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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 178 2017 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviationâ â¢â Environmentâ â¢â Pavements Guidance for Usage of Permeable Pavement at Airports James Bruinsma Kelly Smith David Peshkin Applied pAvement technology, inc. Urbana, IL Lauren Ballou Bethany Eisenberg Carol Lurie Mark Costa Cambria Ung vhB Boston, MA Somayeh Nassiri Xianming Shi WAshington stAte University Pullman, WA Liv Haselbach lAmAr University Beaumont, TX
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100â Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 178 Project 02-64 ISSN 2572-3731 (Print) ISSN 2572-374X (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-44649-5 Library of Congress Control Number 2017947390 Â© 2017 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under ACRP Project 02-64 by Applied Pavement Technology, Inc. (APTech), VHB, and Washington State University (WSU) at Pullman, Washington. Mr. James Bruinsma, APTech, served as the Principal Investigator and the primary author of the report. The other report authors were Mr. Kelly Smith and Mr. David Peshkin (APTech), Ms. Lauren Ballou (VHB), Ms. Bethany Eisenberg (VHB), Ms. Carol Lurie (VHB), Mr. Mark Costa (VHB), Ms. Cambria Ung (VHB), Ms. Somayeh Nassiri (WSU), Mr. Xianming Shi (WSU), and Ms. Liv Haselbach (Lamar University, formerly WSU). The authors appreciate the participation of the following individuals who provided project data and participated in interviews to support development of the case studies: â¢ Mr. H. D. Campbell, Jr., Mr. Kerr Chase, and Mr. Graham Campbell, Campbell & Paris. â¢ Ms. Jan OâNeill, Paine Field airport. â¢ Mr. Kevin Cooley, CH2M. CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 178 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Theresia H. Schatz, Senior Program Officer Hana Vagnerova, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Doug English, Editor ACRP PROJECT 02-64 PANEL Field of Environment Thomas F. Mahoney, Massachusetts DOT, East Boston, MA (Chair) Alexander K. Bernier, Stantec, New York, NY Kane Carpenter, Austin-Bergstrom International Airport, Austin, TX Mark J. Day, Blue Grass Airport, Lexington, KY Xue Li, Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc., Boston, MA Meghan E. Sheehan, The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, Newark, NJ Doug Johnson, FAA Liaison Kent R. Hansen, National Asphalt Pavement Association Liaison Frederick Hejl, TRB Liaison
ACRP Research Report 178: Guidance for Usage of Permeable Pavement at Airports pro- vides airport practitioners with practical guidance on the advantages and disadvantages of permeable pavement at a variety of types and sizes of airports. The guidance includes potential installation locations such as airside and landside applications; environmental, operational, and economic considerations; and a decision matrix to examine applicability of installations. Airports have vast areas that are currently covered by impervious pavement, which increases stormwater runoff and the heat island effect. This has a direct impact on storm- water management and the energy consumption of surrounding buildings. Design and construction standards often treat the use of permeable pavement as an afterthought rather than a supplemental solution. Various options are available to incorporate permeable pavements to assist in controlling and directing stormwater runoff. Traffic loads as well as safety and operational considerations at airports are unique. Evaluation of the suitability of various types of pavement used has to take into account the traffic that the pavement will support. Permeable pavement can include all types of surface layers (asphalt, concrete, and pavers, etc.) as well as the base and subbase layers that would allow the movement of stormwater through the pavement section. While pervious pavement may not currently be permitted for runway or taxiway installations, there are other areas that could be considered. The various options available to incorporate permeable pavements were explored and presented to airport practitioners for consideration and potential implementation into construction projects requiring paved surfaces. The findings from the research suggest that permeable pavement is a viable stormwater management tool for airports, particularly those serving light aircraft, but additional design and performance data are needed. Under ACRP Project 02-64, research was conducted by Applied Pavement Technology, Inc., in association with VHB, Washington State University, and Lamar University. The research involved a nationwide survey of airports and practitioners to identify four implementation projects that were used to create case studies on the use of permeable pavement at airports. The case studies can be found at the summary web page for ACRP Research Report 178 at www.trb.org. F O R E W O R D ByâTheresiaâH.âSchatz StaffâOfficer TransportationâResearchâBoard
1â Summary 3 Chapter 1â Introduction 3 1.1 Purpose 3 1.2 Background 5 1.3 Research Approach 7 1.4 Audience 7 1.5 How to Use This Guide 7 1.6 Terminology 9 Chapter 2â TypesâofâPermeableâPavementsâandâTheirâBenefits 9 2.1 Introduction 9 2.2 Permeable Pavement Systems 11 2.3 Porous Asphalt 11 2.4 Pervious Concrete 11 2.5 Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavement 12 2.6 Others 14 2.7 Benefits and Concerns of Permeable Pavements 18 Chapter 3â PermeableâPavementâApplications 18 3.1 Introduction 18 3.2 Airport Permeable Pavement Projects 19 3.3 Project Selection Considerations 28 Chapter 4â DesignâConsiderations 28 4.1 Overview 28 4.2 Hydrologic Design 39 4.3 Structural Design 45 Chapter 5â MaterialsâConsiderations 45 5.1 Overview 45 5.2 Subgrade 46 5.3 Base/Subbase Reservoir Aggregate 46 5.4 Choke Stone, Filter Layer, and Bedding Layer 47 5.5 Stabilized Permeable Base 47 5.6 Permeable Surface Materials 53 5.7 Other Materials 54 5.8 Specifications 56 Chapter 6â ConstructionâConsiderations 56 6.1 Introduction 56 6.2 Plans, Specifications, and Estimates 57 6.3 Qualified Material Producers and Contractors 59 6.4 Pre-Construction Planning C O N T E N T S
60 6.5 Subgrade Preparation 61 6.6 Reservoir Construction 63 6.7 Porous Asphalt Paving 65 6.8 Pervious Concrete Paving 67 6.9 PICP Construction 69 Chapter 7â OperationsâandâMaintenance 69 7.1 Overview 69 7.2 Operations 70 7.3 Maintenance 71 Chapter 8â SummaryâandâFutureâResearchâNeeds 71 8.1 Summary 71 8.2 Future Research Needs 73 References 76 Glossary Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.