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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Relationship Between Chemical Makeup of Binders and Engineering Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24850.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Relationship Between Chemical Makeup of Binders and Engineering Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24850.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Relationship Between Chemical Makeup of Binders and Engineering Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24850.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Relationship Between Chemical Makeup of Binders and Engineering Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24850.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Relationship Between Chemical Makeup of Binders and Engineering Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24850.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Relationship Between Chemical Makeup of Binders and Engineering Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24850.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Relationship Between Chemical Makeup of Binders and Engineering Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24850.
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Relationship Between Chemical Makeup of Binders and Engineering Performance NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP SYNTHESIS 511 A Synthesis of Highway Practice

TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2017 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS Chair: MALCOLM DOUGHERTY, Director, California Department of Transportation, Sacramento Vice Chair: KATHERINE F. TURNBULL, Executive Associate Director and Research Scientist, Texas A&M Transportation Institute, College Station Executive Director: NEIL J. PEDERSEN, Transportation Research Board MEMBERS VICTORIA A. ARROYO, Executive Director, Georgetown Climate Center; Assistant Dean, Centers and Institutes; and Professor and Director, Environmental Law Program, Georgetown University Law Center, Washington, DC SCOTT E. BENNETT, Director, Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department, Little Rock JENNIFER COHAN, Secretary, Delaware DOT, Dover JAMES M. CRITES, Executive Vice President of Operations, Dallas–Fort Worth International Airport, TX NATHANIEL P. FORD, SR., Executive Director–CEO, Jacksonville Transportation Authority, Jacksonville, FL A. STEWART FOTHERINGHAM, Professor, School of Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning, Arizona State University, Tempe JOHN S. HALIKOWSKI, Director, Arizona DOT, Phoenix SUSAN HANSON, Distinguished University Professor Emerita, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University, Worcester, MA STEVE HEMINGER, Executive Director, Metropolitan Transportation Commission, Oakland, CA CHRIS T. HENDRICKSON, Hamerschlag Professor of Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA JEFFREY D. HOLT, Managing Director, Power, Energy, and Infrastructure Group, BMO Capital Markets Corporation, New York S. JACK HU, Vice President for Research and J. Reid and Polly Anderson Professor of Manufacturing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor ROGER B. HUFF, President, HGLC, LLC, Farmington Hills, MI GERALDINE KNATZ, Professor, Sol Price School of Public Policy, Viterbi School of Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles MELINDA McGRATH, Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson PATRICK K. McKENNA, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City JAMES P. REDEKER, Commissioner, Connecticut DOT, Newington MARK L. ROSENBERG, Executive Director, The Task Force for Global Health, Inc., Decatur, GA DANIEL SPERLING, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis GARY C. THOMAS, President and Executive Director, Dallas Area Rapid Transit, Dallas, TX PAT THOMAS, Senior Vice President of State Government Affairs, United Parcel Service, Washington, DC JAMES M. TIEN, Distinguished Professor and Dean Emeritus, College of Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL DEAN H.WISE, Vice President of Network Strategy, Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway, Fort Worth, TX CHARLES A. ZELLE, Commissioner, Minnesota DOT, Saint Paul EX OFFICIO MEMBERS ALBERTO AYALA, Deputy Executive Officer, California Air Resources Board, Sacramento MARY R. BROOKS, Professor Emerita, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, and Chair, TRB Marine Board JACK DANIELSON, Executive Director, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. DOT AUDREY FARLEY, Executive Director, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, U.S. DOT LeROY GISHI, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC JOHN T. GRAY II, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC MICHAEL P. HUERTA, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. DOT DAPHNE Y. JEFFERSON, Deputy Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S. DOT BEVAN B. KIRLEY, Research Associate, University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center, Chapel Hill, and Chair, TRB Young Members Council HOWARD McMILLAN, Acting Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S. DOT WAYNE NASTRI, Acting Executive Officer, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, CA CRAIG A. RUTLAND, U.S. Air Force Pavement Engineer, U.S. Air Force Civil Engineer Center, Tyndall Air Force Base, FL REUBEN SARKAR, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Transportation, U.S. Department of Energy TODD T. SEMONITE (Lieutenant General, U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC KARL SIMON, Director, Transportation and Climate Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency JOEL SZABAT, Executive Director, Maritime Administration, U.S. DOT WALTER C. WAIDELICH, JR., Acting Deputy Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. DOT PATRICK T. WARREN, Executive Director, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S. DOT MATTHEW WELBES, Executive Director, Federal Transit Administration, U.S. DOT RICHARD A. WHITE, Acting President and CEO, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC FREDERICK G. (BUD) WRIGHT, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC PAUL F. ZUKUNFT (Admiral, U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security * Membership as of April 2017.

