National Academies Press: OpenBook

Alternative Fuels in Airport Fleets (2017)

Chapter: APPENDIX C Fuel Properties

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Page 40
Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX C Fuel Properties." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Alternative Fuels in Airport Fleets. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24868.
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Page 40

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41 APPENDIX C Fuel Properties Table C1 provides information on the properties of the fuels discussed in this report. TABLE C1 PROPERTIES OF FUELS IN THIS REPORT Fuel Type Fuel Material (Feedstocks) Gasoline/Diesel Gallon Equivalent Physical State Cetane Number Octane Number Gasoline (E10) Crude Oil 100% Liquid N/A 84-93 Low Sulfur Diesel Crude Oil 113% of the energy of 1 gal of gasoline Liquid 40–55 N/A Biodiesel Fats and oils from sources such as soybeans, waste cooking oil, ani- mal fats, and rapeseed B100 has 103% of the energy in 1 gal of gasoline or 93% of the energy of 1 gal of diesel. B20 has 109% of the energy of 1 gal of gasoline or 99% of the energy of 1 gal of diesel. Liquid 48–65 N/A Renewable Diesel Fats and oils from soybeans, waste cooking oil, animal fats, and rapeseed 1 gal of renewable diesel has 113% of the energy of 1 gal of gasoline. Liquid 70 N/A CNG Underground reserves 5.66 lb or 123.57 cu ft of CNG has 100% of the energy of 1 gal of gas- oline. 6.38 lb or 139.30 cu ft of CNG has 100% of the energy con- tent of 1 gal of diesel. Compressed gas N/A 120+ Renewable Natural Gas Biogas 5.66 lb or 123.57 cu ft of renewable natural gas has 100% of the energy of 1 gal of gasoline. 6.38 lb or 139.30 cu ft of renewable natural gas has 100% of the energy content of 1 gal of diesel. Compressed gas N/A 120+ LNG Underground reserves 5.38 lb of LNG has 100% of the energy of 1 gal of gasoline and 6.06 lb of LNG has 100% of the energy of 1 gal of diesel. Cryogenic liquid N/A 120+ Propane/ LPG By-product of petroleum refining or natural gas processing 1 gal of propane has 73% of the energy of 1 gal of gasoline. Pressurized liquid N/A 105 Hydrogen Natural gas or renewables 1 kg or 2.198 lb of hydrogen has 100% of the energy of 1 gal of gasoline. Compressed gas or liquid N/A 130+ Electricity Coal, nuclear, natural gas, hydro- electric, and wind and solar 33.70 kWh has 100% of the energy of 1 gal of gasoline. Electricity N/A N/A

Next: APPENDIX D Fuel Use by Airport in Online Survey »
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TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 85: Alternative Fuels in Airport Fleets is designed to assist airport operators in analyzing complex procurement, operational, and environmental decisions when considering alternative fuels in airport fleets.

Airports own and contract fleets to transport passengers, staff, and goods by on- and off-road vehicles. Although most transportation fuels are consumed by aircraft, using alternative fuels in airport fleets is one opportunity airports have to control emissions and fuel costs and potentially reduce maintenance.

The report compiles information on eight alternative fuels, including biodiesel, renewable diesel, compressed natural gas, renewable natural gas, liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, and electricity.

Ethanol and hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) are not included in this report because the driving experience and refueling operations associated with ethanol and HEVs are well understood and documented elsewhere.

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