, G., Lilley, D. M., and Franklin, F. J. 2010. A structural articulation method for assessing railway bridges subject to dynamic impact loading from track irregularities, Vehicle System Dynamics, 48(1), 1077â1095. Gullers, P., Andersson, L., and Lunden, R. 2008. High-frequency vertical wheel-rail contact forcesâfield measurements and influence of track irregularities, Wear, 265, 1472â1478. Gutkowski, R. M., Shigidi, A. M. T., and Tran, A. V. 2003. Field investigation of a strengthened timber trestle railroad bridge, Department of Civil Engineering, Colorado State University, 64 pp. Handoko, Y. and Dhanasekar, M. 2006. An inertial reference frame method for the simulation of the effect of longitudinal force to the dynamics of railway wheelsets, Nonlinear Dynamics, 45, 399â425. Harrington, G. and Dunn, P. C. 1981. Investigation of design standards for urban rail transit elevated structures, UMTA-GA-06-0010-81, National Technical Information Service, Alexandria, VA. Ho, D. D., Kim, J. T., Park, J. H., and Hong, D. S. 2010. Field vibration tests-based model update for system identi- fication of railway bridge, Sensors and Smart Structures Technologies for Civil, Mechanical, and Aerospace Systems, Proceedings of SPIE, 12 pp. Hou, K., Kalousek, J., and Dong, R. 2003. A dynamic model for an asymmetrical vehicle/track system, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 267, 591â604. Huang, Z., Tong, H., and Fan, Y. 2010. The longitudinal dynamics of heavy-haul trains in the asynchronous brake control system, International Conference on Measuring Technology and Mechatronics Automation, IEEE Computer Society, 900â903. Huo, X. S., Wasserman, E. P., and Iqbal, R. A. 2004. Simplified method for calculating lateral distribution factors for live load moment, Journal of Bridge Engineering, 9(4), 382â390. Hurlebaus, S. 2011. Determination of longitudinal stress in rails, Safety IDEA Project 15, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. Hwang, E. S. and Nowak, A. S. 1991. Simulation of dynamic load for bridges, Journal of Structural Engineering, 117, 1413â1434. Inbanathan, M. J. and Weiland, M. 1987. Bridge vibrations due to vehicle moving over rough surface, Journal of Structural Engineering, 113, 1994â2008. ISO. 1997. Mechanical vibration and shockâEvaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration (ISO 2631-1), International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland. UIC. 2002. Catalogue of rail defects (ETF-712), Paris, France. James, G. 2003. Analysis of traffic load effects on railway bridges, TRITA-BKN Bulletin 70, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden Johansson, A. and Nielsen, J. 2001. Railway wheel out-of-roundnessâinfluence of wheel-rail contact forces and track response, 13th International Wheelset Conference, Rome, Italy. Kalay, S., Tajaddini, A., and Stone, D. H. 1992. Detecting wheel tread surface anomalies, Rail Transportation, 165â174, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, NY. Kassa, E., Andersson, C., and Nielsen, J. C. O. 2006. Simulation of dynamic interaction between train and railway turnout, Vehicle System Dynamics, 44(3), 247â258. Kim, Y. J., Campbell, T. I., MacDougall, C., and Green, M. F. 2009. Mechanical behaviour of a hyperelastic pad for an integrated cross-tie system, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 36(1), 84â95. Kishen, J. M. C., Ramaswamy, A., and Manohar, C. S. 2013. Safety assessment of a masonry arch bridge: field testing and simulations, Journal of Bridge Engineering, 18(2), 162â171. Kravets, V. V. 2005. Evaluating the dynamic load on a high-speed railroad car, International Applied Mechanics, 41(3), 324â329. Kulicki, J. M., Wassef, W. G., Mertz, D. R., and Nowak, A. S. 2015. Bridges for service life beyond 100 years: service limit state design (SHRP R19B), Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. Kumar, R. and Upadhyay, A. 2010. Track-bridge interaction modelsâa review, National Conference on Advancements and Futuristic Trends in Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Jaipur, India.
