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Uses of Social Media to Inform Operational Response and Recovery During an Airport Emergency AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMACRP SYNTHESIS 82 A Synthesis of Airport Practice Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration
ACRP OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE* CHAIR KITTY FREIDHEIM Freidheim Consulting VICE CHAIR KELLY JOHNSON Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport Authority MEMBERS GLORIA G. BENDER TransSolutions THELLA F. BOWENS San Diego County Regional Airport Authority BENITO de LEON Federal Aviation Administration DEBORAH FLINT Los Angeles World Airports RHONDA HAMM-NIEBRUEGGE Lambert-St. Louis International Airport MARGARET McKEOUGH Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority SCOTT McMAHON Morristown Municipal Airport FRANK MILLER Hollywood Burbank Airport BOB MONTGOMERY Southwest Airlines ERIC POTTS Freese and Nichols, Inc. MEGAN S. RYERSON University of Pennsylvania EX OFFICIO MEMBERS SABRINA JOHNSON U.S. Environmental Protection Agency MARK KIMBERLING National Association of State Aviation Officials LAURA McKEE Airlines for America CHRISTOPHER OSWALD Airports Council InternationalâNorth America NEIL J. PEDERSEN Transportation Research Board MELISSA SABATINE American Association of Airport Executives T.J. SCHULZ Airport Consultants Council SECRETARY CHRISTOPHER J. HEDGES Transportation Research Board TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2017 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS Chair: MALCOLM DOUGHERTY, Director, California Department of Transportation, Sacramento Vice Chair: KATHERINE F. TURNBULL, Executive Associate Director and Research Scientist, Texas A&M Transportation Institute, College Station Executive Director: NEIL J. PEDERSEN, Transportation Research Board MEMBERS VICTORIA A. ARROYO, Executive Director, Georgetown Climate Center; Assistant Dean, Centers and Institutes; and Professor and Director, Environmental Law Program, Georgetown University Law Center, Washington, DC SCOTT E. BENNETT, Director, Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department, Little Rock JENNIFER COHAN, Secretary, Delaware DOT, Dover JAMES M. CRITES, Executive Vice President of Operations, DallasâFort Worth International Airport, TX NATHANIEL P. FORD, SR., Executive DirectorâCEO, Jacksonville Transportation Authority, Jacksonville, FL A. STEWART FOTHERINGHAM, Professor, School of Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning, Arizona State University, Tempe JOHN S. HALIKOWSKI, Director, Arizona DOT, Phoenix SUSAN HANSON, Distinguished University Professor Emerita, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University, Worcester, MA STEVE HEMINGER, Executive Director, Metropolitan Transportation Commission, Oakland, CA CHRIS T. HENDRICKSON, Hamerschlag Professor of Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA JEFFREY D. HOLT, Managing Director, Power, Energy, and Infrastructure Group, BMO Capital Markets Corporation, New York S. JACK HU, Vice President for Research and J. Reid and Polly Anderson Professor of Manufacturing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor ROGER B. HUFF, President, HGLC, LLC, Farmington Hills, MI GERALDINE KNATZ, Professor, Sol Price School of Public Policy, Viterbi School of Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles MELINDA McGRATH, Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson JAMES P. REDEKER, Commissioner, Connecticut DOT, Newington MARK L. ROSENBERG, Executive Director, The Task Force for Global Health, Inc., Decatur, GA DANIEL SPERLING, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis GARY C. THOMAS, President and Executive Director, Dallas Area Rapid Transit, Dallas, TX PAT THOMAS, Senior Vice President of State Government Affairs, United Parcel Service, Washington, DC DEAN H. WISE, Vice President of Network Strategy, Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway, Fort Worth, TX CHARLES A. ZELLE, Commissioner, Minnesota DOT, Saint Paul EX OFFICIO MEMBERS ALBERTO AYALA, Deputy Executive Officer, California Air Resources Board, Sacramento MARY R. BROOKS, Professor Emerita, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, and Chair, TRB Marine Board JACK DANIELSON, Executive Director, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. DOT AUDREY FARLEY, Executive Director, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, U.S. DOT LeROY GISHI, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC JOHN T. GRAY II, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC MICHAEL P. HUERTA, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. DOT DAPHNE Y. JEFFERSON, Deputy Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S. DOT BEVAN B. KIRLEY, Research Associate, University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center, Chapel Hill, and Chair, TRB Young Members Council HOWARD McMILLAN, Acting Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S. DOT WAYNE NASTRI, Acting Executive Officer, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, CA CRAIG A. RUTLAND, U.S. Air Force Pavement Engineer, U.S. Air Force Civil Engineer Center, Tyndall Air Force Base, FL REUBEN SARKAR, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Transportation, U.S. Department of Energy TODD T. SEMONITE (Lieutenant General, U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC KARL SIMON, Director, Transportation and Climate Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency JOEL SZABAT, Executive Director, Maritime Administration, U.S. DOT WALTER C. WAIDELICH, JR., Acting Deputy Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. DOT PATRICK T. WARREN, Executive Director, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S. DOT MATTHEW WELBES, Executive Director, Federal Transit Administration, U.S. DOT RICHARD A. WHITE, Acting President and CEO, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC FREDERICK G. (BUD) WRIGHT, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC PAUL F. ZUKUNFT (Admiral, U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security * Membership as of March 2017.* Membership as of November 2016.