2017 NAT IONAL COOPERAT IVE H IGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP SYNTHESIS 511 Research Sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in Cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration SubScriber categorieS Construction • Highways • Materials • Pavement Relationship Between Chemical Makeup of Binders and Engineering Performance A Synthesis of Highway Practice conSultant William H. Daly Baton Rouge, Louisiana

NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective approach to the solution of many problems facing highway administra- tors and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually or in coop- eration with their state universities and others. However, the accelerat- ing growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Offi- cials initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research pro- gram employing modern scientific techniques. This program is sup- ported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the Association and it receives the full cooperation and sup- port of the Federal Highway Administration, United States Depart- ment of Transportation. The Transportation Research Board of the National Research Coun- cil was requested by the Association to administer the research pro- gram because of the Board’s recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it possesses avenues of communication and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of objec- tivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those who are in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Coop- erative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. NCHRP SYNTHESIS 511 Project 20-05 (Topic 47-13) ISSN 0547-5570 ISBN 978-0-309-39002-6 Library of Congress Control No. 2017936212 © 2017 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their manuscripts and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to repro- duce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit pur- poses. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMSCA, FTA, or Transit development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any development or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Acad- emies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not neces- sarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Acade- mies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

TOPIC PANEL 47-13 WILLIAM E. AHEARN, Barre, VT GAYLON L. BAUMGARDNER, Paragon Technical Services, Inc., Jackson, MS AMIT BHASIN, University of Texas at Austin LYNDI D. BLACKBURN, Alabama Department of Transportation, Montgomery NICHOLAS I. BURMAS, California Department of Transportation, Sacramento ALLEN J. GALLISTEL, Minnesota Department of Transportation, Maplewood DARREN G. HAZLETT, Texas Department of Transportation, Austin FREDERICK HEJL, Transportation Research Board DEREK NENER-PLANTE, Mane Department of Transportation Cabinet, Augusta JACK YOUTCHEFF, Federal Highway Administration (Liaison) SYNTHESIS STUDIES STAFF STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies and Special Programs JON M. WILLIAMS, Program Director, IDEA and Synthesis Studies MARIELA GARCIA-COLBERG, Senior Program Officer JO ALLEN GAUSE, Senior Program Officer THOMAS HELMS, Consultant GAIL R. STABA, Senior Program Officer TANYA M. ZWAHLEN, Consultant DON TIPPMAN, Senior Editor CHERYL KEITH, Senior Program Assistant DEMISHA WILLIAMS, Senior Program Assistant DEBBIE IRVIN, Program Associate COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF CHRISTOPHER J. HEDGES, Director, Cooperative Research Programs LORI L. SUNDSTROM, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications NCHRP COMMITTEE FOR PROJECT 20-05 CHAIR BRIAN A. BLANCHARD, Florida Department of Transprtation MEMBERS STUART D. ANDERSON, Texas A&M University SOCORRO “COCO” BRISENO, California Department of Transportation DAVID M. JARED, Georgia Department of Transportation CYNTHIA L. JONES, Ohio Department of Transportation MALCOLM T. KERLEY, NXL, Richmond, VA JOHN M. MASON, JR., Auburn University ROGER C. OLSON, Minnesota Department of Transportation (retired) BENJAMIN T. ORSBON, South Dakota Department of Transportation RANDALL R. PARK, Utah Department of Transportation ROBERT L. SACK, New York State Department of Transportation FRANCINE SHAW WHITSON, Federal Highway Administration JOYCE N. TAYLOR, Maine Department of Transportation FHWA LIAISON JACK JERNIGAN TRB LIAISON STEPHEN F. MAHER Cover figure: AFM phase images of 25 μm by 25 μm of Asphalt ARC BI0002 derivatives taken at room temperature (25°C): (a) control; (b) asphaltene-doped blend; (c) naphthenic aromatic-doped blend; (d) polar (resin)-doped blend; and (e) saturate-doped blend (enlarged locations are 10 μm by 10 μm for each asphalt blend). (Source: Allen et al. 2014.)

Highway administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which information already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and practice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a con- sequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviating the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to highway administrators and engineers. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful information and to make it available to the entire highway commu- nity, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials—through the mechanism of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program—authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing study. This study, NCHRP Proj- ect 20-5, “Synthesis of Information Related to Highway Problems,” searches out and syn- thesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute an NCHRP report series, Synthesis of Highway Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. This synthesis documents the current practices of departments of transportation (DOTs) in the selection of the chemical composition of a binder used in pavement applications. The study will provide information to practice engineers about the selection of binders and post- production additives and modifiers, as well as corresponding engineering performance. A literature review and detailed survey responses from 45 out of 51 DOTs (88.2% response rate) are provided. Detailed case examples from four different states are also included in the report and provide additional insights on the state-of-the-practice, including lessons learned, challenges, and gaps in information. The synthesis will be useful for transportation agencies because it will provide their engineers with the chemical composition knowledge they need. It will help these practitio- ners make more informed choices and avoid potential costly mistakes. William Daly collected and synthesized the information and wrote the report. The members of the topic panel are acknowledged on page iv. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand. FOREWORD PREFACE Mariela Garcia- Colberg Senior Program Officer

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TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 511: Relationship Between Chemical Makeup of Binders and Engineering Performance documents the current practices of departments of transportation (DOTs) in the selection of the chemical composition of a binder used in pavement applications. The study provides information about the selection of binders and postproduction additives and modifiers, as well as corresponding engineering performance.

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