References 197 Kumar, S. 2006. A study of the rail degradation process to predict rail breaks, Lulea University of Technology, Licentiate Thesis, Lulea, Sweden. Leander, J., Andersson, A., and Karoumi, R. 2010. Monitoring and enhanced fatigue evaluation of a steel railway bridge, Engineering Structures, 32, 854â863. Lee, M. L., Chiu, W. K., and Koss, L. L. 2005. A numerical study into the reconstruction of impact forces on railway track-like structures, Structural Health Monitoring, 4(1), 19â45. LS-DYNA. 2015. LS-DYNA keyword userâs manual version 970, Livermore Software Technology Corporation, Available at http://www.lstc.com/manuals.htm. Lu, Y., Mao, L., and Woodward, P. 2012. Frequency characteristics of railway bridge response to moving trains with consideration of train mass, Engineering Structures, 42, 9â22. Malm, R. and Andersson, A. 2006. Field testing and simulation of dynamic properties of a tied arch railway bridge, Engineering Structures, 28, 143â152. Martinez-Rodrigo, M. D., Lavado, J., and Museros, P. 2010. Dynamic performance of existing high-speed rail- way bridges under resonant conditions retrofitted with fluid viscous dampers, Engineering Structures, 32, 808â828. Metro. 2007. Design criteria manual, Metro Light Rail Transit Projects, Phoenix, AZ. Murray, C. 2013. Dynamic monitoring of rail and bridge displacements using digital image correlation, M.A.Sc. Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, Queenâs University, Kingston, ON, Canada. Nankyo, M., Ishihara, T., and Innoka, H. 2006. Feedback control of braking deceleration on railway vehicle, Transactions of the ASME, 128, 244â250. Neves, S. G. M., Azevedo, A. F. M., and Calcada, R. A. 2012. A direct method for analyzing the vertical vehicle- structure interaction, Engineering Structures, 34, 414â420. Newton, S. G. and Clark, R. A. 1979. An investigation into the dynamic effects on the track of wheelflats on railway vehicles, Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 21(4), 287â297. Nielsen, J. C. O. 2008. High-frequency vertical wheel-rail contact forcesâvalidation of a prediction model by field testing, Wear, 265, 1465â1471. Niemietz, R. D. and Neimeyer, A. W. 1992. Light rail transit bridge design issues. Transportation Research Record 1361, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. NKB. 1987. Guidelines for loading and safety regulations for structural design, Technical Report No. 55E, Nordic Committee on Building Regulations, Stockholm, Sweden. Nowak, A. S. 1995. Calibration of LRFD bridge code, Journal of Structural Engineering, 121(8), 1245â1251. Nowak, A. S. 1999. NCHRP Report 368: Calibration of LRFD bridge design code, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, DC. Nowak, A. S. and Collins, K. R. 2013. Reliability of structures: 2nd edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. Okelo, R. and Olabitman, A. 2011. Nonlinear rail-structure interaction analysis of an elevated skewed steel guideway, Journal of Bridge Engineering, 16(3), 392â399. Oprea, R. A. 2012. Longitudinal dynamics of trainsâa non-smooth approach, Nonlinear Dynamics, 70, 1095â1106. Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc. 2000. TCRP Report 57: Track design handbook for light rail transit, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. Parsons Brinckerhoff, Inc., et al. 2012. TCRP Report 155: Track design handbook for light rail transit (2nd edition), Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. Partington, W. 1993. Wheel impact load monitoring, Transport, Institute of Civil Engineers, 100(4), 243â245. Pascal, J. P. 1991. Benchmarks for multibody simulation softwareâfirst railway benchmark, International Association of Vehicle Systems Dynamics, Praha, Czech Republic. PESC. 2011. Preliminary structural evaluation of existing bridges over Lady Bird Lake, P.E. Structural Consultants, Inc., Austin, TX. Pugi, L., Fioravanti, D., and Rindi, A. 2007. Modelling the longitudinal dynamics of long freight trains during the braking phase, 12th IFToMM World Congress, Besancon, France, 1â6. Rauert, T., Feldmann, M., He, L., and De Roeck, G. 2011. Calculation of bridge deformations due to train pas- sages by the use of strain and acceleration measurements from bridge monitoring supported by experi- mental tests, Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Structural Dynamics, EURODYN 2011, 1149â1155. Remennikov, A. and Kaewunruen, S. 2008. A review of loading conditions for railway track structures due to train and track vertical interaction, Structural Control and Health Monitoring, 15, 207â234. Ribeiro, D., Calcada, R., and Delgado, R. 2013. Experimental validation of a train-structure interaction model on a bowstring arch bridge, Experimental Vibration Analysis for Civil Engineering Structures, 8 pp. Roeder, C. W., Barth, K., and Bergman, A. 2002. Improved live load deflection criteria for steel bridges (NCHRP 20-7), Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. RTD. 2013. Light rail design criteria, Regional Transit District, Denver, CO.