2017 A IRPORT COOPERAT IVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP SYNTHESIS 82 SubScriber categorieS Aviation â¢ Data and Information Technology â¢ Security and Emergencies Uses of Social Media to Inform Operational Response and Recovery During an Airport Emergency A Synthesis of Airport Practice conSultantS James F. Smith Smith-Woolwine, Inc. Panacea, Florida and Kimberly A. Kenville University of North Dakota Grand Forks, North Dakota
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most air- ports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera- tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Air- port Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agencies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the suc- cessful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100âCentury of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary partici- pants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operat- ing agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sci- ences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport pro- fessionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga- nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon- sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the respon- sibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identi- fying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper- ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP SYNTHESIS 82 Project A11-03, Topic S04-18 ISSN 1935-9187 ISBN 978-0-309-39006-4 Library of Congress Control Number 2017939191 Â© 2017 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to repro- duce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit pur- poses. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technol- ogy, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publi- cation according to procedures established and overseen by the Trans- portation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who per- formed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufactur- ers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
TOPIC PANEL S04-18 JAMES E. DURWIN, Tallahassee International Airport, Tallahassee, Florida MARY GRADY, Los Angeles World Airports, Los Angeles, California JOSHUA GREENBERG, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada MICHAEL R. SCOTT, RenoâTahoe Airport Authority, Reno, Nevada JOHN VALADEZ, Dallas Fort Worth International Airport, DFW, Texas MARC TONNACLIFF, Federal Aviation Administration (Liaison) ED BUICE, National Information Officers Association (Liaison) PETER KNUDSON, National Transportation Safety Board (Liaison) SCOTT ELMORE, Airports Council InternationalâNorth America (Liaison) SYNTHESIS STUDIES STAFF STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies and Special Programs JON M. WILLIAMS, Program Director, IDEA and Synthesis Studies MARIELA GARCIA-COLBERG, Senior Program Officer JO ALLEN GAUSE, Senior Program Officer THOMAS HELMS, Consultant GAIL R. STABA, Senior Program Officer TANYA M. ZWAHLEN, Consultant DON TIPPMAN, Senior Editor CHERYL KEITH, Senior Program Assistant DEMISHA WILLIAMS, Senior Program Assistant DEBBIE IRVIN, Program Associate COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF CHRISTOPHER J. HEDGES, Director, Cooperative Research Programs LORI L. SUNDSTROM, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs MICHAEL R. SALAMONE, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program KAREN NEELEY, Program Coordinator EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications ACRP COMMITTEE FOR PROJECT 11-03 CHAIR JOSHUA D. ABRAMSON, Easterwood Airport, College Station, Texas MEMBERS DEBBIE K. ALKE, Montana Department of Transportation, Helena, Montana GLORIA G. BENDER, TransSolutions, Fort Worth, Texas DAVID A. BYERS, Quadrex Aviation, LLC, Melbourne, Florida DAVID N. EDWARDS, JR., GreenvilleâSpartanburg Airport District, Greer, South Carolina BRENDA L. ENOS, Massachusetts Port Authority, East Boston, MA LINDA HOWARD, Independent Aviation Consultant, Bastrop, Texas FAA LIAISON PATRICK W. MAGNOTTA AIRCRAFT OWNERS AND PILOTS ASSOCIATION ADAM WILLIAMS AIRPORTS CONSULTANTS COUNCIL MATTHEW J. GRIFFIN AIRPORTS COUNCIL INTERNATIONALâNORTH AMERICA LIYING GU TRB LIAISON CHRISTINE GERENCHER
