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CONTENTS 1 SUMMARY 7 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background, 7 Superior Performing Asphalt Pavements, 7 Chemical Analysis of Asphalt, 8 Synthesis Approach, 9 10 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW: CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ASPHALT BINDERS Asphalt Production, 10 Asphalt Composition, 12 Asphaltene Structures, 14 Asphalt Morphology, 16 19 CHAPTER THREE TECHNIQUES FOR CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ASPHALT Asphalt Fractionation, 19 Analytical Instrumentation for Asphalt Analysis, 24 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, 26 Gel Permeation Chromatography, 29 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis, 33 X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy, 36 Atomic Force Microscopy, 37 41 CHAPTER FOUR ASPHALT ADDITIVES AND MODIFIERS Introduction, 41 Polymer Additives, 42 Biobinders, 45 Other Nonbituminous Modifiers, 46 53 CHAPTER FIVE CASE EXAMPLES OF BINDER CHARACTERIZATION PRACTICES Introduction, 53 Louisiana, 53 Virginia, 55 Missouri, 57 Ontario, 58 Summary, 59 61 CHAPTER SIX SURVEY RESULTS: CURRENT U.S. AND CANADIAN EXPERIENCE 66 CHAPTER SEVEN CONCLUSIONS Applications of Analytical Instrumentation to Binder Characterization, 66 Survey Findings, 67 Suggested Future Research, 68 Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.
viii 70 ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS 73 REFERENCES 83 APPENDIX A SURVEY QUESTIONS AND RESULTS 108 APPENDIX B SURVEY RESPONDENTS