198 Proposed AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications for Light Rail Transit Loads Ruble, E. J. 1955. Impact in railroad bridges, Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers, No. 736, 1â36. Sennah, K. M. and Kennedy, J. B. 1999. Load distribution factors for composite multicell box girder bridges, Journal of Bridge Engineering, 4(1), 71â78. Smith, D. A. and Hendy, C. R. 2009. Design of the Dubai metro light rail viaductsâsubstructure, Journal of Bridge Engineering, ICE, 162(2), 63â74. Snidjer, H. H. and Rolf, F. H. 1996. Comparative research to establish load factors for railway bridges, Basis of Design and Actions on Structures, IABSE Report Vol. 74, 455â468. Srinivas, V., Sasmal, S., Banjara, N. K., Ramanjaneyulu, K., and Iyer, N. R. 2013. Health assessment of a plate girder railway bridge under increased axle loads, Journal of Bridge Engineering, 18(10), 969â979. Stanisic, M. M. 1985. On a new theory of the dynamic behavior of the structures carrying moving masses, Ingenier-Archiv (cited from Azimi et al. 2013). STL. 2012. Design criteria manual, Sound Transit Link, State of Washington, Seattle, WA. Timoshenko, S. 1926. Method of analysis of statical and dynamical stresses in rail, Proceedings of Second Inter- national Congress for Applied Mechanics, 407â418. Tobias, D. H. and Foutch, D. A. 1997. Reliability-based method for fatigue evaluation of railway bridges, Journal of Bridge Engineering, 2(2), 53â60. Tobias, D. H., Anderson, R. E., Khayyat, S. Y., Uzman, Z. B., and Riechers, K. L. 2004. Simplified AASHTO LRFD load and resistance factor design girder live load distribution in Illinois, Journal of Bridge Engineering, 9(6), 606â613. Toth, J. and Ruge, P. 2001. Spectral assessment of mesh adaptations for the analysis of the dynamical longitudinal behavior of railway bridges, Archive of Applied Mechanics, 71, 453â462. UIC. 2009. Design requirements for rail-bridges based on interaction phenomena between train, track and bridge (UIC Code 776-2), International Union of Railways, Paris, France. Unsworth, J. F. 2010. Design of modern steel railway bridges, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. Uppal, A. S., Otter, D. E., Doe, B. E., Foutch, D. A., and Kim, T. W. 2001. Longitudinal forces in a long railroad trestle, Proceedings of the AREMA 2001 Annual Conferences, Chicago, IL. UTA. 2010. Utah transit authority light rail design criteria, Salt Lake City, UT. Wassef, W. G., Kulicki, J. M., Nassif, H., Mertz, D., and Nowak, A. S. 2014. Calibration of AASHTO LRFD Con- crete Bridge Design Specifications for Serviceability (NCHRP 12-83), Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. Wen, Z., Jin, X., and Zhang, W. 2005. Contact-impact stress analysis of rail joint region using the dynamic finite element method, Wear, 258, 1301â1309. Wiberg, J. and Karoumi, R. 2009. Monitoring dynamic behaviour of a long-span railway bridge, Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, 5(5), 419â433. Wipf, T. J., Ritter, M. A., and Wood, D. L. 2000. Evaluation and field load testing of timber railroad bridge, Trans- portation Research Record 1696, 323â333. Wu, T. X. and Thompson, D. J. 2003. On the impact noise generation due to a wheel passing over rail joints, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 267, 485â496. Xia, H., Guo, W. W., Wu, X., Pi, Y. L., and Bradford, M. A. 2008. Lateral dynamic interaction analysis of a train- girder-pier system, Journal of Sounds and Vibration, 318, 927â942. Xia, H., Zhang, N., and Guo, W. W. 2006. Analysis of resonance mechanism and conditions of train bridge system, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 297, 810â822. Zhai, W. M. 1996. Two simple fast integration methods for large-scale dynamic problems in engineering, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 39(24), 4199â4214. Zhang, N., Xia, H., and Guo, W. 2008. Vehicle-bridge interaction analysis under high-speed trains, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 309, 407â425.
Abbreviations and acronyms used without definitions in TRB publications: A4A Airlines for America AAAE American Association of Airport Executives AASHO American Association of State Highway Officials AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials ACIâNA Airports Council InternationalâNorth America ACRP Airport Cooperative Research Program ADA Americans with Disabilities Act APTA American Public Transportation Association ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials ATA American Trucking Associations CTAA Community Transportation Association of America CTBSSP Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program DHS Department of Homeland Security DOE Department of Energy EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAA Federal Aviation Administration FAST Fixing Americaâs Surface Transportation Act (2015) FHWA Federal Highway Administration FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration FRA Federal Railroad Administration FTA Federal Transit Administration HMCRP Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ISTEA Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 ITE Institute of Transportation Engineers MAP-21 Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (2012) NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAO National Association of State Aviation Officials NCFRP National Cooperative Freight Research Program NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NTSB National Transportation Safety Board PHMSA Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration RITA Research and Innovative Technology Administration SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SAFETEA-LU Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (2005) TCRP Transit Cooperative Research Program TDC Transit Development Corporation TEA-21 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (1998) TRB Transportation Research Board TSA Transportation Security Administration U.S.DOT United States Department of Transportation
TRA N SPO RTATIO N RESEA RCH BO A RD 500 Fifth Street, N W W ashington, D C 20001 A D D RESS SERV ICE REQ U ESTED ISBN: 978-0-309-44645-7 9 7 8 0 3 0 9 4 4 6 4 5 7 9 0 0 0 0 N O N -PR O FIT O R G . U .S. PO STA G E PA ID C O LU M B IA , M D PER M IT N O . 88 Proposed A A SH TO LRFD Bridge D esign Specifications for Light Rail Transit Loads N CH RP Research Report 851 TRB