Airport administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which infor- mation already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and prac- tice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviating the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to the airport industry. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to- day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful infor- mation and to make it available to the entire airport community, the Airport Cooperative Research Program authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing project. This project, ACRP Project 11-03, âSynthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices,â searches out and synthesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor consti- tute an ACRP report series, Synthesis of Airport Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. Airports now use social media to enhance emergency management, initially as an out- going tool to disseminate notifications, warnings, and public information associated with emergencies. Until recently, people had to wait for a credible news source to validate what was happening in the world around them, but now people turn to citizen journalists and their accounts, accurate or not, of what is unfolding for news, particularly in large-scale emer- gencies. Often, news outlets now get to an event after ordinary citizens and interview those citizens, who have already filmed, uploaded, and reported on the event. Using social media for emergency management, airports glean information and intel- ligence from the stream of posts and messages passing through social media and then apply this information to enhance situational awareness and resource allocation decisions by emer- gency managers. Such uses raise the stakes for timeliness of data extraction and validation of the results, especially if the information is going to be used for resource allocation and other decision making. The timeliness aspect means that social media for emergency management must involve real-time or near real-time extraction processes, such as data scraping, social listening, and social monitoring. This synthesis of current airport practice documents recent experience and tools available for use by airport emergency managers. Information in this study was acquired through a case example approach. Six organiza- tions assessed how they have developed and used social media for emergency management systems, how this relates (if at all) to their overall use of social media, and the lessons that airports can learn from these case examples. The case examples consisted of three airports (Edmonton International Airport, Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport, and Vancou- ver International Airport), one airline (Southwest Airlines), and two non-aviation organiza- tions (the New York City Office of Emergency Management and the University of North Dakota Police Department). In addition, two cases are briefly described in which trained volunteers staff social listening needs when an emergency operations center is activated (the American Red Cross Digital Disaster Operations Center and the Florida State University Virtual Operations Support Team). Dr. James F. Smith, of Smith-Woolwine, Inc., and Dr. Kim Kenville, of Kim Kenville Consulting, collected and synthesized the information and wrote the report. The members FOREWORD PREFACE By Gail R. Staba, Senior Program Officer Transportation Research Board
of the topic panel are acknowledged on the preceding page. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice contin- ues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand.
CONTENTS 1 SUMMARY 3 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION An Airport Emergency in Which Social Media Were Important: The JFK Gunman Scare, 3 How Social Media Are Transforming Communications, 4 How Social Media Are Being Used in Emergency Management, 7 Why Airports Should Take Social Media Seriously for Emergency Management, 8 10 CHAPTER TWO STUDY METHODOLOGY Scope of Study, 10 Methodology, 10 Prevalence of Canadian Airports in a Social Media Study, 11 12 CHAPTER THREE CASE EXAMPLES Edmonton International Airport and Edmonton Regional Airports Authority, 12 MinneapolisâSaint Paul International Airport and the Metropolitan Airports Commission, 16 New York City Office of Emergency Management, 19 Southwest Airlines, 23 University of North Dakota Police Department, 26 Vancouver International Airport, 29 Using Volunteers for Ad Hoc Social Listening During Emergencies, 33 American Red Cross Digital Disaster Operations Center 33 Florida State University Virtual Operations Support Team, 34 Use of Volunteers for Emergency Duties by Airports, 34 Prices of Social Listening Software, 34 Importance of Verified Accounts and Recognizable Logos, 34 35 CHAPTER FOUR FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND FURTHER RESEARCH Profiles of Social Media for Emergency Management Programs, 35 Challenges, 37 Conclusions, 37 Further Research, 38 39 GLOSSARY 40 ACRONYMS 41 REFERENCES Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.
viii 43 APPENDIX A CASE EXAMPLE INTERVIEW SCRIPT 47 APPENDIX B SOCIAL MEDIA USE POLICYâUNIVERSITY OF NORTH DAKOTA 50 APPENDIX C UNIVERSITY OF NORTH DAKOTA MEDIA RELATIONS/SOCIAL MEDIA IN POLICING LESSON PLAN 52 APPENDIX D STORY OF A DISASTER AS TOLD BY AN AIRPORTâS SOCIAL MEDIA 92 APPENDIX E ADVICE ON GENERAL USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA 93 APPENDIX F COMMON STEPS FOR ADOPTING THE USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA INTO EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT